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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 31 May 2016, Vol.113(22), pp.E3054-6
    Description: Author contributions: F.B., J.S., and F.F. designed research; F.B., C.L.W., and F.F. performed research; F.B., C.L.W., and F.F. analyzed data; and F.B., C.L.W., J.S., and F.F. wrote the paper.
    Keywords: Gene Transfer, Horizontal ; Genome
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Universitätsbibliothek Tübingen
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 09 June 2015, Vol.112(23), pp.7309-14
    Description: The Darwin plant Dionaea muscipula is able to grow on mineral-poor soil, because it gains essential nutrients from captured animal prey. Given that no nutrients remain in the trap when it opens after the consumption of an animal meal, we here asked the question of how Dionaea sequesters prey-derived potassium. We show that prey capture triggers expression of a K(+) uptake system in the Venus flytrap. In search of K(+) transporters endowed with adequate properties for this role, we screened a Dionaea expressed sequence tag (EST) database and identified DmKT1 and DmHAK5 as candidates. On insect and touch hormone stimulation, the number of transcripts of these transporters increased in flytraps. After cRNA injection of K(+)-transporter genes into Xenopus oocytes, however, both putative K(+) transporters remained silent. Assuming that calcium sensor kinases are regulating Arabidopsis K(+) transporter 1 (AKT1), we coexpressed the putative K(+) transporters with a large set of kinases and identified the CBL9-CIPK23 pair as the major activating complex for both transporters in Dionaea K(+) uptake. DmKT1 was found to be a K(+)-selective channel of voltage-dependent high capacity and low affinity, whereas DmHAK5 was identified as the first, to our knowledge, proton-driven, high-affinity potassium transporter with weak selectivity. When the Venus flytrap is processing its prey, the gland cell membrane potential is maintained around -120 mV, and the apoplast is acidified to pH 3. These conditions in the green stomach formed by the closed flytrap allow DmKT1 and DmHAK5 to acquire prey-derived K(+), reducing its concentration from millimolar levels down to trace levels.
    Keywords: Akt ; Cipk ; Dionaea Muscipula ; Hak5 ; Transporter ; Calcium -- Metabolism ; Droseraceae -- Metabolism ; Potassium -- Metabolism ; Protein Kinases -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: FEBS Letters, 19 November 2009, Vol.583(22), pp.3589-3592
    Description: Protein kinases play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular processes. Most eukaryotes reserve about 2.5% of their genes for protein kinases. We analysed the genome of the single-celled ciliate and identified 2606 kinases, about 6.6% of its genes, representing the largest kinome to date. A gene tree combined with human kinases revealed a massive expansion of the calcium calmodulin regulated subfamily, underlining the importance of calcium in the physiology of . The kinases are embedded in only 40 domain architectures, contrasting 134 in human. This might indicate different mechanisms to achieve target specificity.
    Keywords: Kinase ; Genome ; Sequence Analysis ; Domain ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    E-ISSN: 1873-3468
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  • 5
    In: Plant Journal, April 2014, Vol.78(2), pp.305-318
    Description: Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (,, and ) were identified in . These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell‐wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full‐length coding sequences of three orthologs (, and ) were isolated from a xylem‐specific library from the closely related . PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)‐α‐xylosyltransferases in . PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in , which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek () that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell‐culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and assays showed that, when incubated with UDP‐xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP‐galactose and the same cello‐oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α‐linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI‐TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP‐xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity.
    Keywords: Pinus Radiata Radiata Pine ; Pinus Taeda Loblolly Pine ; Glycosyltransferases ; Xyloglucans ; Galactoglucomannans ; Plant Cell Walls
    ISSN: 0960-7412
    E-ISSN: 1365-313X
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  • 6
    In: New Phytologist, February 2015, Vol.205(3), pp.1320-1329
    Description: Carnivorous Dionaea muscipula operates active snap traps for nutrient acquisition from prey; so what is the role of D. muscipula's reduced root system? We studied the capacity for nitrogen (N) acquisition via traps, and its effect on plant allometry; the capacity of roots to absorb NO3−, NH4+ and glutamine from the soil solution; and the fate and interaction of foliar‐ and root‐acquired N. Feeding D. muscipula snap traps with insects had little effect on the root : shoot ratio, but promoted petiole relative to trap growth. Large amounts of NH4+ and glutamine were absorbed upon root feeding. The high capacity for root N uptake was maintained upon feeding traps with glutamine. High root acquisition of NH4+ was mediated by 2.5‐fold higher expression of the NH4+ transporter DmAMT1 in the roots compared with the traps. Electrophysiological studies confirmed a high constitutive capacity for NH4+ uptake by roots. Glutamine feeding of traps inhibited the influx of 15N from root‐absorbed 15N/13C‐glutamine into these traps, but not that of 13C. Apparently, fed traps turned into carbon sinks that even acquired organic carbon from roots. N acquisition at the whole‐plant level is fundamentally different in D. muscipula compared with noncarnivorous species, where foliar N influx down‐regulates N uptake by roots.
