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  • 1
    In: Veterinary Surgery, January 2010, Vol.39(1), pp.2-13
    Description: To critically review and collate published information on feline degenerative joint disease (DJD) and identify areas in which information is lacking. Critical literature review. Literature search through Pub Med, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau s published in the English Language, or translated into English (January 1940–August 2008). Although there are no prospective studies, the prevalence of radiographic DJD appears to be high and can be associated with clinical signs of decreased mobility. There appears to be a mismatch between radiographic and clinical examination findings (pain response). There is little information on the cause of DJD in different joints. There are no fully validated subjective or objective assessment systems for the measurement of chronic DJD‐associated pain in the cat. Development of a feline model of chronic DJD‐associated pain may speed the development and evaluation of candidate pain‐alleviating compounds and treatments. The high prevalence of feline DJD and lack of information about it, suggests further investigation is needed. Feline DJD occurs with high frequency, and yet there is little to guide the clinician on prevention or treatment.
    Keywords: Pain Management -- Analysis ; Domestic Cats -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0161-3499
    E-ISSN: 1532-950X
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2015, Vol.10(7), pp.e0131839
    Description: Degenerative joint disease and associated pain are common in cats, particularly in older cats. There is a need for treatment options, however evaluation of putative therapies is limited by a lack of suitable, validated outcome measures that can be used in the target population of client owned cats. The objectives of this study were to evaluate low-dose daily meloxicam for the treatment of pain associated with degenerative joint disease in cats, and further validate two clinical metrology instruments, the Feline Musculoskeletal Pain Index (FMPI) and the Client Specific Outcome Measures (CSOM). Sixty-six client owned cats with degenerative joint disease and owner-reported impairments in mobility were screened and enrolled into a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Following a run-in baseline period, cats were given either placebo or meloxicam for 21 days, then in a masked washout, cats were all given placebo for 21 days. Subsequently, cats were given the opposite treatment, placebo or meloxicam, for 21 days. Cats wore activity monitors throughout the study, owners completed clinical metrology instruments following each period. Activity counts were increased in cats during treatment with daily meloxicam (p〈0.0001) compared to baseline. The FMPI results and activity count data offer concurrent validation for the FMPI, though the relationship between baseline activity counts and FMPI scores at baseline was poor (R2=0.034). The CSOM did not show responsiveness for improvement in this study, and the relationship between baseline activity counts and CSOM scores at baseline was similarly poor (R2=0.042). Refinements to the FMPI, including abbreviation of the instrument and scoring as percent of possible score are recommended. This study offered further validation of the FMPI as a clinical metrology instrument for use in detecting therapeutic efficacy in cats with degenerative joint disease.
    Keywords: Cat Diseases -- Diagnosis ; Joint Diseases -- Veterinary
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2016, Vol.11(7)
    Description: Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs ( Canis familiaris ), but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive. Development of a suitable anaesthetic protocol in experimental dogs, which facilitated electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex assessment, may increase the acceptability of using the technique in owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Seven purpose bred male hound dogs underwent electromyographic recording sessions in each of three states: acepromazine sedation, alfaxalone sedation, and alfaxalone anaesthesia. Electromyographic responses to escalating mechanical and electrical, and repeated electrical, stimuli were recorded. Subsequently the integral of both early and late rectified responses was calculated. Natural logarithms of the integral values were analysed within and between the three states using multi level modeling. Alfaxalone increased nociceptive thresholds and decreased the magnitude of recorded responses, but characteristics of increasing responses with increasing stimulus magnitude were preserved. Behavioural signs of anxiety were noted in two out of seven dogs during recordings in the acepromazine sedated state. There were few significant differences in response magnitude or nociceptive threshold between the two alfaxalone states. Following acepromazine premedication, induction of anaesthesia with 1–2 mg kg -1 alfaxalone, followed by a continuous rate infusion in the range 0.075–0.1 mg kg -1 min -1 produced suitable conditions to enable assessment of spinal nociceptive processing in dogs, without subjecting them to potentially aversive experiences. This methodology may be appropriate for obtaining electrophysiological nociceptive withdrawal reflex data in client-owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Research And Analysis Methods ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 2010, Vol.12(3), pp.200-212
    Description: Degenerative joint disease (DJD) has a high prevalence in domestic cats and can be associated with pain. This pain should be addressed wherever possible. All practitioners are faced with cats that are mobility impaired due to DJD-associated pain. Cats of all ages and breeds, and either sex, can experience DJD-associated discomfort. Recognizing DJD and assessing DJD-associated pain in cats is a challenge. Owner observations of activity and behavior, careful observation and a logical and thorough orthopedic evaluation are key. Current understanding of the etiology of feline DJD and the mechanisms of DJD-associated pain is incomplete, making the rational choice of treatments a further challenge. Evidence is emerging on the prevalence of feline DJD, and on how to assess the associated pain and mobility impairment. There is a lack of information on the etiology of feline DJD and a relative lack of data on the efficacy of putative treatments.
