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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Hydrology, Jan 16, 2014, Vol.508, p.88(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.10.028 Byline: Christian Berndt, Ehsan Rabiei, Uwe Haberlandt Abstract: acents Three merging methods for high resolution radar and gauge rainfall were compared. acents Effect of station density, temporal resolution and radar data smoothing was analyzed. acents Radar data smoothing improved the interpolation performance significantly. acents Conditional merging performed best for all station densities and temp. resolutions. acents Radar rainfall quality has a strong impact on the merging performance. Article History: Received 1 August 2013; Revised 13 October 2013; Accepted 20 October 2013 Article Note: (miscellaneous) This manuscript was handled by Andras Bardossy, Editor-in-Chief, with the assistance of Ashish Sharma, Associate Editor
    Keywords: Rain -- Analysis ; Geostatistics -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0022-1694
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Human Geography, 03/05/2018, p.030913251875999
    Description: There has been a long overdue revival of interest recently amongst economic and development geographers in questions of geographical uneven development. On the one hand, this can be seen as a reaction to the positive emphasis during the 1990s on the inclusion of firms, workers and regions in global value chains and production networks. On the other hand, there has been a growing awareness of the continuing importance of agriculture and the question of agrarian change, not least after the development industry had rediscovered smallholders and peasants as targets of market-driven policy interventions. It is at the conjuncture of these developments that this virtual issue is situated, tracing these debates in Progress in Human Geography from the late 1970s until today. The 13 articles selected for this virtual issue illustrate that the journal provided an intellectual home to key contributions to this debate. This introduction provides an overview of key themes emerging from the articles and highlights their main scholarly contributions.
    Keywords: Agrarian Change ; Disarticulations ; Global Commodity Chains ; Markets ; Uneven Development;
    ISSN: 0309-1325
    E-ISSN: 1477-0288
    Source: Sage Publications (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Feb 15, 2012, Vol.319-320, p.65(10)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2011.11.045 Byline: Christian Berndt, Sergio Costa, Miquel Canals, Angelo Camerlenghi, Ben de Mol, Martin Saunders Keywords: slope stability; fluid migration; submarine landslide; 3D seismic imaging; Eivissa Channel; Western Mediterranean Sea Abstract: Submarine slope failures are a well-known geohazard. They are able to destroy seafloor installations along their path and by generating tsunamis they may threaten coastal infrastructures. While the mechanisms involved in submarine landslide generation remain poorly known, there are observations that slope stability can be reduced in the presence of free gas. Here, we present new high-resolution 3D seismic data from the Eivissa Channel between the Iberian Penninsula and the Balearic Promontory in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The data reveal slope stability reduction in this area at least since mid-Quaternary times, and an intimate relationship between fluid migration and slope stability. We show that two landslides, i.e. pre-Ana Slide and Ana Slide, occurred at almost the same location above an erosional channel in the Messinian unconformity. There is seismic evidence that fluids including gas are migrating upwards through this erosional surface and that they charge sedimentary layers at the base of the Ana Slide possibly reducing its strength and predisposing it to failure. Our data show in unprecedented detail the ways in which the presence of gas influences slope stability. The findings illustrate the importance of including high-resolution 3D seismic data in slope stability and tsunami risk assessments to identify shallow gas distribution as one of the main controls on slope stability in gas prone areas. Article History: Received 11 July 2011; Revised 28 November 2011; Accepted 30 November 2011 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: P. Shearer
    Keywords: Tsunamis ; Seismology ; Seismic Tomography ; Landslides ; Submarines
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Geology, March, 2012, Vol.40(3), p.227(4)
    Description: Methane hydrates, ice-like compounds that consist of water and methane, represent a potentially enormous unconventional methane resource that may play a critical role in climate change and ocean acidification; however, it remains unclear how much hydrate exists. Here, using a newly developed three-dimensional (3-D) thermal technique, we reveal a novel method for detecting and quantifying methane hydrate. The analysis reveals where fluids migrate in three dimensions across a continental margin and is used to quantify hydrate with meter-scale horizontal resolution. Our study, located at Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon (United States), suggests that heat flow and hydrate concentrations are coupled and that 3-D thermal analysis can be used to constrain hydrate and fluid flow in 3-D seismic data. Hydrate estimates using this technique are consistent with 1-D drilling results, but reveal large, previously unrecognized swaths of hydrate-rich sediments that have gone undetected due to spatially limited drilling and sampling techniques used in past studies. The 3-D analysis suggests that previous hydrate estimates based on drilling at this site are low by a factor of approximately three. doi: 10.1130/G32635.1
    Keywords: Hydrates -- Chemical Properties ; Hydrates -- Environmental Aspects ; Flow (Dynamics) -- Research ; Climate Change -- Environmental Aspects ; Water Acidification -- Environmental Aspects ; Geochemistry -- Research
    ISSN: 0091-7613
    E-ISSN: 19432682
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Human Geography, June 2013, Vol.37(3), pp.424-432
    Description: This report is a plea for ‘geographies of marketization’, a perspective that rests on the assumption that a world ‘after markets’ will only emerge on the terrain of ‘markets’ themselves. To sustain this claim we speculate about the role of economics in the breakdown and stabilization of neoliberal marketization. In an attempt to re-establish their discipline at a time of crisis and a loss of faith in information-efficient markets, economists increasingly turn to behavioural economics. Starting with the observation that people do not act as neoclassical theory says they do, behaviouralism allows mainstream economics to keep the core foundational principles intact. With an assemblage of ‘reinforcement learning’ and well-timed ‘nudges’ the choice architects of libertarian paternalism once again try to conform individual behaviour to the assumptions of the neoclassical laboratory. In so doing neoliberalism may have entered a new stage we tentatively call ‘neoliberalism after markets’, an era where radical market orientation has not come to an end but where the belief in the forces of free markets is restabilized by a shift of regulation. Emphasis is moved from the context of regulation/deregulation of markets to regulating human behaviour through ‘technologies of calculation’ that render the self an effect of sociotechnically distributed rational action.
