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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Cancer research, 01 September 2014, Vol.74(17), pp.4671-5
    Description: The Helmholtz Alliance Preclinical Comprehensive Cancer Center (PCCC; www.helmholtz-pccc.de) hosted the "1st International Kloster Seeon Meeting on Mouse Models of Human Cancer" in the Seeon monastery (Germany) from March 8 to 11, 2014. The meeting focused on the development and application of novel mouse models in tumor research and high-throughput technologies to overcome one of the most critical bottlenecks in translational bench-to-bedside tumor biology research. Moreover, the participants discussed basic molecular mechanisms underlying tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance, which are the prerequisite for the development of novel treatment strategies and clinical applications in cancer therapy.
    Keywords: Disease Models, Animal ; Mice -- Physiology ; Neoplasms -- Pathology
    ISSN: 00085472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 July 2013, Vol.110(28), pp.E2592-601
    Description: Tumor cells activate autophagy in response to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage as a survival program to cope with metabolic stress. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that histone deacetylase (HDAC)10 promotes autophagy-mediated survival in neuroblastoma cells. We show that both knockdown and inhibition of HDAC10 effectively disrupted autophagy associated with sensitization to cytotoxic drug treatment in a panel of highly malignant V-MYC myelocytomatosis viral-related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, in contrast to nontransformed cells. HDAC10 depletion in neuroblastoma cells interrupted autophagic flux and induced accumulation of autophagosomes, lysosomes, and a prominent substrate of the autophagic degradation pathway, p62/sequestosome 1. Enforced HDAC10 expression protected neuroblastoma cells against doxorubicin treatment through interaction with heat shock protein 70 family proteins, causing their deacetylation. Conversely, heat shock protein 70/heat shock cognate 70 was acetylated in HDAC10-depleted cells. HDAC10 expression levels in high-risk neuroblastomas correlated with autophagy in gene-set analysis and predicted treatment success in patients with advanced stage 4 neuroblastomas. Our results demonstrate that HDAC10 protects cancer cells from cytotoxic agents by mediating autophagy and identify this HDAC isozyme as a druggable regulator of advanced-stage tumor cell survival. Moreover, these results propose a promising way to considerably improve treatment response in the neuroblastoma patient subgroup with the poorest outcome.
    Keywords: Hdac Inhibitor ; Childhood Tumors ; Drug Resistance ; Autophagy -- Physiology ; Cell Survival -- Physiology ; Histone Deacetylases -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 09 July 2010, Vol.285(28), pp.21644-54
    Description: PEA-15/PED (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 kDa/phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes) is a death effector domain-containing protein which is known to modulate apoptotic cell death. The mechanism by which PEA-15 inhibits caspase activation and increases ERK (extracellular-regulated kinase) activity is well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that PEA-15 is not only pivotal in the activation of the ERK pathway but also modulates JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) signaling. Upon overexpression of PEA-15 in malignant glioma cells, JNK is potently activated. The PEA-15-induced JNK activation depends on the phosphorylation of PEA-15 at both phosphorylation sites (serine 104 and serine 116). The activation of JNK is substantially inhibited by siRNA-mediated down-regulation of endogenous PEA-15. Moreover, we demonstrate that glioma cells overexpressing PEA-15 show increased signs of autophagy in response to classical autophagic stimuli such as ionizing irradiation, serum deprivation, or rapamycin treatment. In contrast, the non-phosphorylatable mutants of PEA-15 are not capable of promoting autophagy. The inhibition of JNK abrogates the PEA-15-mediated increase in autophagy. In conclusion, our data show that PEA-15 promotes autophagy in glioma cells in a JNK-dependent manner. This might render glioma cells more resistant to adverse stimuli such as starvation or ionizing irradiation.
