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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 11 April 2017, Vol.114(15), pp.E3119-E3128
    Description: The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012, caused by a zoonotically transmitted coronavirus (CoV). Over 1,900 cases have been reported to date, with ∼36% fatality rate. Lack of autopsies from MERS cases has hindered understanding of MERS-CoV pathogenesis. A small animal model that develops progressive pulmonary manifestations when infected with MERS-CoV would advance the field. As mice are restricted to infection at the level of DPP4, the MERS-CoV receptor, we generated mice with humanized exons 10-12 of the mouse locus. Upon inoculation with MERS-CoV, human DPP4 knockin (KI) mice supported virus replication in the lungs, but developed no illness. After 30 serial passages through the lungs of KI mice, a mouse-adapted virus emerged (MERS) that grew in lungs to over 100 times higher titers than the starting virus. A plaque-purified MERS clone caused weight loss and fatal infection. Virus antigen was observed in airway epithelia, pneumocytes, and macrophages. Pathologic findings included diffuse alveolar damage with pulmonary edema and hyaline membrane formation associated with accumulation of activated inflammatory monocyte-macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs. Relative to the parental MERS-CoV, MERS viruses contained 13-22 mutations, including several within the spike (S) glycoprotein gene. S-protein mutations sensitized viruses to entry-activating serine proteases and conferred more rapid entry kinetics. Recombinant MERS bearing mutant S proteins were more virulent than the parental virus in hDPP4 KI mice. The hDPP4 KI mouse and the MERS provide tools to investigate disease causes and develop new therapies.
    Keywords: Cd26 ; Emerging Pathogen ; Interferon ; Spike Protein ; Virus Pathogenesis ; Disease Models, Animal ; Mutation ; Coronavirus Infections -- Complications ; Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 -- Genetics ; Lung Diseases -- Etiology ; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -- Genetics ; Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Infectious Diseases, Sept 1, 2013, Vol.208(5), p.720(8)
    Keywords: Haemophilus Influenzae -- Genetic Aspects ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Research ; Genetic Variation -- Research
    ISSN: 0022-1899
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(9)
    Description: Extracellular matrix 1 (ECM1) is over-expressed in multiple epithelial malignancies. However, knowledge regarding the expression of ECM1 in melanomas and the mechanisms of ECM1 regulation is limited. In this study, we found that ECM1 is over-expressed in several melanoma cell lines, when compared to primary melanocytes, and furthermore, that ECM1 expression paralleled that of TFAP2C levels in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of TFAP2C in the A375 cell line with siRNA led to a reduction in ECM1 expression, and upregulation of TFAP2C with adenoviral vectors in the WM793 cell line resulted in ECM1 upregulation. Utilizing 5’ RACE to identify transcription start sites (TSS) and luciferase reporter assays in the ECM1-overexpressing A375 cell line, we identified the minimal promoter region of human ECM1 and demonstrate that an approximately 100bp fragment upstream of the TSS containing a TATA box and binding sites for AP1, SP1 and Ets is sufficient for promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and direct sequencing (ChIP-seq) for TFAP2C in the A375 cell line identified an AP2 regulatory region in the promoter of the ECM1 gene. Gelshift assays further confirmed binding of TFAP2C to this site. ECM1 knockdown reduces melanoma cell attachment and is consistent with findings that ECM1 overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis. Our investigations show an as yet unrecognized role for TFAP2C in melanoma via its regulation of ECM1.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(6), p.e38303
    Description: Neisseria gonorrhoeae , the causative agent of gonorrhea, can form biofilms in vitro and in vivo . In biofilms, the organism is more resistant to antibiotic treatment and can serve as a reservoir for chronic infection. We have used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare protein expression in biofilm and planktonic organisms. Two parallel populations of N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291, which is an arginine auxotroph, were grown for 48 h in continuous-flow chambers over glass, one supplemented with 13 C 6 -arginine for planktonic organisms and the other with unlabeled arginine for biofilm growth. The biofilm and planktonic cells were harvested and lysed separately, and fractionated into three sequential protein extracts. Corresponding heavy (H) planktonic and light (L) biofilm protein extracts were mixed and separated by 1D SDS-PAGE gels, and samples were extensively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, 757 proteins were identified, and 152 unique proteins met a 1.5-fold cutoff threshold for differential expression with p-values 〈0.05. Comparing biofilm to planktonic organisms, this set included 73 upregulated and 54 