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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Conservation Biology, Oct, 2012, Vol.26(5), p.769(9)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01896.x/abstract Byline: JOEL BERGER(1) Keywords: conservation policy; moose; muskoxen; orphans; overwinter survival; photogrammetry Abstract: Photography, including remote imagery and camera traps, has contributed substantially to conservation. However, the potential to use photography to understand demography and inform policy is limited. To have practical value, remote assessments must be reasonably accurate and widely deployable. Prior efforts to develop noninvasive methods of estimating trait size have been motivated by a desire to answer evolutionary questions, measure physiological growth, or, in the case of illegal trade, assess economics of horn sizes; but rarely have such methods been directed at conservation. Here I demonstrate a simple, noninvasive photographic technique and address how knowledge of values of individual-specific metrics bears on conservation policy. I used 10 years of data on juvenile moose (Alces alces) to examine whether body size and probability of survival are positively correlated in cold climates. I investigated whether the presence of mothers improved juvenile survival. The posited latter relation is relevant to policy because harvest of adult females has been permitted in some Canadian and American jurisdictions under the assumption that probability of survival of young is independent of maternal presence. The accuracy of estimates of head sizes made from photographs exceeded 98%. The estimates revealed that overwinter juvenile survival had no relation to the juvenile's estimated mass (p 〈 0.64) and was more strongly associated with maternal presence (p 〈 0.02) than winter snow depth (p 〈 0.18). These findings highlight the effects on survival of a social dynamic (the mother-young association) rather than body size and suggest a change in harvest policy will increase survival. Furthermore, photographic imaging of growth of individual juvenile muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) over 3 Arctic winters revealed annual variability in size, which supports the idea that noninvasive monitoring may allow one to detect how some environmental conditions ultimately affect body growth. Author Affiliation: (1)Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, U.S.A. and Northern Rockies Field Office, Wildlife Conservation Society, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, U.S.A., email jberger@wcs.org Paper submitted July 12, 2011; revised manuscript accepted January 13, 2012.
    Keywords: Wildlife Conservation -- Physiological Aspects ; Moose -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    In: Conservation Biology, August 2013, Vol.27(4), pp.679-689
    Description: . , , , , , . Globalización del Mercado de Cachemira y la Declinación de Mamíferos Mayores en Asia Central Pseudois nayaur: Saiga tartarica, Pantholops hodgsoni, Camelus bactrianus, Panthera uncial, Equus hemionus, E. kiang, E. przewalski Bos mutus.
    Keywords: Fashion ; Herders ; India ; Mongolia ; Saiga ; Trade ; Comercio ; India ; Moda ; Mongolia ; Pastores ; Saiga
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2017, Vol.12(2)
    Description: Costly signaling theory provides an explanation for why humans are willing to a pay a premium for conspicuous products such as luxury brand-labeled clothing or conspicuous environmentally friendly cars. According to the theory, the extra cost of such products is a signal of social status and wealth and leads to advantages in social interactions for the signaler. A previous study found positive evidence for the case of luxury brand labels. However, an issue of this study was that some of the experiments were not conducted in a perfectly double-blind manner. I resolved this by replicating variations of the original design in a double-blind procedure. Additionally, besides the luxury label condition, I introduced a “green” label condition. Thus, the hypothesis that signaling theory is able to explain pro-environmental behavior was tested for the first time in a natural field setting. Further, I conducted experiments in both average and below-average socioeconomic neighborhoods, where, according to signaling theory, the effects of luxury signals should be even stronger. In contrast to the original study, I did not find positive effects of the luxury brand label in any of the five experiments. Nor did I find evidence for a green-signaling effect. Moreover, in poor neighborhoods a negative tendency of the luxury label actually became evident. This suggests that a signaling theory explanation of costly labels must take into account the characteristics of the observers, e.g. their social status.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Earth Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Social Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: Conservation Biology, February 2015, Vol.29(1), pp.290-292
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12327/abstract Byline: JOEL BERGER, STEVEN L. CAIN Keywords: Grand Teton National Park; policy; pronghorn; protection; Berrendo; Parque Nacional Grand Teton; politica; proteccion Abstract As the discipline of conservation biology evolves and practitioners grow increasingly concerned about how to put results into achievable conservation, it is still unclear the extent to which science drives conservation outcomes, especially across rural landscapes. We addressed this issue by examining the role of science in the protection of a biological corridor. Our focus is on a North American endemic mammal reliant on long distance migration as an adaptive strategy, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The role of science in realizing policy change, while critical as a first step, was surprisingly small relative to the role of other human dimensions. In a case study, we strategically addressed a variety of conservation needs beyond science, first by building a partnership between government and private interests and then by enhancing interest in migratory phenomena across a landscape with divergent