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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2011, Vol.43(Suppl 1), p.870
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Wolters Kluwer - Ovid (via CrossRef)
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  • 2
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2011, Vol.43(5 Suppl 1), pp.870-870
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2011, Vol.111(8), pp.1625-1630
    Description: Aim of this work was to examine the effects of decoupled two-legged cycling on (1) submaximal and maximal oxygen uptake, (2) power output at 4 mmol L −1 blood lactate concentration, (3) mean and peak power output during high intensity cycling (30 s sprint) and (4) isometric and dynamic force production of the knee extensor and flexor muscles. 18 highly trained male competitive male cyclists and triathletes (age 24 ± 3 years; body height 179 ± 11 cm; body mass 78 ± 8 kg; peak oxygen uptake 5,070 ± 680 mL min −1 ) were equally randomized to exercise on a stationary cycle equipped either with decoupled or with traditional crank system. The intervention involved 1 h training sessions, 5 times per week for 6 weeks at a heart rate corresponding to 70% of V O 2peak . V O 2 at 100, 140, 180, 220 and 260 and power output at 4 mmol L −1 blood lactate were determined during an incremental test. V O 2peak was recorded during a ramp protocol. Mean and peak power output were assessed during a 30 s cycle sprint. The maximal voluntary isometric strength of the quadriceps and biceps femoris muscles was obtained using a training machine equipped with a force sensor. No differences were observed between the groups for changes in any variable ( P  = 0.15–0.90; effect size = 0.00–0.30). Our results demonstrate that a 6 week (30 sessions) training block using decoupled crank systems does not result in changes in any physiological or performance variables in highly trained competitive cyclists.
    Keywords: Blood lactate ; Cycling ; Heart rate ; High intensity ; Oxygen uptake ; Performance
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 4
    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2011, Vol.25(5), pp.1271-1278
    Description: Sperlich, B, De Marées, M, Koehler, K, Linville, J, Holmberg, H-C, and Mester, J. Effects of 5 weeksʼ high-intensity interval training vs. volume training in 14-year-old soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 25(5): 1271-1278, 2011-High-intensity interval training (HIIT) in junior and adult soccer has been shown to improve oxygen uptake (&OV0312;o2) and enhance soccer performance. The main purpose of this study was to examine the short term effects of a 5-week HIIT vs. high-volume training (HVT) program in 14-year-old soccer players regarding the effects on &OV0312;o2max and 1,000-m time (T1000) and on sprinting and jumping performance. In a 5-week period, 19 male soccer players with a mean (SD) age of 13.5 ± 0.4 years performed HIIT at close to ∼90% of maximal heart rate. The HVT intensity was set at 60-75% of maximal heart rate. &OV0312;o2max increased significantly (7.0%) from pre to post in HIIT but not after HVT. T1000 decreased significantly after HIIT (∼−10 vs. ∼−5 seconds in HVT). Sprint performance increased significantly in both groups from pre to posttesting without any changes in jumping performance.
    Keywords: Soccer Players -- Physiological Aspects ; Soccer Players -- Training ; Sports Training -- Comparative Analysis ; Athletic Ability -- Research;
    ISSN: 1064-8011
    E-ISSN: 15334287
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  • 5
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2018, Vol.50(8), pp.1641-1648
    Description: PURPOSE: The aim was to compare mesocycles with progressively increasing workloads and varied training intensity distribution (TID), that is, high-intensity (HIGH, 〉 4 mmol·L blood lactate), low-intensity (LOW, 〈 2 mmol·L blood lactate) or a combination of HIGH and LOW (referred to as “polarized” [POL]) on 5000-m running time and key components of endurance performance in recreational runners. METHODS: Forty-two runners (peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak): 45.2 ± 5.8 mL·min·kg) were systematically parallelized to one of three groups performing a 4-wk mesocycle with equal TID (two to four training sessions) followed by a 3-wk mesocycle with increased weekly training impulse (i.e., 50% increase compared to the first 4-wk mesocycle) of either HIGH, LOW, or POL and 1 wk tapering. V˙O2peak, velocity at lactate threshold and running economy were assessed at baseline (T0), after 4 wk (T1), 7 wk (T2), and 8 wk (T3). RESULTS: The 5000-m time decreased in all groups from T0 to T2 and T3. V˙O2peak increased from T0 to T2 and T3 (P 〈 0.03) with HIGH and from T0 to T2 (P = 0.02) in LOW and from T0 to T3 (P = 0.006) with POL. Running economy improved only from T1 to T3 and from T2 to T3 (P 〈 0.04) with LOW. An individual mean response analysis indicated a high number of responders (n = 13 of 16) in LOW, with less in HIGH (n = 6/13) and POL (n = 8/16). CONCLUSIONS: On a group level, HIGH, LOW, and POL improve 5000-m time and V˙O2peak. Changes in running economy occurred only with LOW. Based on the individual response of recreational runners the relative risk of nonresponding is greater with HIGH and POL compared with LOW.
