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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Philosophical Studies, 2013, Vol.166(1), pp.163-184
    Description: It’s not implausible to think that whenever I have a justified noninferential belief that p, it is caused by a seeming that p. It’s also tempting to think that something contributes to the justification of my belief only if I hold my belief because of that thing. Thus, given that many of our noninferential beliefs are justified and that we hold them because of seemings, one might be inclined to hold a view like Phenomenal Conservatism, according to which seemings play a crucial role—perhaps the only crucial role—in the justification of our noninferential beliefs. But Phenomenal Conservatism seems to conflict, in a number of ways, with externalist accounts of justification. As a result, the attractiveness of the intuitions appealed to in support of views like Phenomenal Conservatism present something of a challenge to externalism. The purpose of this paper is to deal with that challenge by developing and defending an externalist-friendly account of the role of seemings in the formation and justification of our noninferential beliefs—an account that incorporates what is attractive in views like Phenomenal Conservatism. Because this externalist-friendly account is compatible with both externalist accounts of justification and the plausible elements of views like Phenomenal Conservatism, the challenge to externalism inspired by such views is thereby undermined.
    Keywords: Phenomenal Conservatism ; Externalism ; Internalism ; Justification ; Seemings ; Appearances
    ISSN: 0031-8116
    E-ISSN: 1573-0883
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(3), p.e0120724
    Description: Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with primary colorectal cancer (CRC). Heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is upregulated in activated fibroblasts during wound healing and systemically elevated in various diseases. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are also thought to play a role as prognostic and predictive markers in various malignancies including CRC. Surprisingly, the expression of Hsp27 has never been assessed in CAFs. Therefore we aimed to investigate the expression level of Hsp27 in CAFs and its clinical implications in patients with CRC lung metastases.FFPE tissue samples from 51 pulmonary metastases (PMs) and 33 paired primary tumors were evaluated for alpha-SMA, CD31, Hsp27 and vimentin expression by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological variables. 25 liver metastases served as control group. Moreover, serum samples (n=10) before and after pulmonary metastasectomy were assessed for circulating phospho-Hsp27 and total Hsp27 by ELISA.Stromal expression of Hsp27 was observed in all PM and showed strong correlation with alpha-SMA (P〈0.001) and vimentin (P〈0.001). Strong stromal Hsp27 was associated with higher microvessel density in primary CRC and PM. Moreover, high stromal Hsp27 and αSMA expression were associated with decreased recurrence-free survival after pulmonary metastasectomy (P=0.018 and P=0.008, respectively) and overall survival (P=0.031 and P=0.017, respectively). Serum levels of phospho- and total Hsp27 dropped after metastasectomy to levels comparable to healthy controls.Herein we describe for the first time that Hsp27 is highly expressed in tumor stroma of CRC. Stromal α-SMA and Hsp27 expressions correlate with the clinical outcome after pulmonary metastasectomy. Moreover, serum Hsp27 might pose a future marker for metastatic disease in CRC.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Acta Astronautica, Oct-Nov, 2013, Vol.91, p.131(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.05.019 Byline: Michael Bergmann, Wilfried Gappmair, Barbara Suesser-Rechberger, Otto Koudelka Abstract: Bandwidth is an expensive and scarce resource, thus its efficient exploitation is of paramount importance. Recent communication satellites feature sophisticated spatial access strategies through spot beams providing this way a total throughput in the range of 100Gbit/s. Next generations of communication satellites, as postulated in the Satellite Communications Network of Experts (SatNEx) III, a project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) for advanced research in satellite communications, require technological developments to achieve the Tbit/s region. Multibeam architectures formed by a central gateway, a multibeam satellite, and an aggressive frequency reuse strategy can meet such ambitious design goals. Interference problems are tackled by appropriate countermeasures such as (joint) precoding and beamforming on the forward link as well as multi-user detection on the return link; these methods require accurate and timely knowledge of the channel state, which in turn necessitates suitable algorithms for channel estimation. This paper addresses performance issues related to channel state estimation on the symbol-synchronous forward link and the frame-synchronous return link. It highlights for both directions the potential performance gain by assuming a priori knowledge of the user position, in this context referred to as location-aware channel estimation. Author Affiliation: (a) Institute of Communication Networks and Satellite Communications, Graz University of Technology, Austria (b) Institute of Microwave and Photonic Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Austria Article History: Received 28 November 2012; Revised 23 May 2013; Accepted 29 May 2013 Article Note: (footnote) [star] This paper was presented during the 63rd IAC in Naples.