political ideologies and economic bases. By developing awareness and even people's pride in the concept of corridor conservation, we achieved local, state, and federal acceptance for protection of a 70 km long, 2 km wide pathway for the longest terrestrial migrant in the contiguous United States. Key steps included conducting and publishing research that defined the migration corridor; fostering a variety of media coverage at local, regional, and national levels; conducting public outreach through stakeholder workshops, meetings, and presentations; and meeting with and gaining the support of elected officials. All these contributed to the eventual policy change that created the first federally protected migration corridor in the United States, which in turn stimulated additional conservation actions. On the basis of our experience, we believe conservation scientists can and should step beyond traditional research roles to assist with on-the-ground conservation by engaging in aspects of conservation that involve local communities and public policy. Ir Mas Alla de la Ciencia para Proteger un Corredor Migratorio de Mamiferos Supporting information: Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article Disclaimer: Supplementary materials have been peer-reviewed but not copyedited. CAPTION(S): Methods used to construct the migration polygon and polygon shape files (Appendix S1) and GIS shapefiles for plotting the polygon are available online. The authors are solely responsible for the content and functionality of these materials. Queries (other than absence of the material) should be directed to the corresponding author.
    Keywords: Corridors (Ecology) -- Case Studies ; Ecosystems -- Case Studies;
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 5
    In: Conservation Biology, October 2014, Vol.28(5), pp.1142-1150
    Description: As the discipline of conservation biology evolves and practitioners grow increasingly concerned about how to put results into achievable conservation, it is still unclear the extent to which science drives conservation outcomes, especially across rural landscapes. We addressed this issue by examining the role of science in the protection of a biological corridor. Our focus is on a North American endemic mammal reliant on long distance migration as an adaptive strategy, the pronghorn of the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The role of science in realizing policy change, while critical as a first step, was surprisingly small relative to the role of other human dimensions. In a case study, we strategically addressed a variety of conservation needs beyond science, first by building a partnership between government and private interests and then by enhancing interest in migratory phenomena across a landscape with divergent political ideologies and economic bases. By developing awareness and even people's pride in the concept of corridor conservation, we achieved local, state, and federal acceptance for protection of a 70 km long, 2 km wide pathway for the longest terrestrial migrant in the contiguous United States. Key steps included conducting and publishing research that defined the migration corridor; fostering a variety of media coverage at local, regional, and national levels; conducting public outreach through stakeholder workshops, meetings, and presentations; and meeting with and gaining the support of elected officials. All these contributed to the eventual policy change that created the first federally protected migration corridor in the United States, which in turn stimulated additional conservation actions. On the basis of our experience, we believe conservation scientists can and should step beyond traditional research roles to assist with on‐the‐ground conservation by engaging in aspects of conservation that involve local communities and public policy. Ir Más Allá de la Ciencia para Proteger un Corredor Migratorio de Mamíferos Mientras la disciplina de la Biología de la Conservación evoluciona y quienes la practican cada vez están más preocupados por cómo transformar los resultados en conservación realizable, todavía no está claro el alcance que la ciencia tiene dentro de los resultados, especialmente en paisajes rurales. Abordamos este tema al examinar el papel de la ciencia en la protección de un corredor biológico. Nuestro enfoque es sobre un mamífero endémico de Norteamérica, dependiente de la migración a larga distancia como una estrategia adaptativa, el berrendo de la parte sur del ecosistema Greater Yellowstone. El papel de la ciencia en la obtención del cambio de política, un primer paso crítico, fue sorprendentemente pequeño en relación con el papel de otras dimensiones humanas. En un estudio de caso, abordamos estratégicamente una variedad de necesidades de conservación que van más allá de la ciencia, primero construyendo una colaboración entre el gobierno y los intereses privados y después aumentando el interés en los fenómenos migratorios a través de un paisaje con ideologías políticas divergentes y bases económicas. Al desarrollar la conciencia e incluso el orgullo de las personas por el concepto de la conservación de corredores, logramos la aceptación local, estatal y federal para la protección de una ruta de 70 Km de largo y 2 Km de ancho para la migración terrestre más larga de los Estados Unidos contiguos. Los pasos clave incluyeron realizar y publicar investigaciones que definieron al corredor migratorio; fomentar una variedad de medios de cobertura en los niveles locales, regionales y nacionales; conducir al alcance público a través de talleres para depositarios, juntas y presentaciones; y reunirse con y obtener el apoyo de los oficiales electos. Todos estos pasos contribuyeron al eventual cambio en las políticas que crearon el primer corredor migratorio con protección federal en los Estados Unidos, que en cambio estimuló acciones de conservación adicionales. Basados en nuestra experiencia, creemos que los científicos de la conservación pueden y deben ir más allá de los papeles tradicionales de la investigación para asistir en la conservación en el lugar al involucrarse en aspectos de la conservación que involucren a las comunidades locales y a la política pública.