    Keywords: High Intensity Interval Training -- Health Aspects ; Runners (Sports) -- Health Aspects ; Endurance -- Research;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2010, Vol.110(2), pp.301-305
    Description: Previous studies have indicated that aerobic pathways contribute to 13–27% of the energy consumed during short-term (10–20 s) sprinting exercise. Accordingly, the present investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that prior breathing of oxygen-enriched air (F in O 2  = 60%) would enhance power output and reduce fatigue during subsequent sprint cycling. Ten well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD age, 25 ± 3 years; height, 186.1 ± 6.9 cm; body mass, 79.1 ± 8.2 kg; maximal oxygen uptake [ V O 2max ]: 63.2 ± 5.2 ml kg −1  min −1 ) took 25 breaths of either hyperoxic (HO) or normoxic (NO) air before performing 15 s of cycling at maximal exertion. During this performance, the maximal and mean power outputs were recorded. The concentration of lactate, pH, partial pressure of and saturation by oxygen, [H + ] and base excess in arterial blood were assessed before and after the sprint. The maximal (1,053 ± 141 for HO vs. 1,052 ± 165 W for NO; P  = 0.77) and mean power outputs (873 ± 123 vs. 876 ± 147 W; P  = 0.68) did not differ between the two conditions. The partial pressure of oxygen was approximately 2.3-fold higher after inhaling HO in comparison to NO, while lactate concentration, pH, [H + ] and base excess (best P  = 0.32) after sprinting were not influenced by exposure to HO. These findings demonstrate that the peak and mean power outputs of athletes performing short-term intense exercise cannot be improved by pre-exposure to oxygen-enriched air.
    Keywords: Cycling ; Hyperoxia ; Lactate ; Maximum power output ; Sprint
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2010, Vol. 110(5), pp. 1029-1036
    Description: Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T100 m and T2,000 m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lacmax). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P 〈 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T2,000 m (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T100 m (P = 0.20). Lacmax increased following HIIT (P 〈 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P 〈 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO2peak increased following both interventions (P 〈 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T2,000 m, Lacmax and VO2peak following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).
    Keywords: Children; Oxygen Uptake; Performance; Swimming; Training ; Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Sport And Fitness Sciences ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper ; Idrottsvetenskap ; Interdisciplinary Research Areas ; Sports ; Tvärvetenskapliga Forskningsområden ; Idrott
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 14396327
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2012, Vol.112(6), pp.2163-2169
    Description: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis whether different levels of sock compression (0, 10, 20, and 40 mmHg) affect erythrocyte deformability and metabolic parameters during sub-maximal and maximal running. Nine well-trained, male endurance athletes (age 22.2 ± 1.3 years, peak oxygen uptake 57.7 ± 4.5 mL min −1  kg −1 ) carried out four periods of sub-maximal running at 70% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min followed by a ramp test until exhaustion with and without compression socks that applied different levels of pressure. Erythrocyte deformability, blood lactate, heart rate and arterial partial pressure of oxygen ( p O 2 ) were monitored before and during all of these tests. Erythrocyte deformability, heart rate, p O 2 and lactate concentration were unaffected by compression, whereas exercise itself significantly increased erythrocyte deformability. However, the increasing effects of exercise were attenuated when high compression was applied. This first evaluation of the potential effects of increasing levels of compression on erythrocyte deformability and metabolic parameters during (sub-) maximal exercise, revealed no effects whatsoever.
    Keywords: LORCA ; Rigidity ; Blood lactate ; Running
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2011, Vol.111(8), pp.1641-1648
    Description: Lactate (La) and H + -ions are unequally distributed in the blood between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). To our knowledge there is no data concerning the effects of an oral ingestion of bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) on repeated high intensity sprint exercise and La and H + distribution between plasma and RBCs. Since an oral ingestion of HCO 3 − leads to a higher efflux of La from the working skeletal muscle to the plasma, as it was shown by previous studies, this would lead to a higher gradient of La between plasma and RBCs. Although a higher gradient leads to a higher uptake, it is even more difficult for the RBCs to take up La fast enough, due to the more stressed transport system. Since RBCs function to transport La from the working muscle and help to maintain a concentration difference between plasma and muscle, this potentially increases performance during repeated sprint exercise (e.g. 4 × 30 s). The major goal of the present investigation was to test this hypothesis. 11 male participants ingested either a solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) or placebo (CaCO 3 ). Thereafter all performed four maximal 30 s sprints with 5 min of passive rest. During the resting periods concentrations of HCO 3 − , La and H + where measured in both blood compartments (plasma and RBCs). There were no significant differences in the La-ratios between plasma and RBCs between both interventions. These results indicate that the La/H + co-transport is not affected by an oral ingestion on NaHCO 3 .
    Keywords: Hydrogen ion ; Plasma ; Red blood cells ; Sodium bicarbonate ; Wingate anaerobic test
    ISSN: 1439-6319
    E-ISSN: 1439-6327
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2017, Vol. 51(16), pp. 1240-1240
    Description: With great interest, we1 have been following the growing popularity of non-invasive wearable sensor technology as a way to increase physical performance, assist recovery or monitor health. These sensors, integrated into clothing worn on the body, are often referred to as ‘wearables’ or ‘wearable technology’. The popularity of the wearables is mainly due to three recent advances: (1) miniature sensor technology,1 (2) telemetric transfer and (web-based) storage of personal data and (3) extension of battery life. According to a worldwide survey of fitness trends, wearable technology appears set to be the number 1 trend in 2017,2 with expected sales for some wearables in the range of 1.5–2.6 billion US$.2 We believe that this type of technology will be a central tool in the fitness and health industry, provided some fundamental issues …
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper
    ISSN: 0306-3674
    E-ISSN: 14730480
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