    Keywords: Satellite Communications -- Statistics ; Algorithms
    ISSN: 0094-5765
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    In: Plasma Processes and Polymers, October 2013, Vol.10(10), pp.904-911
    Description: A new approach to investigate such interaction is applied by combining three characterization techniques:dynamic contact angle measurements, optical waveguide spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. All together this helps to explain the behavior of nanofilms in aqueous solution.
    Keywords: Biocompatibility ; Dynamic Contact Angle Dca ; Modeling ; Nanolayers ; Waveguide Mode Spectroscopy Wams
    ISSN: 1612-8850
    E-ISSN: 1612-8869
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(6), p.e99008
    Description: Remarkably limited information is available about biological mechanisms that determine the disease entity of metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver (CRCLM) with no good clinical parameters to estimate prognosis. For the last few years, understanding the relationship between tumor characteristics and local immune response has gained increasing attention. Given the multifaceted roles of B-cell-driven responses, we aimed to elucidate the immunological imprint of B lymphocytes at the metastatic site, the interrelation with macrophages, and their prognostic relevance. Here we present novel algorithm allowing to assess a link between the local patient-specific immunological capacity and clinical outcome. The microscopy-based imaging platform was used for automated scanning of large-scale tissue sections and subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses of immune cell subtypes using lineage markers and single-cell recognition strategy. Results indicate massive infiltration of CD45-positive leukocytes confined to the metastatic border. We report for the first time the accumulation of CD20-positive B lymphocytes at the tumor-liver interface comprising the major population within the large CD45-positive aggregates. Strikingly, functionally active, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-positive ectopic lymphoid structures were found to be assembled within the metastatic margin. Furthermore, the CD20-based data set revealed a strong prognostic power: patients with high CD20 content and/or ectopic follicles had significantly lower risk for disease recurrence as revealed by univariate analysis (p〈0.001 for both) and in models adjusted for clinicopathological variables (p〈0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively), and showed prolonged overall survival. In contrast, CD68 staining-derived data set did not show an association with clinical outcome. Taken together, we nominate the magnitude of B lymphocytes, including those organized in ectopic follicles, as novel prognostic marker which is superior to clinicopathological parameters. Findings emphasize anti-tumoral role of B cell-driven mechanism(s) and thus indicate a new way of thinking about potential treatment strategies for CRCLM patients.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: PLoS ONE, 2018, Vol.13(11)
    Description: Purpose Little is known about the perioperative dynamic of albumin and its effect on surgical outcome in Crohn’s disease. Thus, we aimed to assess postoperative changes of albumin levels and their potentially predictive role for complications after laparoscopic intestinal resections. Methods We identified 182 patients who underwent laparoscopic intestinal resection for symptomatic Crohn´s disease between 2000 and 2014 for this retrospective cohort study. Pre- and postoperative serum albumin levels (within 4 days) were recorded retrospectively and proportional postoperative reduction (delta (Δ) albumin) was calculated. Complications were defined according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Univariate and multivariate analysis describing an eventful postoperative course were conducted. Results Complications were found in 22.5% (n = 41), 6% (n = 11) developed major complications defined as Clavien Dindo III-V and 16.5% (n = 30) had minor complications (Clavien Dindo I-II). The median Δ albumin was 22.75% (range: -18.46–47.14%). Delta albumin was found to be significantly higher in patients who developed complications after surgery (p = 0.03). Notably, neither preoperative (p = 0.28) nor postoperative albumin levels (p = 0.41) taken as absolute numerical values correlated with an eventful course following intestinal resection. In the multivariate analysis, based on a cut-off of 24.27%, Δ albumin remained an independent factor for surgical complications (p = 0.04, OR 2.232) next to conversion rate (p〈0.001, OR 5.577) and the presence of an inflammatory mass (p = 0.003, OR 0.280). Conclusion Δ albumin is a better prognostic marker for an eventful postoperative course after laparoscopic surgery in patients with Crohn’s disease in comparison to albumin alone.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Biology And Life Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences ; Medicine And Health Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    In: Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, 2017, Vol.81, pp.19-43
