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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Science Society of America Journal, May, 2013, Vol.77(3), p.800(9)
    Description: Sorption of volatile compounds from fuel by soils affects the final environmental fate of these contaminants and strongly determines the efficiency of decontamination techniques. The headspace-analysis approach used in this study indirectly relates the sorption exerted by soils with the contaminant analytical recovery, which will be different according to the matrix effect of each particular sample. The aim of this study was to assess the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and fuel oxygenates by a wide selection of soil components and soil samples and to determine the influence of the physicochemical properties of the sample and the contaminant, the contaminant concentration, the incubation time, and the temperature on sorption. For this purpose, the samples were spiked with BTEX and fuel oxygenates in hermetically sealed vials and later analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry under several contaminant concentration, incubation time, and temperature conditions. The results were then compared to assess the sorption exerted by each sample under each scenario. Significant differences were found between the recovery of BTEX and fuel oxygenates, mainly due to the different mobility, polarity, and sorption mechanisms involved while interacting with soil surface charges. Furthermore, these interactions determined the kinetic and strength of sorption and had a strong influence on the recovery of BTEX and fuel oxygenates at different temperatures. The headspace analysis approach resulted in a quick, easy, simple, automatable, and environmentally friendly technique to obtain important information for understanding the behavior of fuel volatile compounds in soil under very different conditions. In addition, it establishes a good starting point for developing more sophisticated adsorption and soil remediation studies.
    Keywords: Sorption -- Analysis ; Mass Spectrometry -- Research ; Soil Research
    ISSN: 0361-5995
    E-ISSN: 14350661
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 05 March 2016, Vol.304, pp.481-489
    Description: Volatile fuel compounds such as fuel oxygenates (FO) (MTBE and ETBE) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) are some of the most soluble components of fuel. Characterizing the leaching potential of these compounds is essential for predicting their mobility through the soil profile and assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. Plant root exudates can play an important role in the modification of contaminant mobility in soil–plant systems, and such effects should also be considered in leaching studies. Artificially spiked samples of A and B horizons from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were leached in packed-columns and batch experiments using Milli-Q water and plant root exudates as leaching agents. The leaching potential and rate were strongly influenced by soil-contaminant interactions and by the presence of root exudates. Organic matter in A horizon preferably sorbed the most non-polar contaminants, lowering their leaching potential and this effect was enhanced by the presence of root exudates. On the other hand, the inorganic components of the B horizon, showed a greater affinity for polar molecules, and the presence of root exudates enhanced the desorption of the contaminants. Column experiments resulted in a more realistic protocol than batch tests for predicting the leaching potential of volatile organic compounds in dissimilar soils.
    Keywords: Leaching Potential ; Volatile Fuel Contaminants ; Plant Root Exudates ; Batch ; Packed-Columns ; Engineering ; Law
    ISSN: 0304-3894
    E-ISSN: 1873-3336
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 March 2017, Vol.581-582, pp.676-688
    Description: Plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strains possess different mechanisms to improve plant development under common environmental stresses, and are therefore often used as inoculants in soil phytoremediation processes. The aims of the present work were to study the effects of a collection of plant growth promoting bacterial strains on plant development, antioxidant enzyme activities and nutritional status of and/or plants a) growing in perlite under non-stress conditions and b) growing in diesel-contaminated soil. For this, two greenhouse experiments were designed. Firstly, and plants were grown from seeds in perlite, and periodically inoculated with 6 PGP strains, either individually or in pairs. Secondly, seedlings were grown in soil samples of the A and B horizons of a Cambisol contaminated with 1.25% (w/w) of diesel and inoculated with best PGP inoculant selected from the first experiment. The results indicated that the PGP strains tested in perlite significantly improved plant growth. Combination treatments provoked better growth of than the respective individual strains, while individual inoculation treatments were more effective for . growth in diesel-contaminated soil was significantly improved in the presence of PGP strains, presenting a 2-fold or higher increase in plant biomass. Inoculants did not provoke significant changes in plant nutritional status, with the exception of a subset of siderophore-producing and P-solubilising bacterial strains that resulted in significantly modification of Fe or P concentrations in leaf tissues. Inoculants did not cause significant changes in enzyme activities in perlite experiments, however they significantly reduced oxidative stress in contaminated soils suggesting an improvement in plant tolerance to diesel. Some strains were applied to non-host plants, indicating a non-specific performance of their plant growth promotion. The use of PGP strains in phytoremediation may help plants to overcome contaminant and other soil stresses, increasing phytoremediation efficiency.
