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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Neuroscience Letters, 2009, Vol.463(3), pp.249-253
    Description: The role of the cholinergic innervated nucleus basalis of Meynert (NB) and reticular thalamic nucleus (RT) in the generation or modulation of spontaneously occurring spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. The cholinergic agonist carbachol and the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine were injected in the NB and RT in the doses of 0.55 and 5.5 nmol while the EEG was recorded. Carbachol injected in the NB decreased the number and the mean duration of SWDs. Scopolamine alone had no influence on SWDs, but could antagonize the effects of carbachol if administered simultaneously in NB. Injections of carbachol in the RT inhibited the occurrence of SWDs, but did not affect the mean duration. Scopolamine administered in the RT had no influence on seizure activity. It is concluded that cholinergic stimulation of the NB or the RT inhibits the cortical synchronous activity characterizing SWDs.
    Keywords: Absence Epilepsy ; Wag/Rij Rat ; Nucleus Basalis ; Reticular Thalamic Nucleus ; Carbachol ; Scopolamine ; Medicine ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 0304-3940
    E-ISSN: 1872-7972
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Ethology, 2015, Vol.33(2), pp.109-115
    Description: Play behavior was observed in thick-toed geckos ( Chondrodactylus turneri GRAY 1864) during a 30-day orbital experiment on the unmanned spacecraft “BION-M” No. 1. The geckos wore ornamented colored collars which made it possible to track the behavior of individual animals on video recordings. The object of the play behavior was a collar that one of the geckos had managed to remove in the pre-launch period and which floated weightless in the animal holding unit under microgravity. Four of the five geckos participated in play episodes, which were defined as one-time interactions with the collar, as well in a fuller form of play that included approaching the unmoving collar or observing its approach, manipulations with the collar and further tracking the collar. Manipulations with the collar could take the form of complicated play, such as pressing the snout against the edge of the collar rim, multiple episodes of pushing the collar with the snout, inserting the head into the collar, holding the collar by pressing the head to the container floor and tilting the head with the collar on the snout. There were individual variations in play pattern. Explanations for the rarity of play behavior in reptiles under normal conditions and the geckos’ playfulness in microgravity are discussed. Appropriate video is available at http://www.momo-p.com/showdetail-e.php?movieid=momo150224ct01a .
    Keywords: Play behavior ; Thick-toed gecko ; Individual marking ; Prolonged orbital experiment ; Weightlessness
    ISSN: 0289-0771
    E-ISSN: 1439-5444
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  • 3
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, December 1998, Vol.865(1), pp.547-550
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2010, Vol.74(2), pp.157-163
    Description: Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 (Pluronic F-68) or polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) enable an efficient brain delivery of the drugs after intravenous injection. This ability was evidenced by two different pharmacological test systems employing as model drugs the anti-tumour antibiotic doxorubicin and the agonist of opioid receptors loperamide, which being P-gp substrates can cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) only in pharmacologically insignificant amounts: binding of doxorubicin to the surfactant-coated PLGA nanoparticles, however, enabled a high anti-tumour effect against an intracranial 101/8 glioblastoma in rats, and the penetration of nanoparticle-bound loperamide into the brain was demonstrated by the induction of central analgesic effects in mice. Both pharmacological tests could demonstrate that therapeutic amounts of the drugs were delivered to the sites of action in the brain and showed the high efficiency of the surfactant-coated PLGA nanoparticles for brain delivery. The results of the study also demonstrated that the efficacy of brain delivery by nanoparticles not only is influenced by the coating surfactants but also by other formulation parameters such as core polymer, drug, and stabilizer.
    Keywords: Blood–Brain Barrier ; Doxorubicin ; Glioblastoma ; Loperamide ; Mice ; Nanoparticles ; Poly(Lactide-Co-Glycolide) ; Poloxamer 188 ; Polysorbate 80 ; Rats ; Tail-Flick Test ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0939-6411
    E-ISSN: 1873-3441
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 01 June 2019, Vol.20(12), p.3019
    Description: Reptiles are a rare model object for space research. However, some reptile species demonstrate effective adaptation to spaceflight conditions. The main scope of this review is a comparative analysis of reptile experimental exposure in weightlessness, demonstrating the advantages and shortcomings of this model. The description of the known reptile experiments using turtles and geckos in the space and parabolic flight experiments is provided. Behavior, skeletal bones (morphology, histology, and X-ray microtomography), internal organs, and the nervous system (morphology, histology, and immunohistochemistry) are studied in the spaceflight experiments to date, while molecular and physiological results are restricted. Therefore, the results are discussed in the scope of molecular data collected from mammalian (mainly rodents) specimens and cell cultures in the parabolic and orbital flights and simulated microgravity. The published data are compared with the results of the gecko model studies after the 12−44.5-day spaceflights with special reference to the unique peculiarities of the gecko model for the orbital experiments. The complex study of thick-toed geckos after three spaceflights, in which all geckos survived and demonstrated effective adaptation to spaceflight conditions, was performed. However, future investigations are needed to study molecular mechanisms of gecko adaptation in space.
    Keywords: Spaceflight Adaptation ; Unmanned Spacecraft ; Foton-M2 ; Foton-M3 ; Bion-M1 ; Foton-M4 ; Thick-Toed Gecko (Chondrodactylus Turneri) ; Ornate Day Gecko (Phelsuma Ornata) ; X-Ray Microtomography ; Biology
    ISSN: 16616596
    E-ISSN: 1422-0067
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