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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 16 September 2011, Vol.333(6049), pp.1616-8
    Description: Hydroxyl radicals (OH) are a key species in atmospheric photochemistry. In the lower atmosphere, up to ~30% of the primary OH radical production is attributed to the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO), and field observations suggest a large missing source of HONO. We show that soil nitrite can release HONO and explain the reported strength and diurnal variation of the missing source. Fertilized soils with low pH appear to be particularly strong sources of HONO and OH. Thus, agricultural activities and land-use changes may strongly influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence of nitrite-producing microbes, the release of HONO from soil may also be important in natural environments, including forests and boreal regions.
    Keywords: Soil Microbiology ; Atmosphere -- Chemistry ; Hydroxyl Radical -- Analysis ; Nitrites -- Chemistry ; Nitrous Acid -- Analysis ; Soil -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, April 2017, Vol.197(4), pp.e429-e429
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2017.02.1025 Byline: Mark Behrendt Author Affiliation: Amsterdam, Netherlands Article Note: (footnote) Source of Funding: none
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 01 August 2013, Vol.131(3), pp.308-315
    Description: There is little prospective-epidemiological information on symptoms of DSM-IV-alcohol use disorder (alcohol abuse and dependence; AUD) that may be typical for early AUD stages or the developmental periods of adolescence and early adulthood. To investigate AUD symptoms (AUDS) cross-sectionally at three subsequent assessment waves regarding prevalence rates, symptom counts, associated drinking patterns, positive predictive values (PPV) for DSM-IV-alcohol dependence (AD), and AUDS stability over time. = 2039 community subjects (baseline age 14–24 years) participated in a baseline and two follow-up assessment(s) over up to ten years. DSM-IV-AUDS, DSM-IV-AUD and were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Over the assessment waves, and were most and and least frequent. Most subjects with DSM-IV-AUDS reported only one symptom (47.2–55.1%). PPV for DSM-IV-AD only exceeded 70% for , , , and ; PPV were lowest for and use. For most AUDS, AUDS report compared to non-report was associated with elevated drinking frequency and amounts. Stability of baseline AUDS at four-year and ten-year follow-up did not exceed 36.4% for any symptom. The overall pattern of most/least frequent AUDS reported in adolescence and early adulthood resembles findings in older adults and does not suggest a developmentally specific symptom pattern. Moderate AUDS-stability and considerable remission rates indicate that AUDS in this age group are transient for a considerable proportion of subjects. However, the associations with elevated consumption indicate that AUDS reports early in life need to be taken seriously in prevention and intervention.
    Keywords: DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder ; Alcohol Abuse ; Alcohol Dependence ; Symptoms ; Adolescence ; Longitudinal ; Epidemiology ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0376-8716
    E-ISSN: 1879-0046
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Chemical Physics Letters, Nov 19, 2013, Vol.588, p.91(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cplett.2013.09.071 Byline: Philipp J. Behrendt, Hee-Cheol Kim, Norbert Hampp Abstract: Article History: Received 16 August 2013; Accepted 30 September 2013
    Keywords: Fluorouracil ; Stereoisomers
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Medical Ethics, 23 February 2011, Vol.37(2), p.74
    Description: Ethically, informed consent regarding randomised controlled trials (RCTs) should be understandable to patients. The patients can then give free consent or decline to participate in a RCT. Little is known about what patients really understand in consultations about RCTs.
    Keywords: Informed Consent ; Patient Physician Communication ; Randomised Controlled Trials
    ISSN: 0306-6800
    ISSN: 03066800
    E-ISSN: 1473-4257
    E-ISSN: 14734257
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 2010, Vol.34(8), pp.1121-1136
    Description: Recent advances in understanding hippocampal information processing offer new vistas on the mind-body and binding problems. Information encoded by the autoassociation network of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) situates landmarks and objects within an allocentric framework of space and time. Guiding locomotion across the spatial environment, and generally organizing behaviour that transcends space and time, the hippocampus creates phenomenal space and time themselves, thus laying the foundations for conscious awareness. It is argued that conscious experience describes/symbolizes the informational content of self-organizing activity patterns in CA3. Imagery, conscious perception or hallucinations do not in themselves affect the physical trajectory of behaviour but are evidence for patterns of neuronal activity that, acting via the medial prefrontal cortex, modulate action dispositions and influence prefrontal top-down attentional control of sensory processing and thus subsequent event memory formation. Evidence for GABAergic deficit and pyramidal cell hyperexcitability in CA3 in patients with schizophrenia is consistent with the notion that binding, by the CA3 network, of cortical modules representing weakly related sensory representations underlies hallucinations in this disorder.
