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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 15 September 2017, Vol.357(6356), pp.1099-1100
    Description: For several billion years, microorganisms and the genes they carry have mainly been moved by physical forces such as air and water currents. These forces generated biogeographic patterns for microorganisms that are similar to those of animals and plants (1). In the past 100 years, humans have changed these dynamics by transporting large numbers of cells to new locations through waste disposal, tourism, and global transport and by modifying selection pressures at those locations. As a consequence, we are in the midst of a substantial alteration to microbial biogeography. This has the potential to change ecosystem services and biogeochemistry in unpredictable ways.
    Keywords: Microbiological Phenomena ; Travel ; Animals, Domestic -- Microbiology ; Waste Water -- Microbiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nature, June 9, 2011, Vol.474(7350), p.151(2)
    Keywords: Research Scientists -- Practice ; Soils -- Environmental Aspects ; Soil Conservation -- Government Finance ; Soil Conservation -- Management
    ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 3
    Article
    Article
    In: Nature, 2011, Vol.474(7350), p.151
    Description: Many researchers focus on how to intensify agriculture for a growing, hungry world. So far, they have largely dodged the question of how global soils will cope. Our planet’s soils are under threat, as witnessed in the past decade by dust-bowl conditions in northwest China, the desertification of grasslands in Inner Mongolia and massive dust storms across north-central Africa. Soil losses in some locations around the world are in excess of 50 tonnes per hectare in a year1: up to 100 times faster than the rate of soil formation. In other words, we are losing nearly a half-centimetre layer of this precious resource per year in some places (see graphic).At the same time, global growth in human population and wealth requires a major intensification of agricultural production to meet an expected 50% increase in demand for food by 2030, and possibly a doubling by 20502. These numbers do not bode well. Scientists need to develop a predictive framework for soil loss and degradation quickly, to evaluate potential solutions systematically and implement the best ones. There is a way forward. In the past four years, a global network of research field sites — Critical Zone Observatories — has been established. Multidisciplinary teams are focusing on the fundamentals of soil production and degradation, and aiming to create quantitative, predictive models. This programme has enormous potential. It can and should be accelerated, with stronger collaboration between national programmes and strong links to policy-makers.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 May 2017, Vol.586, pp.1085-1090
    Description: Globally, rapid urbanization, along with economic development, is dramatically changing the balance of biogeochemical cycles, impacting upon ecosystem services and impinging on United Nation global sustainability goals (inter alia: sustainable cities and communities; responsible consumption and production; good health and well-being; clean water and sanitation, and; to protect and conserve life on land and below water). A key feature of the urban ecosystems is that nutrient stocks, carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are being enriched. Furthermore, urban ecosystems are highly engineered, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients within urban ecosystems is spatially segregated, and nutrients exported (e.g. in food) from rural/peri-urban areas are not being returned to support primary production in these environments. To redress these imbalances we propose the concept of the Peri-URban Ecosystem (PURE). Through the merging of conceptual approaches that relate to Critical Zone science and the dynamics of successional climax PURE serves at the symbiotic interface between rural/natural and urban ecosystems and allow re-coupling of resource flows. PURE provides a framework for tackling the most pressing of societal challenges and supporting global sustainability goals.
    Keywords: Biogeochemical Cycling ; Coupling ; Peri-Urban Ecosystem ; Urban-Rural Interface ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 5
    In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 2012, Vol.367(1588), pp.565-582
    Description: Global weathering of calcium and magnesium silicate rocks provides the long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) on a timescale of millions of years by causing precipitation of calcium carbonates on the seafloor. Catchment-scale field studies consistently indicate that vegetation increases silicate rock weathering, but incorporating the effects of trees and fungal symbionts into geochemical carbon cycle models has relied upon simple empirical scaling functions. Here, we describe the development and application of a process-based approach to deriving quantitative estimates of weathering by plant roots, associated symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi and climate. Our approach accounts for the influence of terrestrial primary productivity via nutrient uptake on soil chemistry and mineral weathering, driven by simulations using a dynamic global vegetation model coupled to an ocean–atmosphere general circulation model of the Earth's climate. The strategy is successfully validated against observations of weathering in watersheds around the world, indicating that it may have some utility when extrapolated into the past. When applied to a suite of six global simulations from 215 to 50 Ma, we find significantly larger effects over the past 220 Myr relative to the present day. Vegetation and mycorrhizal fungi enhanced climate-driven weathering by a factor of up to 2. Overall, we demonstrate a more realistic process-based treatment of plant fungal–geosphere interactions at the global scale, which constitutes a first step towards developing ‘next-generation’ geochemical models.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0962-8436