downregulated proteins. Nearly a third of the upregulated proteins were involved in energy metabolism, with cell envelope proteins making up the next largest group. Of the downregulated proteins, the largest groups were involved in protein synthesis and energy metabolism. These proteomics results were compared with our previously reported results from transcriptional profiling of gonococcal biofilms using microarrays. Nitrite reductase and cytochrome c peroxidase, key enzymes required for anaerobic growth, were detected as highly upregulated in both the proteomic and transcriptomic datasets. These and other protein expression changes observed in the present study were consistent with a shift to anaerobic respiration in gonococcal biofilms, although changes in membrane proteins not explicitly related to this shift may have other functions.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Microbiology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(9), p.e43836
    Description: The broad applicability of RNA aptamers as cell-specific delivery tools for therapeutic reagents depends on the ability to identify aptamer sequences that selectively access the cytoplasm of distinct cell types. Towards this end, we have developed a novel approach that combines a cell-based selection method ( cell-internalization SELEX ) with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analyses to rapidly identify cell-specific, internalization-competent RNA aptamers. ; We demonstrate the utility of this approach by enriching for RNA aptamers capable of selective internalization into vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Several rounds of positive (VSMCs) and negative (endothelial cells; ECs) selection were performed to enrich for aptamer sequences that preferentially internalize into VSMCs. To identify candidate RNA aptamer sequences, HTS data from each round of selection were analyzed using bioinformatics methods: (1) metrics of selection enrichment; and (2) pairwise comparisons of sequence and structural similarity, termed edit and tree distance, respectively. Correlation analyses of experimentally validated aptamers or rounds revealed that the best cell-specific, internalizing aptamers are enriched as a result of the negative selection step performed against ECs. ; We describe a novel approach that combines cell-internalization SELEX with HTS and bioinformatics analysis to identify cell-specific, cell-internalizing RNA aptamers. Our data highlight the importance of performing a pre-clear step against a non-target cell in order to select for cell-specific aptamers. We expect the extended use of this approach to enable the identification of aptamers to a multitude of different cell types, thereby facilitating the broad development of targeted cell therapies.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Biotechnology ; Computational Biology ; Cell Biology ; Biochemistry
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, 15 September 2016, Vol.198(18), pp.2458-69
    Description: CsrA family RNA-binding proteins are widely distributed in bacteria and regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a canonical member of the CsrA family (RsmA) and a novel, structurally distinct variant (RsmF). To better understand RsmF binding properties, we performed parallel systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) experiments for RsmA and RsmF. The initial target library consisted of 62-nucleotide (nt) RNA transcripts with central cores randomized at 15 sequential positions. Most targets selected by RsmA and RsmF were the expected size and shared a common consensus sequence (CANGGAYG) that was positioned in a hexaloop region of the stem-loop structure. RsmA and RsmF also selected for longer targets (≥96 nt) that were likely generated by rare PCR errors. Most of the long targets contained two consensus-binding sites. Representative short (single consensus site) and long (two consensus sites) targets were tested for RsmA and RsmF binding. Whereas RsmA bound the short targets with high affinity, RsmF was unable to bind the same targets. RsmA and RsmF both bound the long targets. Mutation of either consensus GGA site in the long targets reduced or eliminated RsmF binding, suggesting a requirement for two tandem binding sites. Conversely, RsmA bound long targets containing only a single GGA site with unaltered affinity. The RsmF requirement for two binding sites was confirmed with tssA1, an in vivo regulatory target of RsmA and RsmF. Our findings suggest that RsmF binding requires two GGA-containing sites, while RsmA binding requirements are less stringent. The CsrA family of RNA-binding proteins is widely conserved in bacteria and plays important roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein synthesis. P. aeruginosa has two CsrA proteins, RsmA and RsmF. Although RsmA and RsmF share a few RNA targets, RsmF is unable to bind to other targets recognized by RsmA. The goal of the present study was to better understand the basis for differential binding by RsmF. Our data indicate that RsmF binding requires target RNAs with two consensus-binding sites, while RsmA recognizes targets with just a single binding site. This information should prove useful to future efforts to define the RsmF regulon and its contribution to P. aeruginosa physiology and virulence.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Pseudomonas Aeruginosa -- Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, 2016, Vol.198(17-18), p.2458(12)