    Keywords: Ammonium ; Glutamine ; Nitrogen N Nutrition ; Plant Carnivory ; Root : shoot Integration
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 2016, Vol. 166(2), pp. 481-491
    Description: Arabidopsis thaliana serves as a model organism for the study of fundamental physiological, cellular, and molecular processes. It has also greatly advanced our understanding of intraspecific genome variation. We present a detailed map of variation in 1,135 high-quality re-sequenced natural inbred lines representing the native Eurasian and North African range and recently colonized North America. We identify relict populations that continue to inhabit ancestral habitats, primarily in the Iberian Peninsula. They have mixed with a lineage that has spread to northern latitudes from an unknown glacial refugium and is now found in a much broader spectrum of habitats. Insights into the history of the species and the fine-scale distribution of genetic diversity provide the basis for full exploitation of A. thaliana natural variation through integration of genomes and epigenomes with molecular and non-molecular phenotypes.
    Keywords: Arabidopsis Thaliana ; 1001 Genomes ; Glacial Refugia ; Gwas ; Population Expansion
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 10974172
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cell, 14 July 2016, Vol.166(2), pp.492-505
    Description: The epigenome orchestrates genome accessibility, functionality, and three-dimensional structure. Because epigenetic variation can impact transcription and thus phenotypes, it may contribute to adaptation. Here, we report 1,107 high-quality single-base resolution methylomes and 1,203 transcriptomes from the 1001 Genomes collection of . Although the genetic basis of methylation variation is highly complex, geographic origin is a major predictor of genome-wide DNA methylation levels and of altered gene expression caused by epialleles. Comparison to cistrome and epicistrome datasets identifies associations between transcription factor binding sites, methylation, nucleotide variation, and co-expression modules. Physical maps for nine of the most diverse genomes reveal how transposons and other structural variants shape the epigenome, with dramatic effects on immunity genes. The 1001 Epigenomes Project provides a comprehensive resource for understanding how variation in DNA methylation contributes to molecular and non-molecular phenotypes in natural populations of the most studied model plant. Methylomes and transcriptomes from 〉1,000 accessions provide insights on how the epigenome is shaped by natural genomic variation and by the environment.
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0092-8674
    E-ISSN: 1097-4172
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Description: All living organisms leverage mechanisms and response systems to optimize reproduction, defense, survival, and competitiveness within their natural habitat. Evolutionary theories such as the universal adaptive strategy theory (UAST) developed by John Philip Grime (1979) attempt to describe how these systems are limited by the trade-off between growth, maintenance and regeneration; known as the universal three-way trade-off. Grime introduced three adaptive strategies that enable organisms to coop with either high or low intensities of stress (e.g., nutrient deficiency) and environmental disturbance (e.g., seasons). The competitor is able to outcompete other organisms by efficiently tapping available resources in environments of low intensity stress and disturbance (e.g., rapid growers). A ruderal specism is able to rapidly complete the life cycle especially during high intensity disturbance and low intensity stress (e.g., annual colonizers). The stress tolerator is able to respond to high intensity stress with physiological variability but is limited to low intensity disturbance environments. Carnivorous plants like D. muscipula and tardigrades like M. tardigradum are two extreme examples for such stress tolerators. D. muscipula traps insects in its native habitat (green swamps in North and South Carolina) with specialized leaves and thereby is able to tolerate nutrient deficient soils. M. tardigradum on the other side, is able to escape desiccation of its terrestrial habitat like mosses and lichens which are usually covered by a water