    Keywords: Autophagy ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Brain Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases -- Metabolism ; Glioma -- Metabolism ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins -- Metabolism ; Jnk Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases -- Metabolism ; Phosphoproteins -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 30 December 2005, Vol.280(52), pp.42984-93
    Description: Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase to activate multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Our current studies demonstrate that lack of MLK3 blocks signaling of activated Cdc42 to c-Jun N-terminal kinase, giving strong support for the idea that Cdc42 is a physiological activator of MLK3. We show herein that Cdc42, in a prenylation-dependent manner, targets MLK3 from a perinuclear region to membranes, including the plasma membrane. Cdc42-induced membrane targeting of MLK3 is independent of MLK3 catalytic activity but depends upon an intact Cdc42/Rac-interactive binding motif, consistent with MLK3 membrane translocation being mediated through direct binding of Cdc42. Phosphorylation of the activation loop of MLK3 requires MLK3 catalytic activity and is induced by Cdc42 in a prenylation-independent manner, arguing that Cdc42 binding is sufficient for activation loop autophosphorylation of MLK3. However, membrane targeting is necessary for full activation of MLK3 and maximal signaling to JNK. We previously reported that MLK3 is autoinhibited through an interaction between its N-terminal SH3 domain and a proline-containing sequence found between the leucine zipper and the CRIB motif of MLK3. Thus we propose a model in which GTP-bound Cdc42/Rac binds MLK3 and disrupts SH3-mediated autoinhibition leading to dimerization and activation loop autophosphorylation. Targeting of this partially active MLK3 to membranes likely results in additional phosphorylation events that fully activate MLK3 and its ability to maximally signal through the JNK pathway.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Cell Membrane -- Metabolism ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases -- Chemistry ; Cdc42 Gtp-Binding Protein -- Physiology
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083351X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, 05/12/2000, Vol.275(19), pp.14231-14241
    Description: Src homology 3 domain (SH3)-containing proline-rich protein kinase (SPRK)/mixed-lineage kinase (MLK)-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that upon overexpression in mammalian cells activates the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway. The mechanisms by which SPRK activity is regulated are not well understood. The small Rho family GTPases, Rac and Cdc42, have been shown to bind and modulate the activities of signaling proteins, including SPRK, which contain Cdc42/Rac interactive binding motifs. Coexpression of SPRK and activated Cdc42 increases SPRKs activity. SPRKs Cdc42/Rac interactive binding-like motif contains six of the eight consensus residues. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we show that SPRK contains a functional Cdc42/Rac interactive binding motif that is required for SPRKs association with and activation by Cdc42. However, experiments using a SPRK variant that lacks the COOH-terminal zipper region/basic stretch suggest that this region may also contribute to Cdc42 binding. Unlike the PAK family of protein kinases, we find that the activation of SPRK by Cdc42 cannot be recapitulated in an in vitro system using purified, recombinant proteins. Comparative phosphopeptide mapping demonstrates that coexpression of activated Cdc42 with SPRK alters the in vivo serine/threonine phosphorylation pattern of SPRK suggesting that the mechanism by which Cdc42 increases SPRKs catalytic activity involves a change in the in vivo phosphorylation of SPRK. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstrated example of a Cdc42-mediated change in the in vivo phosphorylation of a protein kinase. These studies suggest an additional component or cellular environment is required for SPRK activation by Cdc42.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0021-9258
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 2002, Vol.12(5-6), pp.325-34
    Description: Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK 3) is a recently described member of the MLK subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases that interacts with MAPK pathways. The aim of this study was to test the potential interaction of MLK 3 with signaling pathways stimulated by PDGF in rat mesangial cells. We have established a stable cell line expressing human MLK 3 in rat glomerular mesangial cells. The effects of PDGF on proliferation and matrix mRNA expression were examined. In control (vector-transfected) mesangial cells PDGF increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. In mesangial cells expressing MLK 3, PDGF-induced increase in DNA synthesis was significantly reduced. PDGF also induced fibronectin and collagen I mRNA expression in control cells, the effects of which were also significantly blocked in MLK 3-transfected cells. To understand the potential interaction of MLK 3 over expression with the MAPK pathways and to examine the potential mechanism of the effects of MLK 3 over expression on proliferation and matrix expression, activation of ERK2, JNK1 and p38 were examined. ERK2 activation was increased several fold by PDGF in control cells but was attenuated significantly in MLK 3 expressing cells. PDGF did not have any effect on JNK and p38 activation, in either cell types. Using the same stable-transfected cell line, identical results were obtained on proliferation and matrix expression with sarafotoxin-s6b (endothelin receptor agonist) another potent mitogenic and sclerotic agent for mesangial cells. These results indicate an important role for MLK 3 in the regulation of growth and matrix expression in mesangial cells.
