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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Review of Optometry, Dec 15, 2010, Vol.147(12), p.47(5)
    Keywords: Ocular Toxoplasmosis -- Diagnosis ; Ocular Toxoplasmosis -- Care And Treatment
    ISSN: 1930-160X
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  • 2
    In: Chemical Communications, 2013, Vol.49(52), pp.5889-5891
    Description: A mild, iron-based catalyst system is presented that selectively oxidizes secondary alcohols to the corresponding hydroxy ketones in the presence of primary alcohols within 15 minutes at room temperature, utilizing H 2 O 2 as the oxidant.
    Keywords: Alcohols -- Chemistry ; Ferrous Compounds -- Chemistry ; Hydrogen Peroxide -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 1359-7345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 02 March 2018, Vol.359(6379), pp.1050-1055
    Description: To achieve guide RNA (gRNA) multiplexing and an efficient delivery of tens of distinct gRNAs into single cells, we developed a molecular assembly strategy termed chimeric array of gRNA oligonucleotides (CARGO). We coupled CARGO with dCas9 (catalytically dead Cas9) imaging to quantitatively measure the movement of enhancers and promoters that undergo differentiation-associated activity changes in live embryonic stem cells. Whereas all examined functional elements exhibited subdiffusive behavior, their relative mobility increased concurrently with transcriptional activation. Furthermore, acute perturbation of RNA polymerase II activity can reverse these activity-linked increases in loci mobility. Through quantitative CARGO-dCas9 imaging, we provide direct measurements of cis-regulatory element dynamics in living cells and distinct cellular and activity states and uncover an intrinsic connection between cis-regulatory element mobility and transcription.
    Keywords: Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid ; Transcription, Genetic ; RNA, Guide -- Genetics ; Single Molecule Imaging -- Methods ; Single-Cell Analysis -- Methods
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    In: International Organization, 2010, Vol.64(2), pp.339-356
    Description: Abstract Previous studies that have explored the effects of economic liberalization on civil war have employed aggregate measures of openness and have failed to account for potential endogeneity bias. In this research note, we suggest two improvements to the study of the relationship between liberalization and civil war. First, emphasizing that it is processes that systematically create new economic winners and losers rather than particular levels of economic openness that have the potential to generate conflict, we consider the effects of one oft-used means of liberalizing economies: the adoption by countries of International Monetary Fund (IMF) structural adjustment programs. Second, we use a bivariate probit model to address issues of endogeneity bias. Analyzing all data available for the period between 1970 and 1999, we identify an association between the adoption of IMF programs and the onset of civil war. This finding suggests that IMF programs to promote economic openness unintentionally may be creating an environment conducive to domestic conflict.
    Keywords: Economic Liberalism ; IMF ; International Political Economy ; Civil War ; Economic Structure ; International Relations ; Political Science;
    ISSN: 0020-8183
    E-ISSN: 1531-5088
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2018, Vol.113(Supplement), p.S780
    ISSN: 0002-9270
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Review of Scientific Instruments, June 2014, Vol.85(6)
    Description: The 3ω technique has become a popular method for determining the thermophysical properties of microscale and bulk materials. The prerequisite fabrication of a highly linear metal line a few hundred nanometers thick on the sample can be a failing point in specific material systems. This difficulty can be overcome by utilizing a bidirectional experimental geometry that employs a contact resistance between the sample and heating wire, which also allows for data collection under varying axial pressure loads. In this work, such a system is demonstrated with an emphasis on developing a thermal mount that will optimize sensitivity to the thermophysical parameters of interest: the sample's thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity, and the contact resistance between the sample and mount. A general thermal model is presented that can be simplified to analyze nearly any similar system. This model is then employed to analyze a sample in the mounting scheme described with varying applied pressures to demonstrate the general feasibility of the system.
    Keywords: Articles
    ISSN: 0034-6748
    E-ISSN: 1089-7623
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 01 February 2011, Vol.108(5), pp.1755-62
    Description: Imprinted genes are expressed primarily or exclusively from either the maternal or paternal allele, a phenomenon that occurs in flowering plants and mammals. Flowering plant imprinted gene expression has been described primarily in endosperm, a terminal nutritive tissue consumed by the embryo during seed development or after germination. Imprinted expression in Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm is orchestrated by differences in cytosine DNA methylation between the paternal and maternal genomes as well as by Polycomb group proteins. Currently, only 11 imprinted A. thaliana genes are known. Here, we use extensive sequencing of cDNA libraries to identify 9 paternally expressed and 34 maternally expressed imprinted genes in A. thaliana endosperm that are regulated by the DNA-demethylating glycosylase DEMETER, the DNA methyltransferase MET1, and/or the core Polycomb group protein FIE. These genes encode transcription factors, proteins involved in hormone signaling, components of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway, regulators of histone and DNA methylation, and small RNA pathway proteins. We also identify maternally expressed genes that may be regulated by unknown mechanisms or deposited from maternal tissues. We did not detect any imprinted genes in the embryo. Our results show that imprinted gene expression is an extensive mechanistically complex phenomenon that likely affects multiple aspects of seed development.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genomic Imprinting ; Arabidopsis -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Applied Physics Letters, 13 October 2014, Vol.105(15)
    Description: The thermal conductivity of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays (VACNTAs) grown on silicon dioxide substrates via chemical vapor deposition is measured using a 3 ω technique. For each sample, the VACNTA layer and substrate are pressed to a heating line at varying pressures to extract the sample's thermophysical properties. The nanotubes' structure is observed via transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of hydrogen and water vapor in the fabrication process is tuned to observe the effect on measured thermal properties. The presence of iron catalyst particles within the individual nanotubes prevents the array from achieving the overall thermal conductivity anticipated based on reported measurements of individual nanotubes and the packing density.
    Keywords: Structural, Mechanical, Optical, And Thermodynamic Properties Of Advanced Materials
    ISSN: 0003-6951
    E-ISSN: 1077-3118
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2018, Vol.113(Supplement), pp.S898-S899
    ISSN: 0002-9270
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: ACM Transactions on Computational Logic (TOCL), 01 February 2014, Vol.15(1), pp.1-11
    Description: In a recently launched research program for developing logic as a formal theory of (interactive) computability, several very interesting logics have been introduced and axiomatized. These fragments of the larger Computability Logic aim not only to describe what can be computed, but also provide a mechanism for extracting computational algorithms from proofs. Among the most expressive and fundamental of these is CL4, known to be (constructively) sound and complete with respect to the underlying computational semantics. Furthermore, the ∀, ∃-free fragment of CL4 was shown to be decidable in polynomial space. The present work extends this result and proves that this fragment is, in fact, PSPACE-complete.
    Keywords: Computability Logic ; Computational Complexity ; Game Semantics ; Interactive Computation ; Computer Science
    ISSN: 15293785
    E-ISSN: 1557-945X
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