American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 01 March 2016, Vol.193(5), pp.516-26
After repeated cycles of lung infection and inflammation, patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) evolve to respiratory insufficiency. Although histology and imaging have provided descriptive information, a thorough morphometric analysis of end-stage CF lung disease is lacking. To quantify the involvement of small and large airways in end-stage CF. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and micro-CT were applied to 11 air-inflated CF explanted lungs and 7 control lungs to measure, count, and describe the airway and parenchymal abnormalities in end-stage CF lungs. Selected abnormalities were further investigated with thin section histology. On MDCT, CF explanted lungs showed an increased median (interquartile range) number (631 [511-710] vs. 344 [277-349]; P = 0.003) and size of visible airways (cumulative airway diameter 217 cm [209-250] vs. 91 cm [80-105]; P 〈 0.001) compared with controls. Airway obstruction was seen, starting from generation 6 and increasing to 40 to 50% of airways from generation 9 onward. Micro-CT showed that the total number of terminal bronchioles was decreased (2.9/ml [2.6-4.4] vs. 5.3/ml [4.8-5.7]; P 〈 0.001); 49% were obstructed, and the cross-sectional area of the open terminal bronchioles was reduced (0.093 mm(2) [0.084-0.123] vs. 0.179 mm(2) [0.140-0.196]; P 〈 0.001). On micro-CT, 41% of the obstructed airways reopened more distally. This remodeling was confirmed on histological analysis. Parenchymal changes were also seen, mostly in a patchy and peribronchiolar distribution. Extensive changes of dilatation and obstruction in nearly all airway generations were observed in end-stage CF lung disease.
Airway Obstruction ; Airway Remodeling ; Cystic Fibrosis ; Micro-CT ; Airway Remodeling ; Lung Transplantation ; Airway Obstruction -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Cystic Fibrosis -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Lung -- Diagnostic Imaging
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