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  • 1
    In: The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2002, Vol. 57(5), pp.P426-P434
    Description: Proverbs were used to examine whether laypeople's conceptions of or preferences for life-management strategies are consistent with the model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC model). The SOC model posits that there are three fundamental processes of life management: selection, optimization, and compensation. In two studies ( N = 64; N = 131), young (19–32 years) and older adults (59–85 years) were asked to match proverbs to sentence stems indicative of life-management situations. Of the proverbs, half reflected one component of SOC and half alternative, non-SOC life-management strategies. SOC-related and alternative proverbs were matched on familiarity, understandability, and meaningfulness. Two main results were obtained: Young and older adults chose proverbs reflecting SOC (a) more frequently and (b) faster than alternative proverbs. Study 3 ( N = 60, 19–32 year-old participants) ruled out that these results were due to an artifact resulting from a stronger, purely semantic relationship of the specific sentence stems with the SOC-related proverbs. Studies 4 ( N = 48 younger and older adults) and 5 ( N = 20 younger adults) were conducted to test discriminant validity. In contrast with tasks involving long-term goal orientation and success, there were no preferences for SOC-related proverbs for life contexts involving relaxation or leisure. Taken together, results of these studies indicate that individuals, when asked to choose between alternative proverbs characterizing ways of managing life, prefer SOC-related proverbs.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Psychological–Psychology ; Adult–Psychology ; Age Factors–Psychology ; Aged–Psychology ; Aging–Psychology ; Aphorisms & Proverbs As Topic–Psychology ; Female–Psychology ; Humans–Psychology ; Life Style–Psychology ; Male–Psychology ; Middle Aged–Psychology ; Models, Psychological–Psychology ; Personality Development–Psychology ; Quality of Life–Psychology ; Regression Analysis–Psychology ; Self Concept–Psychology ; Social Identification–Psychology ; United States–Psychology ; Life ; Proverbs ; Gerontology ; Older People;
    ISSN: 1079-5014
    E-ISSN: 1758-5368
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Gait & Posture, 2011, Vol.33(3), pp.401-405
    Description: We investigated dual-task performance of cognitive (semantic fluency) and sensorimotor tasks (walking) in 120 children and adults from four age groups (9-year olds, = 9.52 years; 11-year olds, = 11.51 years; young adults, = 25.34 years; older adults, = 64.28 years; = 30 per group). Distances walked during 90 s and numbers of category exemplars generated in the semantic fluency task showed an inverted U-shape function with age. In line with general resource models proportional dual-task costs in walking also showed a U-shaped relation as a function of age with pronounced decrements in the youngest and oldest groups. Only 9-year olds showed significant costs in the cognitive task. Individual differences in single-task performance accounted for more than half of the variance in dual-task performance. Reliable age-related residual variance implicated additional factors particularly in children's developing multi-tasking performances.
    Keywords: Dual-Task ; Lifespan ; Semantic Fluency ; Cognitive Resources ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0966-6362
    E-ISSN: 1879-2219
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of personality and social psychology, April 2002, Vol.82(4), pp.642-62
    Description: The authors examined the usefulness of a self-report measure for elective selection, loss-based selection. optimization, and compensation (SOC) as strategies of life management. The expected 4-factor solution was obtained in 2 independent samples (N = 218, 14-87 years; N = 181, 18-89 years) exhibiting high retest stability across 4 weeks (r(tt) = .74-82). As expected, middle-aged adults showed higher endorsement of SOC than younger and older adults. Moreover, SOC showed meaningful convergent and divergent associations to other psychological constructs (e.g., thinking styles, NEO) and evinced positive correlations with measures of well-being which were maintained after other personality and motivational constructs were controlled for. Initial evidence on behavioral associations involving SOC obtained in other studies is summarized.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Psychological ; Goals ; Life Style ; Personality Inventory ; Aging -- Psychology
    ISSN: 0022-3514
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  • 4
    In: The American Psychologist, April, 1997, Vol.52(4), p.366(15)
    Description: Drawing on both evolutionary and ontogenetic perspectives, the basic biological - genetic and social - cultural architecture of human development is outlined. Three principles are involved. First, evolutionary selection pressure predicts a negative age correlation, and, therefore, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever-increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity, the efficiency of culture is reduced as life span development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the life span architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Degree of completeness can be defined as the ratio between gains and losses in functioning. Two examples illustrate the implications of the life span architecture proposed. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of 3 component processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The second considers the task of completing the life course in the sense of achieving a positive balance between gains and losses for all age levels. This goal is increasingly more difficult to attain as human development is extended into advanced old age.
    Keywords: Ontogeny -- Psychological Aspects ; Child Development -- Psychological Aspects ; Culture -- Research ; Personality (Psychology) -- Research
    ISSN: 0003-066X
    E-ISSN: 1935990X
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1998, Vol.21(3), pp.407-408
    Description: Experiential factors such as long-term deliberate practice are powerful and necessary conditions for outstanding achievement. Nevertheless, to be able to reject the role of biology based individual differences (including genetic ones) in the manifestation of talent requires designs that expose heterogeneous samples to so-called testing-the-limits conditions, allowing asymptotic levels of performance to be analyzed comparatively. When such research has been conducted, as in the field of lifespan cognition, individual differences, including biology based ones, come to the fore and demonstrate that the orchestration of excellence requires joint attention to geneticbiological and experiential factors.