    Description: Abstract Religious disagreement is, quite understandably, viewed as a problem for religious belief. In this paper, I consider why religious disagreement is a problem—why it is a potential defeater for religious belief—and I propose a way of dealing with this sort of potential defeater. I begin by focusing elsewhere—on arguments for radical skepticism. In section 1, I consider skeptical arguments proposed as potential defeaters for all of our perceptual and memory beliefs and explain what I think the rational response is to such potential defeaters, emphasizing the way epistemic intuitions are involved in both the skeptical arguments and my recommended response. In section 2, I discuss the way in which peer disagreement—on any topic—is a potential defeater for our beliefs, highlighting the conditions under which recognized disagreement is a successful defeater and those under which it isn't. In the third section, I consider how to use a section-1 type of response to deal with a section-2 type of defeater for religious belief.
    Keywords: Papers
    ISSN: 1358-2461
    E-ISSN: 1755-3555
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  • 8
    In: European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 09/23/2013, Vol.5(3), p.3
    ISSN: 1689-8311
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 9
    In: Plasma Processes and Polymers, November 2013, Vol.10(11), pp.970-977
    Description: , by means of a low‐pressure magnetron enhanced 15 kHz plasma polymerization process. A contact angle of down to 18° and a protein adsorption of only 0.2 µg cm were achieved. This study shows that these coatings improve the wearing comfort and the overall quality of contact lenses.
    Keywords: Biocompatibility ; Coatings ; Contact Lenses ; Protein Adsorption ; Wettability
    ISSN: 1612-8850
    E-ISSN: 1612-8869
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Pharmaceutical Research, 2010, Vol.27(2), pp.340-349
    Description: Byline: Elena Soto (1), Sebastian Haertter (2), Michael Koenen-Bergmann (2), Alexander Staab (2), Inaki F. Troconiz (1) Keywords: in vitro-in vivo correlation; population pharmacokinetics; pramipexole Abstract: Purpose To establish an in vitro-in vivo level A correlation (IVIVC) for pramipexole slow-release formulations. Methods The IVIVC was developed based on data from an immediate-release (IR) and three slow-release (SR) formulations of pramipexole a fourth SR formulation was used for validation purposes. In vitro dissolution profiles were obtained from all SR formulations. Fifteen volunteers received all pramipexole formulations in a randomized cross-over trial. Data were analyzed using the population modelling approach as implemented in NONMEM VI. Results Dissolution profiles of the SR formulations were described by the Weibull model. The pharmacokinetics of the IR formulation were described by a two-compartment disposition model with first-order absorption. Difference between the in vivo and in vitro estimates of the release rate constants (k.sub.d) from the Weibull function suggests the release process occurs faster in vivo. Pharmacokinetic profiles for SR formulations were described based on the in vitro release model with k.sub.d increased in 0.058 h.sup.-1 and the population pharmacokinetic model developed from the IR formulation. Conclusion A level A IVIVC was established and evaluated for the pramipexole SR formulations, which can be used in the future as a surrogate to avoid certain bioequivalence studies. Author Affiliation: (1) Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy, University of Navarra, Pamplona, 31080, Spain (2) Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 03/12/2009 Received Date: 28/10/2009 Accepted Date: 03/12/2009 Online Date: 29/12/2009
    Keywords: - correlation ; population pharmacokinetics ; pramipexole
    ISSN: 0724-8741
    E-ISSN: 1573-904X
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