film but regularly fall completely dry. The stress tolerance of the two species is the central study object of this thesis. In both cases, high througput sequencing data and methods were used to test for transcriptomic (D. muscipula) or genomic adaptations (M. tardigradum) which underly the stress tolerance. A new hardware resource including computing cluster and high availability storage system was implemented in the first months of the thesis work to effectively analyze the vast amounts of data generated for both projects. Side-by-side, the data management resource TBro [14] was established together with students to intuitively approach complex biological questions and enhance collaboration between researchers of several different disciplines. Thereafter, the unique trapping abilities of D. muscipula were studied using a whole transcriptome approach. Prey-dependent changes of the transcriptional landscape as well as individual tissue-specific aspects of the whole plant were studied. The analysis revealed that non-stimulated traps of D. muscipula exhibit the expected hallmarks of any typical leaf but operates evolutionary conserved stress-related pathways including defense-associated responses when digesting prey. An integrative approach, combining proteome and transcriptome data further enabled the detailed description of the digestive cocktail and the potential nutrient uptake machinery of the plant. The published work [25] as well as a accompanying video material (https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/ 2016-05/cshl-fgr042816.php; Video credit: Sönke Scherzer) gained global press coverage and successfully underlined the advantages of D. muscipula as experimental system to understand the carnivorous syndrome. The analysis of the peculiar stress tolerance of M. tardigradum during cryptobiosis was carried out using a genomic approach. First, the genome size of M. tardigradum was estimated, the genome sequenced, assembled and annotated. The first draft of M. tardigradum and the workflow used to established its genome draft helped scrutinizing the first ever released tardigrade genome (Hypsibius dujardini) and demonstrated how (bacterial) contamination can influence whole genome analysis efforts [27]. Finally, the M. tardigradum genome was compared to two other tardigrades and all species present in the current release of the Ensembl Metazoa database. The analysis revealed that tardigrade genomes are not that different from those of other Ecdysozoa. The availability of the three genomes allowed the delineation of their phylogenetic position within the Ecdysozoa and placed them as sister taxa to the nematodes. Thereby, the comparative analysis helped to identify evolutionary trends within this metazoan lineage. Surprisingly, the analysis did not reveal general mechanisms (shared by all available tardigrade genomes) behind the arguably most peculiar feature of tardigrades; their enormous stress tolerance. The lack of molecular evidence for individual tardigrade species (e.g., gene expression data for M. tardigradum) and the non-existence of a universal experimental framework which enables hypothesis testing withing the whole phylum Tardigrada, made it nearly impossible to link footprints of genomic adaptations to the unusual physiological capabilities. Nevertheless, the (comparative) genomic framework established during this project will help to understand how evolution tinkered, rewired and modified existing molecular systems to shape the remarkable phenotypic features of tardigrades. Alle lebenden Organismen verwenden Mechanismen und Rückkopplungssysteme um Reproduktion, Überlebenswahrscheinlichkeit, Abwehreffizienz und Konkurrenzfähigkeit in ihrem natürlichen Habitat zu optimieren. Evolutionäre Theorien, wie die von John Philip Grime (1979) entwickelte „universal adaptive strategy theory“ (UAST), versuchen zu beschreiben wie diese Systeme durch eine Balance zwischen Wachstum, Erhaltung und Regeneration, auch gemeinhin bekannt als universeller Dreiwege-Ausgleich, des jeweiligen Organismus limitiert sind. Grime führte dazu drei adaptive Strategien ein, die es Organismen ermöglicht sich an hohe oder niedrige Stress-Intensitäten (z.B. Nahrungsknappheit) oder umweltbedingte Beeinträchtigung (z.B. Jahreszeiten) anzupassen. Der Wettkämpfer ist in der Lage seine Konkurrenz durch eine