    Keywords: Consciousness ; Episodic Memory ; Hallucinations ; Hippocampus ; Imagery ; Mind-Body Problem ; Schizophrenia ; Θ Oscillations ; Voluntary Behaviour ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0149-7634
    E-ISSN: 1873-7528
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Conflict Resolution, December 2012, Vol.56(6), pp.1116-1138
    Description: Two studies examined the effects of guilt and shame on coping with situations of interpersonal conflict. The first study used quantitative self-report measures to evaluate the relationship between guilt-proneness and shame-proneness and conflict coping style. The second study content-analyzed participants’ narrative reports of interpersonal conflicts to evaluate the distinguishing characteristics of guilt versus shame, and the causal relationship between state guilt and shame and styles of coping with conflict. Findings highlight the characteristics of guilt and shame that may explain their differential influence on coping. Theoretical contributions and applications for conflict resolution and mediation are discussed.
    Keywords: Guilt ; Shame ; Conflict Resolution ; Conflict Coping Styles ; Emotions ; Social Sciences (General) ; International Relations ; Law
    ISSN: 0022-0027
    E-ISSN: 1552-8766
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of International Affairs, 1 October 2011, Vol.65(1), pp.65-78
    Description: The rising prominence of sovereign wealth funds—investment funds that are owned or controlled by national governments—has stirred debate about their potential use as tools to pursue global political interests rather than economic or financial ends. Recent sanctions levied on the Libyan Investment Authority, formerly operated by the government of Muammar al-Qaddafi, underscore this question. This article argues that the governance, accountability and transparency arrangements of sovereign wealth funds reflect the quality of political institutions within the countries that own them. In contrast to funds based in democratic states, those managed by authoritarian governments are distinguished by a lack of public oversight and are instead tightly controlled by the prevailing political leadership. The link between political leadership and fund management in many authoritarian countries allows governments more flexibility in using financial assets to pursue immediate political agendas.
    Keywords: Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics ; Political science -- Government -- Governance ; Political science -- Government -- Political ideologies ; Political science -- Political philosophy -- Public finance ; Economics -- Economic policy -- Financial economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics ; Economics -- Economic disciplines -- Financial economics
    ISSN: 0022197X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 03 November 2016, Vol.71, pp.203-209
    Description: If hallucinations are not fundamentally different from normal wakeful experiences, then the neural basis of hallucinations has to be essentially that of consciousness in general. The additional insight that consciousness reflects the formation (as opposed to consolidation) of event (episodic) memories links the pathophysiology of hallucinations to the hippocampus. Perceptions and misperceptions, insofar as they are consciously experienced, constitute contextualized and unitary phenomena (which are embedded as discrete events in the stream of consciousness); they are experiential manifestations of activity patters that recurrently emerge in the CA3 network of the hippocampus (and that are secondarily consolidated into retrievable and declarable memories). The hippocampus, forming allocentric representations of objects in their world context (event memories), is a point of convergence of neocortical sensory processing streams. Moreover, being extensively modulated by the organism's physiological state, the hippocampus embeds such representations in an emotional context and, through its output to the medial prefrontal cortex, guides decision-making and goal-selection processes. Although sensory and associative processing in the neocortex makes an important contribution to the formation of behaviourally adaptive representations in the hippocampus, it is becoming clearer that pattern formation in the hippocampus is in itself the neural correlate of consciousness and that disruptions in relational memory processing in the hippocampus can give rise to hallucinations. Neurobiological and neuroimaging findings in schizophrenia research can be integrated within the proposed conceptual framework.
    Keywords: Consciousness ; Episodic Memory ; Hippocampus ; Schizophrenia ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0278-5846
    E-ISSN: 1878-4216
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, April 3, 2017, Vol.75, p.219
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.01.002 Byline: Ralf-Peter Behrendt
    Keywords: Memory ; Schizophrenia
    ISSN: 0278-5846
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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