    Keywords: DNA -- Biosynthesis ; Glomerular Mesangium -- Metabolism ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases -- Metabolism ; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor -- Antagonists & Inhibitors ; RNA, Messenger -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 1015-8987
    E-ISSN: 14219778
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Molecular cancer research : MCR, December 2007, Vol.5(12), pp.1232-40
    Description: Glioblastomas, the most malignant of all brain tumors, are characterized by cellular resistance to apoptosis and a highly invasive growth pattern. These factors contribute to the poor response of glioblastomas to radiochemotherapy and prevent their complete neurosurgical resection. However, the driving force behind the distinct motility of glioma cells is only partly understood. Here, we report that in the absence of cellular stress and proapoptotic stimuli, human glioblastoma cells exhibit a constitutive activation of caspases in vivo and in vitro. The inhibition of caspases by various peptide inhibitors decreases the migration of cells in scrape motility assays and the invasiveness of cells in spheroid assays. Similarly, specific small interfering RNA- or antisense-mediated down-regulation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 results in an inhibition of the migratory potential of glioma cells. The constitutive caspase-dependent motility of glioblastoma cells is independent of CD95 activation and it is not mediated by mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase signaling. The basal caspase activity is accompanied by a constant cleavage of the motility-associated gelsolin protein, which may contribute to the caspase-mediated promotion of migration and invasiveness in glioblastoma cells. Our results suggest that the administration of low doses of caspase inhibitors that block glioma cell motility without affecting the execution of apoptotic cell death may be exploited as a novel strategy for the treatment of glioblastomas.
    Keywords: Brain Neoplasms -- Enzymology ; Caspase 3 -- Metabolism ; Glioblastoma -- Enzymology
    ISSN: 1541-7786
    E-ISSN: 15573125
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Angiogenesis, 2018, Vol.21(3), pp.425-532
    Description: The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis ; Aortic ring ; Endothelial cell migration ; Proliferation ; Microfluidic ; Zebrafish ; Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) ; Vascular network ; Intussusceptive angiogenesis ; Retinal vasculature ; Corneal angiogenesis ; Hindlimb ischemia ; Myocardial angiogenesis ; Recombinant proteins ; Tip cells ; Plug assay ; Myocardial angiogenesis ; Vessel co-option
    ISBN: 10 4560189613
    ISSN: 0969-6970
    E-ISSN: 1573-7209
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  • 9
    In: Prenatal Diagnosis, October 2016, Vol.36(10), pp.926-934
    Description: What's Already Known About This Topic? Congenital diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) with high mortality or morbidity would benefit from an early intervention in the neonatal or fetal period. Pig lungs share many anatomical, biochemical and physiological features with human lungs. What Does This Study Add? Minimally invasive fetoscopic tracheal delivery procedures have been developed for some large animal models, but not yet for pigs. The model described allows therapeutics to be delivered in a translational animal species to treat diseases requiring early intervention.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles – Analysis ; Swine – Analysis ; Cat Scans – Analysis;
    ISSN: 0197-3851
    E-ISSN: 1097-0223
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 01 March 2016, Vol.193(5), pp.516-26
    Description: After repeated cycles of lung infection and inflammation, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) evolve to respiratory insufficiency. Although histology and imaging have provided descriptive information, a thorough morphometric analysis of end-stage CF lung disease is lacking. To quantify the involvement of small and large airways in end-stage CF. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and micro-CT were applied to 11 air-inflated CF explanted lungs and 7 control lungs to measure, count, and describe the airway and parenchymal abnormalities in end-stage CF lungs. Selected abnormalities were further investigated with thin section histology. On MDCT, CF explanted lungs showed an increased median (interquartile range) number (631 [511-710] vs. 344 [277-349]; P = 0.003) and size of visible airways (cumulative airway diameter 217 cm [209-250] vs. 91 cm [80-105]; P 〈 0.001) compared with controls. Airway obstruction was seen, starting from generation 6 and increasing to 40 to 50% of airways from generation 9 onward. Micro-CT showed that the total number of terminal bronchioles was decreased (2.9/ml [2.6-4.4] vs. 5.3/ml [4.8-5.7]; P 〈 0.001); 49% were obstructed, and the cross-sectional area of the open terminal bronchioles was reduced (0.093 mm(2) [0.084-0.123] vs. 0.179 mm(2) [0.140-0.196]; P 〈 0.001). On micro-CT, 41% of the obstructed airways reopened more distally. This remodeling was confirmed on histological analysis. Parenchymal changes were also seen, mostly in a patchy and peribronchiolar distribution. Extensive changes of dilatation and obstruction in nearly all airway generations were observed in end-stage CF lung disease.
    Keywords: Airway Obstruction ; Airway Remodeling ; Cystic Fibrosis ; Micro-CT ; Airway Remodeling ; Lung Transplantation ; Airway Obstruction -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Cystic Fibrosis -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Lung -- Diagnostic Imaging
    ISSN: 1073449X
    E-ISSN: 1535-4970
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