effiziente Ressourcengewinnung zu überflügeln und ist vor allem bei niedrigem Stresslevel und minimalen umweltbedingten Beeinträchtigungen effizient (z. B. schnelles Wachstum). Ruderale Organismen hingegen durchlaufen den Leben- szyklus in kurzer Zeit und sind damit perfekt an starke umweltbedingte Beeinträchtigungen, wie zum Beispiel Jahreszeiten, angepasst. Allerdings können auch sie nur bei niedrigen Stresslevel effizient wachsen. Die letzte Gruppe von Organismen, die Stresstoleranten sind in der Lage sich an hohen Stressintensitäten mithilfe extremer physiologischer Variabilität anzupassen, können das allerdings nur in Umgebungen mit niedrigen umweltbedingten Beeinträchtigungen. Fleischfressende Pflanzen wie die Venusfliegenfalle (D. muscipula) oder Bärtierchen (M. tardigradum) sind zwei herausragende Beispiele für stresstolerante Organismen. Die Venusfliegenfalle ist in der Lage Insekten mit spezialisierten Blätter, welche eine einzigartige Falle bilden, zu fangen. Die Pflanze kompensiert so die stark verminderte Mengen an wichtigen Makronährstoffen (z.B. Stickstoff) in den Sümpfen von Nord- und Süd-Carolina. Bärtierchen dagegen sind in der Lage in schnell austrocknenden Habitaten wie Moosen oder Flechten, die normalerweise mit einem Wasserfilm überzogen sind, durch eine gesteuerte Entwässerung ihres Körpers zu überleben. Die Stresstoleranz beider Spezies ist zentraler Forschungsschwerpunkt dieser Dissertation. In beiden Fällen wer- den Hochdurchsatz-Methoden zur Sequenzierung verwendet um genomische (Bärtierchen) sowie transkriptomische (Venusfliegenfalle) Anpassungen zu identifizieren, die der enorem Stresstoleranz zugrunde liegen. Um den erhöhten technischen Anforderungen der Datenanal- ysen beider Projekte Rechnung zu tragen wurde in den ersten Monaten der Dissertation eine neue zentrale Rechenumgebung und ein dazugehöriges Speichersystem etabliert. Parallel wurde die Datenmanagementplattform TBro [14] zusammen mit Studenten aufgesetzt, um komplexe biologische Fragestellung mit einem fachübergreifendem Kollegium zu bearbeiten. Danach wurden die einzigartigen Fangfähigkeiten der Venusfliegenfalle mittels einem tran- skriptomischen Ansatz untersucht. Vor allem wurden transkriptionelle Änderungen infolge eines Beutefangs sowie gewebespezifische Aspekte der ruhenden Pflanzen untersucht. Die Analyse zeigte deutlich, dass die Fallen der fleischfressenden Pflanze immer noch Merkmale von typischen „grünen“ Blättern aufweisen. Während des Beutefangs und -verdauens jedoch wird eine Vielzahl an evolutionär konservierten Systemen aktiviert, die bisher nur mit Stres- santworten und zellulärer Verteidigung in Verbindung gebracht worden sind. Die Integration von proteomischen und transkriptomischen Hochdurchsatzdaten ermöglichte es zudem den Verdauungssaft der Venusfliegenfalle genaustens zu beschreiben und wichtige Komponenten der Aufnahmemaschinerie zu identifizieren. Die wissenschaftliche Arbeit [25] und das beglei- tende Videomaterial (https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-05/cshl-fgr042816.php; Video credit: Sönke Scherzer) erfreute sich einer breiten Berichterstattung in den Medien und unterstreicht die Vorteile der Venusfliegenfalle als experimentelles System um fleis- chfressende Pflanzen besser zu verstehen. Die genomische Analyse des Bärtierchen (M. tardigradum) zielte auf die außerordentliche Stresstoleranz, vor allem auf die Kryptobiose, einen Zustand in dem Stoffwechselvorgänge extrem reduziert sind, ab. Dazu wurden das komplette genetische Erbgut (Genom) entschlüsselt. Die Größe des Genomes wurde bes- timmt und das Erbgut mittels Sequenzierung entschlüsselt. Die gewonnenen Daten wurden zu einer kontinuierlichen Sequenz zusammengesetzt und Gene identifiziert. Der dabei etablierte Arbeitsablauf wurde verwendet um ein weiteres Bärtierchengenom genau zu überprüfen. Im Rahmen dieser Analyse stellte sich heraus, dass eine große Anzahl an Kontaminationen im Genom von H. dujardini vorhanden sind [27]. Das neu etablierte Genom von M. tardigradum wurde im folgenden verwendet um einen speziesübergre...
    Keywords: Bärtierchen ; Genom ; Stressresistenz ; Venusfliegenfalle ; Proteom ; Transkriptom ; Ddc:570
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: BIO-PROTOCOL, 2014, Vol.4(21)
    ISSN: 2331-8325
    Source: CrossRef
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