    Keywords: Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria ; Pot Inoculation ; Phytoremediation ; Oxidative Stress-Related Enzymes ; Nutritional Status ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 14 September 2014, Vol.96(8), pp.1162-1173
    Description: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fuel-contaminated soils on the germination, survival, and early growth of six crop plants, viz. Brassica oleracea, Trifolium repens, Lactuca sativa, Avena sativa, Pisum sativum, and Zea mays, grown on Cambisol A and B horizons contaminated with gasoline and diesel (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, w/w). Fuel toxicity was more evident in the B horizon than in the A horizon, and diesel was more toxic than gasoline, probably due to the higher evaporation rate of the latter. Fuels affected the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a higher extent, reflecting the importance of the seed coat and nutrient reserves for successful plant development in fuel-contaminated soils. In general, root growth was more strongly affected than shoot growth, and plant biomass was more strongly affected than elongation, leading to a less plant branching in the presence of fuel. The findings of this study can be useful for selecting the least fuel-tolerant species as soil contamination bioindicator and for determining the risks of fuel contamination. Due to the low residence time of gasoline components in soil, this phytotoxicity test resulted in an unsuitable bioassay to assess gasoline toxicity.
    Keywords: Diesel and Gasoline ; Contaminated Soil ; Phytotoxicity ; Bioassay ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology ; Chemistry ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-2248
    E-ISSN: 1029-0486
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2018, Vol.73(3), pp.292-301
    Description: An accurate and sensitive analytical method for the determination of diesel-range organics (DRO) is the basis to monitoring and soil remediation studies. In the present work, the determination of DRO in different water and soil samples was optimized. Solvent extraction procedures, i.e. ultrasonic assisted extraction (USAE) (for water samples) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) (for soil samples), and a solvent-free procedure, headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), were optimized to achieve the highest recoveries for the simultaneous determination of all DRO. One hour of USAE for water samples and ASE of soil samples at 100°C, 2000 psi and two extraction cycles lead to analytical recoveries of 70‒100%. Using HS-SPME, 30 min of incubation at 90°C were sufficient to achieve analytical recoveries up to 90% for water and soil samples. HS-SPME enables higher preconcentration factors, which makes this method more appropriate for samples with trace DRO concentrations.
    Keywords: diesel-range organics ; ultrasonic assisted extraction ; accelerated solvent extraction ; HS-SPME ; water and soil samples
    ISSN: 1061-9348
    E-ISSN: 1608-3199
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2016, Vol.188(5), pp.1-15
    Description: Soil and groundwater contamination around a fuel distribution station in Tomiño (NW Spain) was evaluated. For this purpose, top and subsoil (up to 6.4 m) and groundwater were sampled around the station, approximately in a 60-m radius. Samples were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS to identify and quantify volatile fuel organic compounds (VFOC) (MTBE, ETBE and BTEX) and diesel range organics (DRO). Analysis and fingerprinting data suggested that the contamination of soil and groundwater was provoked by a fuel leak from underground storage tanks. This was reflected by hydrocarbon indices and principal component analysis, which discriminated a direct source of contamination of the subsoil samples around the station. The contaminants probably migrated from tank nearby soils to surrounding soils and leached to groundwater, following a SW direction. Irrigation with contaminated groundwater provoked a severe contamination of topsoils, which were enriched with the lightest components of gasoline and diesel. Fingerprinting also revealed the continuity of the leak, reflected by the presence of volatiles in some samples, which principally appeared in fresh leaks. MTBE was detected in a very high concentration in groundwater samples (up to 690 μg L −1 ), but it was not detected in fresh gasoline. This also evidenced an old source of contamination, probably starting in the mid-1990s, when the use of MTBE in gasoline was regulated.
    Keywords: Fingerprinting ; Fuel distribution station ; Soil and groundwater contamination ; Volatile fuel compounds ; DRO
    ISSN: 0167-6369
    E-ISSN: 1573-2959
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Phytoremediation, 03 August 2014, Vol.16(7-8), pp.824-839
    Description: Vegetation and its associated microorganisms play an important role in the behaviour of soil contaminants. One of the most important elements is root exudation, since it can affect the mobility, and therefore, the bioavailability of soil contaminants. In this study, we evaluated the influence of root exudates on the mobility of fuel derived compounds in contaminated soils. Samples of humic acid, montmorillonite, and an A horizon from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were contaminated with volatile contaminants present in fuel: oxygenates (MTBE and ETBE) and monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene). Natural root exudates obtained from Holcus lanatus and Cytisus striatus and ten artificial exudates (components frequently found in natural exudates) were added to the samples, individually and as a mixture, to evaluate their effects on contaminant mobility. Fuel compounds were analyzed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In general, the addition of natural and artificial exudates increased the mobility of all contaminants in humic acid. In A horizon and montmorillonite, natural or artificial exudates (as a mixture) decreased the contaminant mobility. However, artificial exudates individually had different effects: carboxylic components increased and phenolic components decreased the contaminant mobility. These results established a base for developing and improving phytoremediation processes of fuel-contaminated soils.
