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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 June 2015, Vol.112(23), pp.E3050-7
    Description: Tumor-specific molecules are needed across diverse areas of oncology for use in early detection, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Large and growing public databases of transcriptome sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from tumors and normal tissues hold the potential of yielding tumor-specific molecules, but because the data are new they have not been fully explored for this purpose. We have developed custom bioinformatic algorithms and used them with 296 high-grade serous ovarian (HGS-OvCa) tumor and 1,839 normal RNA-seq datasets to identify mRNA isoforms with tumor-specific expression. We rank prioritized isoforms by likelihood of being expressed in HGS-OvCa tumors and not in normal tissues and analyzed 671 top-ranked isoforms by high-throughput RT-qPCR. Six of these isoforms were expressed in a majority of the 12 tumors examined but not in 18 normal tissues. An additional 11 were expressed in most tumors and only one normal tissue, which in most cases was fallopian or colon. Of the 671 isoforms, the topmost 5% (n = 33) ranked based on having tumor-specific or highly restricted normal tissue expression by RT-qPCR analysis are enriched for oncogenic, stem cell/cancer stem cell, and early development loci--including ETV4, FOXM1, LSR, CD9, RAB11FIP4, and FGFRL1. Many of the 33 isoforms are predicted to encode proteins with unique amino acid sequences, which would allow them to be specifically targeted for one or more therapeutic strategies--including monoclonal antibodies and T-cell-based vaccines. The systematic process described herein is readily and rapidly applicable to the more than 30 additional tumor types for which sufficient amounts of RNA-seq already exist.
    Keywords: RNA-Seq ; Bioinformatics ; Diagnostics ; Ovarian Cancer ; Therapeutics ; Transcriptome ; Ovarian Neoplasms -- Diagnosis ; RNA, Messenger -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Nucleic acids research, March 2011, Vol.39(5), pp.1656-65
    Description: Immuno-precipitation of protein-DNA complexes followed by microarray hybridization is a powerful and cost-effective technology for discovering protein-DNA binding events at the genome scale. It is still an unresolved challenge to comprehensively, accurately and sensitively extract binding event information from the produced data. We have developed a novel strategy composed of an information-preserving signal-smoothing procedure, higher order derivative analysis and application of the principle of maximum entropy to address this challenge. Importantly, our method does not require any input parameters to be specified by the user. Using genome-scale binding data of two Escherichia coli global transcription regulators for which a relatively large number of experimentally supported sites are known, we show that ∼90% of known sites were resolved to within four probes, or ∼88 bp. Over half of the sites were resolved to within two probes, or ∼38 bp. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our strategy delivers significant quantitative and qualitative performance gains over available methods. Such accurate and sensitive binding site resolution has important consequences for accurately reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks, for motif discovery, for furthering our understanding of local and non-local factors in protein-DNA interactions and for extending the usefulness horizon of the ChIP-chip platform.
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; DNA-Binding Proteins -- Analysis
    ISSN: 03051048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(10), p.e26172
    Description: Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) under controlled conditions has become a valuable approach for the study of the genetic and biochemical basis for microbial adaptation under a given selection pressure. Conventionally, the timescale in ALE experiments has been set in terms of number of generations. As mutations are believed to occur primarily during cell division in growing cultures, the cumulative number of cell divisions (CCD) would be an alternative way to set the timescale for ALE. Here we show that in short-term ALE (up to 40–50 days), Escherichia coli , under growth rate selection pressure, was found to undergo approximately 10 11.2 total cumulative cell divisions in the population to produce a new stable growth phenotype that results from 2 to 8 mutations. Continuous exposure to a low level of the mutagen N -methyl- N ′-nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine was found to accelerate this timescale and led to a superior growth rate phenotype with a much larger number of mutations as determined with whole-genome sequencing. These results would be useful for the fundamental kinetics of the ALE process in designing ALE experiments and provide a basis for its quantitative description.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Genetics And Genomics ; Microbiology ; Biotechnology ; Cell Biology ; Evolutionary Biology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15 December 2015, Vol.112(50), pp.15444-9
    Description: Formative research suggests that a human embryonic stem cell-specific alternative splicing gene regulatory network, which is repressed by Muscleblind-like (MBNL) RNA binding proteins, is involved in cell reprogramming. In this study, RNA sequencing, splice isoform-specific quantitative RT-PCR, lentiviral transduction, and in vivo humanized mouse model studies demonstrated that malignant reprogramming of progenitors into self-renewing blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells (BC LSCs) was partially driven by decreased MBNL3. Lentiviral knockdown of MBNL3 resulted in reversion to an embryonic alternative splice isoform program typified by overexpression of CD44 transcript variant 3, containing variant exons 8-10, and BC LSC proliferation. Although isoform-specific lentiviral CD44v3 overexpression enhanced chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitor replating capacity, lentiviral shRNA knockdown abrogated these effects. Combined treatment with a humanized pan-CD44 monoclonal antibody and a breakpoint cluster region - ABL proto-oncogene 1, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1) antagonist inhibited LSC maintenance in a niche-dependent manner. In summary, MBNL3 down-regulation-related reversion to an embryonic alternative splicing program, typified by CD44v3 overexpression, represents a previously unidentified mechanism governing malignant progenitor reprogramming in malignant microenvironments and provides a pivotal opportunity for selective BC LSC detection and therapeutic elimination.