    Keywords: Grand Teton National Park ; Policy ; Pronghorn ; Protection ; Berrendo ; Parque Nacional Grand Teton ; Política ; Protección
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Conservation biology the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, 2010, Vol.24(3), pp.891-896
    Description: In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies--recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)--differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. ; Includes references ; p. 891-896.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Society ; Energy ; Migration ; Yellowstone ; Boomtowns ; Migrants ; Economy ; Sexual Predators
    ISSN: 0888-8892
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  • 7
    Language: Spanish
    In: Conservation Biology, October 2012, Vol.26(5), pp.769-777
    Description: Alces alcesp p p Ovibos moschatus
    Keywords: Conservation Policy ; Moose ; Muskoxen ; Orphans ; Overwinter Survival ; Photogrammetry ; Alce ; Buey Almizclero ; Fotogrametría ; Huérfanos ; Políticas De Conservación ; Supervivencia A La Hibernación
    ISSN: 0888-8892
    E-ISSN: 1523-1739
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Applied Physics, 15 December 2010, Vol.108(12)
    Description: The analytical Gaussian electron pulse propagation model of Michalik and Sipe [ J. Appl. Phys. 99 , 054908 ( 2006 )] is extended to include the action of external forces on the pulse. The resultant ability to simulate efficiently the effect of electron optical elements (e.g., magnetic lenses and radio-frequency cavities) allows for the rapid assessment of electron pulse delivery systems in time-resolved ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy experiments.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0021-8979
    E-ISSN: 1089-7550
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Biological Conservation, March 2012, Vol.147(1), pp.222-233
    Description: ► One polarizing challenge is how best to manage 991,479 km of public BLM lands. ► Two large natural gas fields occur in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. ► We focus on habitat selection using mixed-effects RSF models. ► Evidence of a fivefold sequential decrease in patches predicted to be of high use. ► Sequential fine-scale abandonment of crucial winter range by pronghorn. To manage America’s 991,479 km (245 million acres) of public BLM lands for such mixed uses as natural resource extraction, wildlife, and recreation requires knowledge about effects of habitat alterations. Two of North America’s largest natural gas fields occur in the southern region of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (Wyoming), an area that contains 〉100,000 wintering ungulates. During a 5-year period (2005–2009), we concentrated on patterns of habitat selection of pronghorn ( ) to understand how winter weather and increasing habitat loss due to gas field development impact habitat selection. Since this population is held below a food ceiling (i.e., carrying capacity) by human harvest, we expected few habitat constraints on animal movements – hence we examined fine-scale habitat use in relationship to progressive energy footprints. We used mixed-effects resource selection function models on 125 GPS-collared female pronghorn, and analyzed a comprehensive set of factors that included habitat ( , slope, plant cover type) and variables examining the impact of gas field infrastructure and human activity ( ., distance to nearest road and well pad, amount of habitat loss due to conversion to a road or well pad) inside gas fields. Our RSF models demonstrate: (1) a fivefold sequential decrease in habitat patches predicted to be of high use and (2) sequential fine-scale abandonment by pronghorn of areas with the greatest habitat loss and greatest industrial footprint. The ability to detect behavioral impacts may be a better sentinel and earlier warning for burgeoning impacts of resource extraction on wildlife populations than studies focused solely on demography. Nevertheless disentangling cause and effect through the use of behavior warrants further investigation.
    Keywords: Behavior ; Food Ceiling ; Greater Yellowstone ; Natural Gas Extraction ; Pronghorn ; Winter Resource Selection ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0006-3207
    E-ISSN: 18732917
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Conservation Biology, 1 June 2011, Vol.25(3), pp.633-634
    Keywords: Comment
    ISSN: 08888892
    E-ISSN: 15231739
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