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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, 2012, Vol.47(1), pp.15-23
    Description: Lower extremity overuse injuries are associated with gluteus medius (GMed) weakness. Understanding the activation of muscles about the hip during strengthening exercises is important for rehabilitation. To compare the electromyographic activity produced by the gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fascia latae (TFL), anterior hip flexors (AHF), and gluteus maximus (GMax) during 3 hip-strengthening exercises: hip abduction (ABD), hip abduction with external rotation... Controlled laboratory study. Laboratory. Twenty healthy runners (9 men, 11 women; age = 25.45 ± 5.80 years, height = 1.71 ± 0.07 m, mass = 64.43 ± 7.75 kg) participated. A weight equal to 5% body mass was affixed to the ankle for the ABD and ABD-ER exercises, and an equivalent load was affixed for the CLAM exercise. A pressure biofeedback unit was placed beneath the trunk to provide positional feedback. Surface electromyography (root mean square normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction) was recorded over the GMed, TFL, AHF, and GMax. Three 1-way, repeated-measures analyses of variance indicated differences for muscle activity among the ABD (F(3,57) = 25.903, P 〈 .001), ABD-ER (F(3,57) = 10.458, P 〈 .001), and CLAM (F(3,57) = 4.640, P = .006) exercises. For the ABD exercise, the GMed... The ABD exercise is preferred if targeted activation of the GMed is a goal. Activation of the other muscles in the ABD-ER and CLAM exercises exceeded that of GMed, which might indicate the exercises are less appropriate when the primary goal is the GMed...
    Keywords: Isometric Contraction ; Resistance Training ; Hip Joint -- Physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal -- Physiology ; Running -- Physiology
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Cancer, August 1, 2013, Vol.119(15), p.S2914(12)
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Colorectal Cancer -- Demographic Aspects ; Health Care Industry -- Alliances And Partnerships ; Health Promotion -- Management ; Cancer Diagnosis -- Management ; Cancer Diagnosis -- Access Control
    ISSN: 0008-543X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Cancer, August 1, 2013, Vol.119(15), p.S2870(14)
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Colorectal Cancer -- Demographic Aspects ; Health Promotion -- Management ; Cancer Diagnosis -- Management
    ISSN: 0008-543X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Cancer, August 1, 2013, Vol.119(15), p.S2926(14)
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer -- Diagnosis ; Cancer Diagnosis -- Finance ; Cancer Diagnosis -- Standards ; Health Promotion -- Management
    ISSN: 0008-543X
    E-ISSN: 10970142
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  • 5
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2013, Vol.45(7), pp.1331-1339
    Description: PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of an exhaustive run on trunk and lower extremity strength and mechanics in patients with and without patellofemoral pain (PFP), we hypothesized that strength would decrease and mechanics would change after the exhaustive run. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with PFP and 19 controls participated (10 men and 9 women per group). Lower extremity and trunk mechanics during running, body mass–normalized strength, and pain assessments before and after an exhaustive run were quantified. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess group differences and exhaustion-related changes (P 〈 0.05), with t-test post hoc analyses performed when significant interactions were identified (P 〈 0.0125). RESULTS: Pain significantly increased with the exhaustive run in the PFP group (P = 0.021). Hip strength was reduced after the exhaustive run, more so in those with PFP (abduction: before = 0.384 ± 0.08, after = 0.314 ± 0.08, P 〈 0.001; external rotation: before = 0.113 ± 0.02, after = 0.090 ± 0.02, P 〈 0.001). Persons with PFP also demonstrated increased knee flexion (before = 41.6° ± 5.5°, after = 46.9° ± 7.5°, P 〈 0.001), hip flexion (before = 30.4° ± 6.8°, after = 42.5° ± 9.7°, P 〈 0.001), and anterior pelvic tilt (before = 7.2° ± 5.1°, after = 13.3° ± 6.7°, P = 0.001) after the exhaustive run compared to controls. Trunk flexion increased in both PFP (before = 13.09° ± 6.2°, after = 16.31° ± 5.3°, P 〈 0.001) and control (before = 1393° ± 4.7°, after = 15.99° ± 5.9°, P 〈 0.001) groups. Hip extension (before = −2.09 ± 0.49 N·m·kg, after = −2.49 ± 0.54 N·m·kg, P = 0.002) moments increased only in subjects with PFP. CONCLUSIONS: Exhaustive running results in reduced hip strength in subjects with PFP; however, this did not result in changes to hip internal rotation or adduction kinematics. Kinematic and kinetic changes after the exhaustive run are more indicative of compensatory changes to reduce pain. Increasing trunk flexion during running might provide pain relief during running; however, reducing anterior pelvic tilt may also warrant attention during treatment.