    Keywords: Behavioural Economics ; Information-Efficient Markets ; Marketization ; Neoliberalism ; Performativity ; Anthropology ; Geography
    ISSN: 0309-1325
    E-ISSN: 1477-0288
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Progress in Human Geography, August 2011, Vol.35(4), pp.559-567
    Description: Approaching processes of capitalist market exchange from a cultural economic perspective, we identify three strands of research that are all part of a widespread ‘pragmatic turn’ in the study of economic activities: (1) the conceptualization of markets as heterogeneous arrangements of people, things and sociotechnical devices; (2) the insight that multiple frames of reference are mobilized in everyday market activities in addition to instrumental rationality; and (3) approaches that combine an interest in the performance of diversity and difference in concrete market contexts with an attention to mobility in network capitalism.
    Keywords: Conventions ; Dispositif ; Markets ; Performativity ; Value Chains ; Anthropology ; Geography
    ISSN: 0309-1325
    E-ISSN: 1477-0288
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Feb 15, Vol.412, p.88(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.12.017 Byline: Jens Karstens, Christian Berndt Abstract: Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO.sub.2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (〈1000 m) subsurface. The seismic expressions of vertical fluid conduits are variously known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin. Author Affiliation: GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany Article History: Received 20 February 2014; Revised 6 December 2014; Accepted 9 December 2014 Article Note: (miscellaneous) Editor: P. Shearer
    Keywords: Flow (Dynamics) – Analysis
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Organic letters, 15 September 2017, Vol.19(18), pp.4900-4903
    Description: α-Azido alcohols are generated by treating aldehydes with hydrazoic acid in chloroform. These adducts are transformed into geminal azido-halo compounds through the reaction with phosphorus trichloride or phosphorus tribromide, whereas α-azidoalkyl esters are isolated after interaction with acyl chlorides.
    ISSN: 15237060
    E-ISSN: 1523-7052
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 2011, Vol.310(1), pp.105-112
    Description: Sea floor methane vents and seeps direct methane generated by microbial and thermal decompositions of organic matter in sediment into the oceans and atmosphere. Methane vents contribute to ocean acidification, global warming, and providing a long-term (e.g. 500–4000 years; ) life-sustaining role for unique chemosynthetic biological communities. However, the role methane vents play in both climate change and chemosynthetic life remains controversial primarily because we do not understand long-term methane flux and the mechanisms that control it ( ). Vents are inherently dynamic and flux varies greatly in magnitude and even flow direction over short time periods (hours-to-days), often tidally-driven ( ). But, it remains unclear if flux changes at vents occur on the order of the life-cycle of various species within chemosynthetic communities (months, years, to decades ) and thus impacts their sustainability. Here, using repeat high-resolution 3D seismic surveys acquired in 2000 and 2008, we demonstrate in 4D that Hydrate Ridge, a vent off the Oregon coast has undergone significant reduction of methane flow and complete interruption in just the past few years. In the subsurface, below a frozen methane hydrate layer, free gas appears to be migrating toward the vent, but currently there is accumulating gas that is unable to reach the seafloor through the gas hydrate layer. At the same time, abundant authigenic carbonates show that the system has been active for several thousands of years. Thus, it is likely that activity has been intermittent because gas hydrates clog the vertical flow pathways feeding the seafloor vent. Back pressure building in the subsurface will ultimately trigger hydrofracturing that will revive fluid-flow to the seafloor. The nature of this mechanism implies regular recurring flow interruptions and methane flux changes that threaten the viability of chemosynthetic life, but simultaneously and enigmatically sustains it. ► Collocated 3D seismic surveys compare seafloor methane vent system in 2000 and 2008. ► Reflectivity changes between surveys reveal rapid gas migration toward the vent. ► Methane hydrate temporarily blocks flow causing backpressure to build. ► Seafloor chemosynthetic communities have adapted to flow interruptions.
    Keywords: Gas Hydrate ; Seafloor Methane Vents ; Chemosynthetic Communities ; 4d Seismics ; Geology ; Physics
    ISSN: 0012-821X
    E-ISSN: 1385-013X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Geoforum, March 2016, Vol.70, pp.22-24
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2016.01.005 Byline: Christian Berndt Article History: Received 15 January 2016; Accepted 17 January 2016
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Environmental Sciences ; Geography
    ISSN: 0016-7185
    E-ISSN: 1872-9398
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