    Keywords: Plant Root Exudates ; Btex and Fuel Oxygenates ; Contaminant Mobility in Soil ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1522-6514
    E-ISSN: 1549-7879
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Pedosphere, December 2018, Vol.28(6), pp.833-847
    Description: The increasing use of petroleum-derived fuels over the last few decades has subsequently augmented the risk of spills in the environment. Soil pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons (principally caused by leaks in pipelines and underground storage tanks) is one of the major sources of soil degradation. Once in soil, fuel hydrocarbons suffer from a wide variety of multiphase processes including transport (advection, diffusion, and dispersion) among and within phases (aqueous and non-aqueous liquid, gas, and soil solids), mass transfer among phases (volatilization, sorption, and solution), and other natural attenuation processes, such as biodegradation and plant uptake and metabolism. This review identifies and describes the major processes occurring in soil that have a significant influence on the environmental fate of petroleum hydrocarbons. The definition of the processes involved in pollutant migration and distribution in soil and the formulation of adequate equations using accurate parameters ( ., diffusion coefficients, velocity of advective flows, and mass transfer coefficients) will allow prediction of the final fate of soil pollutants. In addition to transport and mass transfer processes, which are more widely studied, the incorporation of attenuation mechanisms driven by microorganisms and plants is essential to predict the final concentration of the pollutants in the whole multiphase scenario. This work underlines the importance of the determination of accurate parameters through the performance of laboratory and/or field-scale experiments to develop precise pollutant migration models.
    Keywords: Degradation ; Fuel-Derived Pollutants ; Modelling ; Multiphase ; Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid ; Soil Pollution ; Soil Processes ; Sorption ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 1002-0160
    E-ISSN: 2210-5107
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, March 2017, Vol.174, pp.84-90
    Description: L. is an autochthones species with great potential for phytostabilisation of mining areas from Iberian Pyrite Belt (IBP) as well as medicinal and odoriferous/fragrance interest. In order to valorise in the rehabilitation process of these areas, the aims of this study were to: i) compare the organic composition of bioextracts obtained from shoots of growing in contaminated and non-contaminated areas; ii) quantify some valuable organic compounds of these bioextracts; and iii) evaluate the influence of the concentration of the potentially hazardous elements (PHE's) in the shoots on the quality of the bioextracts. Composite samples of soils and shoots were collected in São Domingos mining area (IPB, SE of Portugal) and in a reference area with non-contaminated soils and similar climatic conditions (Corte do Pinto). Total concentrations of PHE's (Al, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined, after acid digestion, in these soils and shoots. Bioextracts were obtained from plant shoots using -hexane in an accelerated solvent extractor. Organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and some valuable organic compounds (α-pinene, camphene, camphor, fenchone and verbenone) were quantified. Multielemental concentration of the plant residues after obtaining the bioextracts was carried out. São Domingos soils can be considered contaminated with As, Cr, Cu and Pb. The highest concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined in São Domingos shoots, while the contrary was observed for Ni. The main organic compounds in the bioextracts were benzenepropanoic acid and viridiflorol. Independently of the population, similar profile was observed having slight variability in the amounts (%) of some organic compounds ( benzenepropanoic acid, verbenone, bornyl acetate, borneol). The highest concentration of α-pinene was obtained in São Domingos bioextracts while the other determined valuable compounds presented similar concentrations. Concentrations of PHE's in the shoots were not correlated with organic composition of the bioextracts. No elements transfer occurred during the compounds extraction. The bioextracts obtained from growing in São Domingos mining area had valuable compounds and did not pose any human health risk. Phytostabilisation of contaminated soils with this species can provide economic return by the exploration of several valuable compounds.
    Keywords: Benzenepropanoic Acid ; Potentially Hazardous Elements ; São Domingos Mine ; Solvent Extraction ; Valuable Extracts ; Viridiflorol ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0375-6742
    E-ISSN: 1879-1689
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of environmental quality, May 2016, Vol.45(3), pp.924-32
    Description: The association of plants and rhizospheric bacteria provides a successful strategy to clean up contaminated soils. The purpose of this work was to enhance diesel degradation in rhizosphere by inoculation with selected bacterial strains: a diesel degrader (D), plant growth-promoting (PGP) strains, or a combination (D+PGP). Plants were set up in pots with the A or B horizon of an umbric Cambisol (A and B) spiked with diesel (1.25%, w/w). After 1 mo, the dissipation of diesel range organics (DRO) with respect to = 0 (i.e., 1 wk after preparing the pots with the seedlings) concentration was significantly higher in inoculated than in noninoculated (NI) pots: The highest DRO losses were found in A D+PGP pots (close to 15-20% higher than NI) and in B D pots (close to 10% higher). The water-extractable DRO fraction was significantly higher at = 30 d (15-25%) compared with = 0 (〈5%), probably due to the effects of plant root exudates and biosurfactants produced by the degrader strain. The results of this experiment reflect the importance of the partnerships between plants and bacterial inoculants and demonstrate the relevance of the effect of bacterial biosurfactants and plant root exudates on contaminant bioavailability, a key factor for enhancing diesel rhizodegradation. The association of lupine with D and PGP strains resulted in a promising combination for application in the rhizoremediation of soils with moderate diesel contamination.
    Keywords: Biodegradation, Environmental ; Gasoline ; Rhizosphere ; Soil Pollutants
    ISSN: 0047-2425
    E-ISSN: 15372537
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