    Keywords: Adolescent–Physiology ; Adult–Physiopathology ; Analysis of Variance–Physiology ; Biomechanical Phenomena–Physiopathology ; Case-Control Studies–Physiology ; Female–Physiopathology ; Hip Joint–Physiology ; Humans–Physiology ; Knee Joint–Physiology ; Male–Physiology ; Muscle Strength–Physiology ; Muscle Strength Dynamometer–Physiology ; Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome–Physiology ; Range of Motion, Articular–Physiology ; Running–Physiology ; Young Adult–Physiology ; Space Life Sciences;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, 2014, Vol.49(2), pp.173-80
    Description: Identification of impaired balance as a risk factor for lower extremity injury regardless of injury history has led to subsequent investigation of variables that may adversely affect balance in healthy individuals. To investigate the relationship among core and lower extremity muscle function, foot posture, and balance. Descriptive laboratory study. Musculoskeletal injury biomechanics laboratory. A total of 108 individuals (40 men, 68 women; age = 22.8 ± 4.7 years, height = 168.5 ± 10.4 cm, mass = 69.9 ± 13.3 kg) participated in the study. Core endurance was assessed during 1 time-to-failure trial, and isometric hip and ankle strength were assessed using a handheld dynamometer and isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. Foot structure was quantified using the digital photographic measurement method. Single-limb-stance time to boundary was assessed using a force plate during an eyes-closed condition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to predict balance using lower extremity strength, foot posture, and core endurance. Foot posture (β = -0.22, P = .03) and ankle-inversion strength (β = -0.29, P = .006) predicted mediolateral balance. Increasing arch posture and ankle-inversion strength were associated with decreased mediolateral single-limb-stance balance. Increasing arch height was associated with decreased mediolateral control of single-limb stance. The relationship between time to boundary and injury risk, however, has not been explored. Therefore, the relationship between increasing arch height and injury due to postural instability cannot be determined from this study. If authors of future prospective studies identify a relationship between decreased time to boundary and increased injury risk, foot structure may be an important variable to assess during preparticipation physical examinations. The relationship between increasing ankle-inversion strength and decreased balance may require additional study to further elucidate the relationship between ankle strength and balance.
    Keywords: Foot -- Physiology ; Lower Extremity -- Physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal -- Physiology ; Posture -- Physiology
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, April 2015, Vol.50(4), pp.366-77
    Description: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common injury in running and jumping athletes. Randomized controlled trials suggest that incorporating hip and core strengthening (HIP) with knee-focused rehabilitation (KNEE) improves PFP outcomes. However, no randomized controlled trials have, to our knowledge, directly compared HIP and KNEE programs. To compare PFP pain, function, hip- and knee-muscle strength, and core endurance between KNEE and HIP protocols after 6 weeks of rehabilitation. We hypothesized greater improvements in (1) pain and function, (2) hip strength and core endurance for patients with PFP involved in the HIP protocol, and (3) knee strength for patients involved in the KNEE protocol. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Four clinical research laboratories in Calgary, Alberta; Chicago, Illinois; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Augusta, Georgia. Of 721 patients with PFP screened, 199 (27.6%) met the inclusion criteria (66 men [31.2%], 133 women [66.8%], age = 29.0 ± 7.1 years, height = 170.4 ± 9.4 cm, weight = 67.6 ± 13.5 kg). Patients with PFP were randomly assigned to a 6-week KNEE or HIP protocol. Primary variables were self-reported visual analog scale and Anterior Knee Pain Scale measures, which were conducted weekly. Secondary variables were muscle strength and core endurance measured at baseline and at 6 weeks. Compared with baseline, both the visual analog scale and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale improved for patients with PFP in both the HIP and KNEE protocols (P 〈 .001), but the visual analog scale scores for those in the HIP protocol were reduced 1 week earlier than in the KNEE group. Both groups increased in strength (P 〈 .001), but those in the HIP protocol gained more in hip-abductor (P = .01) and -extensor (P = .01) strength and posterior core endurance (P = .05) compared with the KNEE group. Both the HIP and KNEE rehabilitation protocols produced improvements in PFP, function, and strength over 6 weeks. Although outcomes were similar, the HIP protocol resulted in earlier resolution of pain and greater overall gains in strength compared with the KNEE protocol.
    Keywords: Anterior Knee Pain ; Clinical Trial ; Knee Rehabilitation ; Outcomes Assessment ; Patella ; Muscle Strength -- Physiology ; Muscle, Skeletal -- Physiology ; Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome -- Rehabilitation
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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  • 8
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2016, Vol.48(5S Suppl 1), pp.1075-1076
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    In: Cancer, 01 August 2013, Vol.119, pp.2870-2883
    Description: Findings from this qualitative, multiple case study evaluation of program implementation processes highlight the following themes: the complexity of colorectal cancer screening, teamwork and collaboration, integration of the program into existing systems, the ability of programs to use wisdom at the local level, and the influence of social norms. Implications include using patient navigation, engaging in transdisciplinary teamwork, assimilating new programs into existing clinical settings, and deferring to local‐level wisdom to help address complexity and enhance program implementation; public health efforts must confront negative social norms around colorectal cancer screening.
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer Screening ; Program Evaluation ; Qualitative Evaluation ; Interdisciplinary Communication ; Early Detection Of Cancer ; Cancer Screening Tests ; Collaboration ; Taboo ; Program Implementation
    ISSN: 0008-543X
    E-ISSN: 1097-0142
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  • 10
    In: Cancer, 01 August 2013, Vol.119, pp.2914-2925
    Description: Despite removing financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening, sites funded for the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) found unexpected challenges in recruiting patients for their services and altered their strategies to patient recruitment by adopting more comprehensive approaches. To optimize colorectal cancer screening, public health practitioners must work closely with the health care sector to implement evidence‐based, comprehensive strategies across individual, environmental, and systems levels.
    Keywords: Colorectal Cancer Screening ; Program Evaluation ; Qualitative Evaluation ; Program Implementation ; Patient Recruitment
    ISSN: 0008-543X
    E-ISSN: 1097-0142
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