    Keywords: Veterinary Medicine
    ISSN: 1098-612X
    E-ISSN: 1532-2750
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PloS one, 2017, Vol.12(1), pp.e0169576
    Description: Accelerometry is used as an objective measure of physical activity in humans and veterinary species. In cats, one important use of accelerometry is in the study of therapeutics designed to treat degenerative joint disease (DJD) associated pain, where it serves as the most widely applied objective outcome measure. These analyses have commonly used summary measures, calculating the mean activity per-minute over days and comparing between treatment periods. While this technique has been effective, information about the pattern of activity in cats is lost. In this study, functional data analysis was applied to activity data from client-owned cats with (n = 83) and without (n = 15) DJD. Functional data analysis retains information about the pattern of activity over the 24-hour day, providing insight into activity over time. We hypothesized that 1) cats without DJD would have higher activity counts and intensity of activity than cats with DJD; 2) that activity counts and intensity of activity in cats with DJD would be inversely correlated with total radiographic DJD burden and total orthopedic pain score; and 3) that activity counts and intensity would have a different pattern on weekends versus weekdays. Results showed marked inter-cat variability in activity. Cats exhibited a bimodal pattern of activity with a sharp peak in the morning and broader peak in the evening. Results further showed that this pattern was different on weekends than weekdays, with the morning peak being shifted to the right (later). Cats with DJD showed different patterns of activity from cats without DJD, though activity and intensity were not always lower; instead both the peaks and troughs of activity were less extreme than those of the cats without DJD. Functional data analysis provides insight into the pattern of activity in cats, and an alternative method for analyzing accelerometry data that incorporates fluctuations in activity across the day.
    Keywords: Cat Diseases -- Physiopathology ; Motor Activity -- Physiology ; Osteoarthritis -- Veterinary
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, March 2018, Vol.32(2), pp.670-678
    Description: Byline: Tracy L. Hill, B. Duncan X. Lascelles,Anthony T. Blikslager Keywords: barrier function; stress ulcer; transepithelial electrical resistance; Ussing chamber Background Sucralfate is a gastroprotectant with no known systemic effects. The efficacy of sucralfate for prevention and treatment of stress-related mucosal diseases (SRMD) in dogs is unknown. Hypothesis/Objectives To develop a canine ex vivo model of SRMD and to determine the effect of sucralfate on mucosal barrier function in this model. Animals Gastric antral mucosa was collected immediately postmortem from 29 random-source apparently healthy dogs euthanized at a local animal control facility. Methods Randomized experimental trial. Sucralfate (100 mg/mL) was applied to ex vivo canine gastric mucosa concurrent with and after acid injury. Barrier function was assessed by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and radiolabeled mannitol flux. Results Application of acidified Ringers solution to the mucosal side of gastric antrum caused a reduction in gastric barrier function, and washout of acidified Ringers solution allowed recovery of barrier function (TER: 34.0[+ or -]2.8% of control at maximum injury, 71.3[+ or -]5.5% at recovery, P〈.001). Sucralfate application at the time of injury or after injury significantly hastened recovery of barrier function (TER: 118.0[+ or -]15.2% of control at maximum injury, P〈.001 and 111.0[+ or -]15.5% at recovery, P=.35). Conclusions and Clinical Importance Sucralfate appeared effective at restoring defects in gastric barrier function induced by acid and accelerating repair of tissues subjected to acid in this model, suggesting that sucralfate could have utility for the treatment and prevention of SRMD in dogs. Article Note: Funding information Novartis Animal Health; National Institutes of Health, Grant/Award Number: T32 OD011130; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Grant/Award Number: P30 DK034987
    Keywords: Barrier Function ; Stress Ulcer ; Transepithelial Electrical Resistance ; Ussing Chamber
    ISSN: 0891-6640
    E-ISSN: 1939-1676
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ, Feb 17, 2015, Vol.3, p.e772
    Description: Chronic pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) can lead to significant disruption of sleep and increased restlessness. Our objective was to assess whether naturally occurring canine OA is associated with nighttime restlessness and so has potential as a model of OA-associated sleep disturbance. The study was designed as a two-part prospective masked, placebo-controlled study using client-owned dogs (Part A n = 60; Part B n = 19). Inclusion criteria consisted of OA-associated joint pain and mobility impairment. The primary outcome measure for both parts was nighttime accelerometry. In Part B, quality of sleep was assessed using a clinical metrology instrument (Sleep and Night Time Restlessness Evaluation Score, SNoRE). Part A included dogs receiving two weeks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) preceded with two weeks of no treatment. Part B was a crossover study, with NSAID/placebo administered for two weeks followed by a washout period of one week and another two weeks of NSAID/placebo. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences between baseline and treatment. There were no significant changes in accelerometry-measured nighttime activity as a result of NSAID administration. SNoRE measures indicated significant improvements in aspects of the quality of nighttime sleep that did not involve obvious movement. These results reflect the few similar studies in human OA patients. Although accelerometry does not appear to be useful, this model has potential to model the human pain-related nighttime sleep disturbance, and other outcome measures should be explored in this model.