    Keywords: Cd44v3 ; Mbnl3 ; RNA Splicing ; Adhesion Molecules ; Self-Renewal ; Alternative Splicing -- Genetics ; Cell Self Renewal -- Genetics ; Human Embryonic Stem Cells -- Metabolism ; Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-Abl Positive -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 15 January 2013, Vol.110(3), pp.1041-1046
    Description: The molecular etiology of human progenitor reprogramming into self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSC) has remained elusive. Although DNA sequencing has uncovered spliceosome gene mutations that promote alternative splicing and portend leukemic transformation, isoform diversity also may be generated by RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes that regulate stem cell maintenance. In this study, wholetranscriptome sequencing of normal, chronic phase, and serially transplantable blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitors revealed increased IFN-γ pathway gene expression in concert with BCR-ABL amplification, enhanced expression of the IFN-responsive ADAR1 p150 isoform, and a propensity for increased adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing during CML progression. Lentiviral overexpression experiments demonstrate that ADAR1 p150 promotes expression of the myeloid transcription factor PU. 1 and induces malignant reprogramming of myeloid progenitors. Moreover, enforced ADAR1 p150 expression was associated with production of a misspliced form of GSK3β implicated in LSC self-renewal. Finally, functional serial transplantation and shRNA studies demonstrate that ADAR1 knockdown impaired in vivo self-renewal capacity of blast crisis CML progenitors. Together these data provide a compelling rationale for developing ADAR1-based LSC detection and eradication strategies.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics ; Health sciences -- Medical conditions -- Diseases ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Cytology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Research, 10/01/2014, Vol.74(19 Supplement), pp.375-375
    ISSN: 0008-5472
    E-ISSN: 1538-7445
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 December 2008, Vol.105(49), pp.19462-7
    Description: Broad-acting transcription factors (TFs) in bacteria form regulons. Here, we present a 4-step method to fully reconstruct the leucine-responsive protein (Lrp) regulon in Escherichia coli K-12 MG 1655 that regulates nitrogen metabolism. Step 1 is composed of obtaining high-resolution ChIP-chip data for Lrp, the RNA polymerase and expression profiles under multiple environmental conditions. We identified 138 unique and reproducible Lrp-binding regions and classified their binding state under different conditions. In the second step, the analysis of these data revealed 6 distinct regulatory modes for individual ORFs. In the third step, we used the functional assignment of the regulated ORFs to reconstruct 4 types of regulatory network motifs around the metabolites that are affected by the corresponding gene products. In the fourth step, we determined how leucine, as a signaling molecule, shifts the regulatory motifs for particular metabolites. The physiological structure that emerges shows the regulatory motifs for different amino acid fall into the traditional classification of amino acid families, thus elucidating the structure and physiological functions of the Lrp-regulon. The same procedure can be applied to other broad-acting TFs, opening the way to full bottom-up reconstruction of the transcriptional regulatory network in bacterial cells.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Genome, Bacterial ; Escherichia Coli -- Genetics ; Escherichia Coli Proteins -- Genetics ; Leucine-Responsive Regulatory Protein -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 27 December 2005, Vol.102(52), pp.19103-8
    Description: A principal aim of systems biology is to develop in silico models of whole cells or cellular processes that explain and predict observable cellular phenotypes. Here, we use a model of a genome-scale reconstruction of the integrated metabolic and transcriptional regulatory networks for Escherichia coli, composed of 1,010 gene products, to assess the properties of all functional states computed in 15,580 different growth environments. The set of all functional states of the integrated network exhibits a discernable structure that can be visualized in 3-dimensional space, showing that the transcriptional regulatory network governing metabolism in E. coli responds primarily to the available electron acceptor and the presence of glucose as the carbon source. This result is consistent with recently published experimental data. The observation that a complex network composed of 1,010 genes is organized to achieve few dominant modes demonstrates the utility of the systems approach for consolidating large amounts of genome-scale molecular information about a genome and its regulation to elucidate an organism's preferred environments and functional capabilities.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Transcription, Genetic ; Escherichia Coli -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 9
  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2010, Vol.5(6), p.e10922
    Description: State-of-the-art DNA sequencing technologies are transforming the life sciences due to their ability to generate nucleotide sequence information with a speed and quantity that is unapproachable with traditional Sanger sequencing. Genome sequencing is a principal application of this technology, where the ultimate goal is the full and complete sequence of the organism of interest. Due to the nature of the raw data produced by these technologies, a full genomic sequence attained without the aid of Sanger sequencing has yet to be demonstrated. ; We have successfully developed a four-phase strategy for using only next-generation sequencing technologies (Illumina and 454) to assemble a complete microbial genome . We applied this approach to completely assemble the 3.7 Mb genome of a rare variant (KN400) that is capable of unprecedented current production at an electrode. Two key components of our strategy enabled us to achieve this result. First, we integrated the two data types early in the process to maximally leverage their complementary characteristics. And second, we used the output of different short read assembly programs in such a way so as to leverage the complementary nature of their different underlying algorithms or of their different implementations of the same underlying algorithm. ; The significance of our result is that it demonstrates a general approach for maximizing the efficiency and success of genome assembly projects as new sequencing technologies and new assembly algorithms are introduced. The general approach is a meta strategy, wherein sequencing data are integrated as early as possible and in particular ways and wherein multiple assembly algorithms are judiciously applied such that the deficiencies in one are complemented by another.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Genetics And Genomics -- Bioinformatics ; Genetics And Genomics -- Genome Projects ; Genetics And Genomics -- Genomics
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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