The Journal of biological chemistry, 03 June 2011, Vol.286(22), pp.19958-72
Pathological neuronal inclusions of the 43-kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) are implicated in dementia and motor neuron disorders; however, the molecular mechanisms of the underlying cell loss remain poorly understood. Here we used a yeast model to elucidate cell death mechanisms upon expression of human TDP-43. TDP-43-expressing cells displayed markedly increased markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and necrosis. Cytotoxicity was dose- and age-dependent and was potentiated upon expression of disease-associated variants. TDP-43 was localized in perimitochondrial aggregate-like foci, which correlated with cytotoxicity. Although the deleterious effects of TDP-43 were significantly decreased in cells lacking functional mitochondria, cell death depended neither on the mitochondrial cell death proteins apoptosis-inducing factor, endonuclease G, and cytochrome c nor on the activity of cell death proteases like the yeast caspase 1. In contrast, impairment of the respiratory chain attenuated the lethality upon TDP-43 expression with a stringent correlation between cytotoxicity and the degree of respiratory capacity or mitochondrial DNA stability. Consistently, an increase in the respiratory capacity of yeast resulted in enhanced TDP-43-triggered cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and cell death markers. These data demonstrate that mitochondria and oxidative stress are important to TDP-43-triggered cell death in yeast and may suggest a similar role in human TDP-43 pathologies.
Oxidative Stress ; DNA, Fungal -- Metabolism ; DNA, Mitochondrial -- Metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Mitochondria -- Metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Saccharomyces Cerevisiae -- Metabolism ; Tdp-43 Proteinopathies -- Metabolism
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