    Keywords: Osteoarthritis -- Diagnosis ; Osteoarthritis -- Analysis ; Sleep Disorders -- Diagnosis ; Sleep Disorders -- Analysis ; Dogs -- Analysis ; Medical Research -- Analysis ; Physically Disabled Persons -- Analysis ; Chronic Pain -- Diagnosis ; Chronic Pain -- Analysis
    ISSN: 2167-8359
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  • 8
    In: Veterinary Surgery, January 2010, Vol.39(1), pp.71-77
    Description: To evaluate stance phase limb use after cementless (BFX) total hip replacement (THR) in dogs and to relate postoperative radiographic variables to static bodyweight distribution after surgery. Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=35) that had THR. THR was performed using the BFX THR technique. Postoperative pain management regimens were similar for all dogs. Standing bodyweight distribution (%BW) was measured using a pressure sensitive walkway and radiographs made before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Repeated measures models (with backwards‐stepping to obtain the final model) were used for statistical analysis. Temporally, %BW to the operated limb increased (〈.0001; normal by 3 months) and decreased to the unoperated limb (=.0001) and also increased to the pelvic limbs and decreased to the thoracic limbs. %BW to the unoperated limb was significantly less than the operated limb at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Postoperative canal fill and femur flare were significantly negatively correlated with change in %BW (estimate=−0.24, =.0413). BFX THR results in normal %BW to the operated limb by 3 months after surgery. A greater fill of the proximal femur may be associated with a suboptimal outcome. BFX THR normalizes standing bodyweight distribution dogs with hip osteoarthritis. Objective evaluation of THR outcome and radiographic features may reveal factors that could be improved through changes in prosthesis design or surgical technique.
    Keywords: Osteoarthritis -- Analysis ; Pain Management -- Analysis ; Prostheses And Implants -- Usage ; Prostheses And Implants -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 0161-3499
    E-ISSN: 1532-950X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: BMC Veterinary Research, Jan 27, 2012, Vol.8, p.10
    Description: Background Available information suggests a mismatch between radiographic and orthopedic examination findings in cats with DJD. However, the extent of the discrepancy between clinical and radiographic signs of OA in companion animals has not been described in detail. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between orthopedic examination findings, joint goniometry, and radiographic signs of DJD in 100 cats, in a prospective observational design. Cat temperament, pain response to palpation, joint crepitus, effusion and thickening were graded. Radiographs of appendicular joints and the axial skeleton were made under sedation. Joint motion was measured by use of a plastic goniometer before and after sedation. Associations between radiographic degenerative joint disease (DJD) and examination findings were assessed to determine sensitivity, specificity and likelihood estimations. Results Pain response to palpation was elicited in 0-67% of the joints with DJD, with a specificity ranging from 62-99%; crepitus was detected in 0-56% of the joints and its specificity varied between 87 and 99%; for effusion, values ranged between 6 and 38% (specificity, 82-100%), and thickening, 0-59% (specificity, 74-99%). Joints with DJD tended to have a decreased range of motion. The presence of pain increased the odds of having DJD in the elbow (right: 5.5; left: 4.5); the presence of pain in the lower back increased the odds of spinal DJD being present (2.97 for lumbar; 4.67 for lumbo-sacral). Conclusions Radiographic DJD cannot be diagnosed with certainty using palpation or goniometry. However, negative findings tend to predict radiographically normal joints. Palpation and goniometry may be used as a tool to help to screen cats, mostly to rule out DJD.
    Keywords: Domestic Cats -- Health Aspects ; Osteoarthritis -- Care And Treatment ; Osteoarthritis -- Research
    ISSN: 1746-6148
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PeerJ, 2014, Vol.2, pp.e341
    Description: Background. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a local anesthetic line block administered before surgery in reducing postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVHX). Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial involving 59 healthy female dogs. An algometric pressure-measuring device was used to determine nociceptive threshold, and compared to three subjective pain scales. Group L/B received a line block of lidocaine (4 mg/kg) and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously in the area of the incision site and saline subcutaneously as premedication; group L/BM (positive control) received a similar block and morphine (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneously for premedication; and group SS (negative control) received a saline line block and saline premedication. Criteria for rescue analgesia were defined before the study. Dogs were assessed prior to surgery, at extubation (time 0) and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-recovery. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, and a Split Plot Repeated Measures ANOVA with one grouping factor and one repeat factor (time). P 〈 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Approximately 33% of dogs required rescue analgesia at some point during the study, with no significant difference between groups. There was no significant difference between treatment groups with any assessment method. Conclusions. As there were no statistically significant differences between positive and negative controls, the outcome of this technique cannot be proven.
    Keywords: Bupivacaine ; Dog ; Lidocaine ; Local Anesthesia ; Pain Assessment
    ISSN: 2167-8359
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