    E-ISSN: 1471-2970
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Science, May, 2011, Vol.311(5), p.369-34
    Description: For the past two decades, the spread of angiosperm plants in the Cretaceous and Paleogene has been thought to have enhanced silicate weathering fluxes of Ca and Mg to the oceans, thereby drawing down atmospheric CO (sub 2) and ultimately sequestering it in marine carbonate sediments. However, the rise of angiosperm trees in the Cretaceous was coincident with the evolution of ectomycorrhizal fungal associations in angiosperm and gymnosperm trees that have increasingly supplanted trees with the ancestral arbuscular-mycorrhizal associations. This represents the most profound alteration in root functioning to occur in plant evolutionary history, with far-reaching implications for weathering and soil biogeochemistry because the fine roots are enveloped with a fungal sheath. Ectomycorrhizal fungi provide the main nutrient and water-absorbing interface with soil, and the pathway through which organic acids and protons are actively secreted at the scale of individual mineral grains. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rise of ectomycorrhizal trees was a major contributor to the drawdown of atmospheric CO (sub 2) over the past 120 Ma through enhanced silicate weathering. We developed a process-based soil chemistry model incorporating the effects of plants with ancestral arbuscular mycorrhizas, and more recently evolved ectomycorrhizas on soil chemistry via its effects on the biological proton cycle, and integrated it into a leading model of the long-term carbon cycle (GEOCARBSULF). Our mechanistic, process-based modeling reveals that the rise of ectomycorrhizal trees can explain the CO (sub 2) drawdown previously attributed empirically to the spread of angiosperms. We suggest, therefore, that the evolutionary rise of ectomycorrhizas represents an important driving force of the long-term carbon cycle by enhancing chemical weathering and draw-down of atmospheric CO (sub 2) into marine carbonates.
    Keywords: Angiosperms -- Research ; Biogeochemistry -- Usage ; Gymnosperms -- Research ; Mycorrhizae -- Research
    ISSN: 0002-9599
    E-ISSN: 1945452X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Applied Geochemistry, June, 2011, Vol.26, p.S206-S209
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.105 Byline: Harry Langford (a)(b), Andy Hodson (a), Steve Banwart (b) Abstract: Mineralogical and geochemical diversity in cryoconite granules from Aldegondabreen glacier was investigated using FTIR spectroscopy. Results suggest that the technique is an effective tool for investigating mineralogy and identifying spatial differences in geochemistry, based upon characteristic spectral signatures. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Winter Street, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK (b) Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK
    Keywords: Glaciers ; Soil Mineralogy ; Spectroscopy
    ISSN: 0883-2927
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied Geochemistry, 2014, Vol.42, p.60(9)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.01.005 Byline: Hamid M. Pouran, Steve A. Banwart, Maria Romero-Gonzalez Abstract: Display Omitted Article History: Received 24 June 2013; Accepted 17 January 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editorial handling by M. Kersten
    Keywords: Hydroxides ; Hematite ; Aluminum Compounds ; Coatings
    ISSN: 0883-2927
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Biotechnology, February 2012, Vol.23(1), pp.56-63
    Description: ► A table is added to compare different cell sorting techniques. ► An exciting work of single cell analysis of CO fixation is highlighted. ► Single cell Raman spectroscopy (SCRS) is a non-invasive and label-free technology, allowing biochemical analysis of individual living cells. ► A key drawback of SCRS is the fact that spontaneous Raman signals are naturally weak. ► This review discussed the recent research progresses significantly enhancing and improving the signal of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, which include resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Single cell Raman spectroscopy (SCRS) is a non-invasive and label-free technology, allowing and multiple parameter analysis of individual living cells. A single cell Raman spectrum usually contains more than 1000 Raman bands which provide rich and intrinsic information of the cell (e.g. nucleic acids, protein, carbohydrates and lipids), reflecting cellular genotypes, phenotypes and physiological states. A Raman spectrum serves as a molecular ‘fingerprint’ of a single cell, making it possible to differentiate various cells including bacterial, protistan and animal cells without prior knowledge of the cells. However, a key drawback of SCRS is the fact that spontaneous Raman signals are naturally weak; this review discusses recent research progress in significantly enhancing and improving the signal of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy, including resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This review focuses on the biotechnological development and the associated applications of SCRS, including Raman activated cell sorting (RACS) and Raman imaging and mapping.
    Keywords: Engineering
    ISSN: 0958-1669
    E-ISSN: 1879-0429
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  • 10
    In: Eos, 06/05/2015, Vol.96
    ISSN: Eos
    E-ISSN: 2324-9250
    Source: American Geophysical Union (via CrossRef)
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