    Description: CsrA family RNA-binding proteins are widely distributed in bacteria and regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a canonical member of the CsrA family (RsmA) and a novel, structurally distinct variant (RsmF). To better understand RsmF binding properties, we performed parallel systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) experiments for RsmA and RsmF. The initial target library consisted of 62-nucleotide (nt) RNA transcripts with central cores randomized at 15 sequential positions. Most targets selected by RsmA and RsmF were the expected size and shared a common consensus sequence (CANGGAYG) that was positioned in a hexaloop region of the stem-loop structure. RsmA and RsmF also selected for longer targets (96 nt) that were likely generated by rare PCR errors. Most of the long targets contained two consensus-binding sites. Representative short (single consensus site) and long (two consensus sites) targets were tested for RsmA and RsmF binding. Whereas RsmA bound the short targets with high affinity, RsmF was unable to bind the same targets. RsmA and RsmF both bound the long targets. Mutation of either consensus GGA site in the long targets reduced or eliminated RsmF binding, suggesting a requirement for two tandem binding sites. Conversely, RsmA bound long targets containing only a single GGA site with unaltered affinity. The RsmF requirement for two binding sites was confirmed with tssA1, an in vivo regulatory target of RsmA and RsmF. Our findings suggest that RsmF binding requires two GGA-containing sites, while RsmA binding requirements are less stringent.
    Keywords: Pseudomonas Aeruginosa – Research ; Pseudomonas Aeruginosa – Genetic Aspects ; Binding Proteins – Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, 28 February 2017, Vol.45(4), pp.1687-1702
    Description: Histone demethylase PHF8 is upregulated and plays oncogenic roles in various cancers; however, the mechanisms underlying its dysregulation and functions in carcinogenesis remain obscure. Here, we report the novel functions of PHF8 in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) and breast cancer development. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that PHF8 overexpression induces an EMT-like process, including the upregulation of SNAI1 and ZEB1. PHF8 demethylates H3K9me1, H3K9me2 and sustains H3K4me3 to prime the transcriptional activation of SNAI1 by TGF-β signaling. We show that PHF8 is upregulated and positively correlated with MYC at protein levels in breast cancer. MYC post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of PHF8 via the repression of microRNAs. Specifically, miR-22 directly targets and inhibits PHF8 expression, and mediates the regulation of PHF8 by MYC and TGF-β signaling. This novel MYC/microRNAs/PHF8 regulatory axis thus places PHF8 as an important downstream effector of MYC. Indeed, PHF8 contributes to MYC-induced cell proliferation and the expression of EMT-related genes. We also report that PHF8 plays important roles in breast cancer cell migration and tumor growth. These oncogenic functions of PHF8 in breast cancer confer its candidacy as a promising therapeutic target for this disease.
    Keywords: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition ; Breast Neoplasms -- Metabolism ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic -- Metabolism ; Histone Demethylases -- Metabolism ; Histones -- Metabolism ; Transcription Factors -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Description: Comparative genome-wide expression profiling of malignant tumor counterparts across the human-mouse species barrier has a successful track record as a gene discovery tool in liver, breast, lung, prostate and other cancers, but has been largely neglected in studies on neoplasms of mature B-lymphocytes such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). We used global gene expression profiles of DLBCL-like tumors that arose spontaneously in Myc-transgenic C57BL/6 mice as a phylogenetically conserved filter for analyzing the human DLBCL transcriptome. The human and mouse lymphomas were found to have 60 concordantly deregulated genes in common, including 8 genes that Cox hazard regression analysis associated with overall survival in a published landmark dataset of DLBCL. Genetic network analysis of the 60 genes followed by biological validation studies indicate FOXM1 as a candidate DLBCL and BL gene, supporting a number of studies contending that FOXM1 is a therapeutic target in mature B cell tumors. Our findings demonstrate the value of the “mouse filter” for genomic studies of human B-lineage neoplasms for which a vast knowledge base already exists.
    Keywords: Oafund ; Pathology
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: University of Iowa Libraries
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 05/01/2015, Vol.75(9 Supplement), pp.P6-02-03-P6-02-03
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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