    Keywords: Aptitude -- Analysis ; Ontogeny -- Analysis ; Heredity -- Analysis ; Nature And Nurture -- Analysis ; Behavioral Genetics -- Research;
    ISSN: 0140-525X
    E-ISSN: 14691825
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, September 2003, Vol.29(9), pp.1104-1119
    Description: This study investigated the connection between wisdom as a body of expert knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life and indicators of affective, motivational, and interpersonal functioning. Structural equation analyses showed that individuals higher on wisdom-related knowledge reported (a) higher affective involvement combined with lower negative and pleas-ant feelings, (b) a value orientation that focused conjointly on other-enhancing values and personal growth combined with a lesser tendency toward values revolving around a pleasurable life, and (c) a preference for cooperative conflict management strategies combined with a lower tendency to adopt submissive, avoidant, or dominant strategies. These findings corroborate the theoretical notion that wisdom involves affective modulation and complexity rather than the predominant seeking of pleasure and also a joint motivational commitment to developing the potential of oneself and that of others.
    Keywords: Wisdom-Related Knowledge ; Affect ; Value Orientation ; Conflict Management ; Sociology & Social History ; Psychology
    ISSN: 0146-1672
    E-ISSN: 1552-7433
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Developmental Psychology, 2008, Vol.44(3), pp.747-757
    Description: Task prioritization can lead to trade-off patterns in dual-task situations. The authors compared dual-task performances in 9- and 11-year-old children and young adults performing a cognitive task and a motor task concurrently. The motor task required balancing on an ankle-disc board. Two cognitive tasks measured working memory and episodic memory at difficulty levels individually adjusted during the course of extensive training. Adults showed performance decrements in both task domains under dual-task conditions. In contrast, children showed decrements only in the cognitive tasks but actually swayed less under dual-task than under single-task conditions and continued to reduce their body sway even when instructed to focus on the cognitive task. The authors argue that children perform closer to their stability boundaries in the balance task and therefore prioritize protection of their balance under dual-task conditions.
    Keywords: Dual Task ; Children ; Young Adults ; Postural Stability ; Task Prioritization
    ISSN: 0012-1649
    E-ISSN: 1939-0599
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  • 8
    In: Psychological Medicine, 1991, Vol.21(4), pp.837-854
    Description: SYNOPSIS In an effort to distil major findings about the nature of human ageing, seven propositions are presented as a guiding frame of reference. This propositional framework is then used to specify some conditions for a positive culture of old age and to advance one possible model of good psychological ageing. This model focuses on the dynamic interplay between three processes: selection, optimization, and compensation. The model is universal in its basic features, but at the same time emphasizes individual variations in phenotypic manifestation.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Psychological ; Attention ; Aging -- Psychology;
    ISSN: 0033-2917
    E-ISSN: 1469-8978
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002, Vol.82(4), pp.642-662
    Description: The authors examined the usefulness of a self-report measure for elective selection, loss-based selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) as strategies of life management. The expected 4-factor solution was obtained in 2 independent samples ( N = 218, 14–87 years; N = 181, 18–89 years) exhibiting high retest stability across 4 weeks ( r tt = .74–.82). As expected, middle-aged adults showed higher endorsement of SOC than younger and older adults. Moreover, SOC showed meaningful convergent and divergent associations to other psychological constructs (e.g., thinking styles, NEO) and evinced positive correlations with measures of well-being which were maintained after other personality and motivational constructs were controlled for. Initial evidence on behavioral associations involving SOC obtained in other studies is summarized.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Psychological ; Adult ; Age Factors ; Aged ; Aging ; Cross-Sectional Studies ; Female ; Goals ; Humans ; Life Style ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Models, Psychological ; Personality ; Personality Inventory ; Predictive Value of Tests ; Psychometrics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Self Concept ; Surveys and Questionnaires ; Thinking ; Construct Validity ; Coping Behavior ; Self-Report ; Statistical Validity ; Strategies ; Personality Scales & Inventories ; Personality Traits & Processes ; Life Management Strategies ; Loss Based Selection ; Elective Selection ; Optimization ; Compensation ; Soc ; Self Report Measures ; Construct Validity ; Empirical Study ; Human ; Male ; Female ; Adolescence (13-17 Yrs) ; Adulthood (18 Yrs & Older) ; Young Adulthood (18-29 Yrs) ; Thirties (30-39 Yrs) ; Middle Age (40-64 Yrs) ; Aged (65 Yrs & Older) ; Very Old (85 Yrs & Older) ; Germany ; Article;
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Oct, 1995, Vol.69(4), p.686(15)
    Description: Using the revised Control, Agency, and Means-ends Interview (T. D. Little, G. Oettingen, & P. B. Baltes, 1995), we compared American children's (Grades 2-6) action-control beliefs about school performance with those of German and Russian children (Los Angeles, n = 657; East Berlin, n = 313; West Berlin, n = 517; Moscow, n = 541). Although we found pronounced cross-setting similarities in the children's everyday causality beliefs about what factors produce school performance, we obtained consistent cross-setting differences in (a) the mean levels of the children's personal agency and control expectancy and (b) the correlational magnitudes between these beliefs and actual school performance. Notably, the American children were at the extremes of the cross-national distributions: (a) they had the highest mean levels of personal agency and control expectancy but (b) the lowest beliefs-performance correlations. Such outcomes indicate that the low beliefs-performance correlations that are frequently obtained in American research appear to be specific to American settings.
    Keywords: Educational Psychology -- Research
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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