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  • 1
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    Description: a pipeline for the computational evaluation of RNA-Seq data...
    Source: DataCite
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Methods, Sept 15, 2015, Vol.86, p.89(13)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2015.06.012 Byline: Thorsten Bischler, Hock Siew Tan, Kay Nieselt, Cynthia M. Sharma Abstract: * A differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) approach for primary transcriptome analysis. * dRNA-seq analysis of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori as a model bacterium. * dRNA-seq for global annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS) and small RNAs. * Comparison of automated and manual TSS annotation. * Variations due to sample and library preparations and sequencing protocols. Article History: Received 8 April 2015; Revised 7 June 2015; Accepted 9 June 2015
    Keywords: Transcription (Genetics) – Genetic Aspects ; Transcription (Genetics) – Analysis ; Helicobacter Pylori – Analysis ; RNA – Genetic Aspects ; RNA – Analysis
    ISSN: 1046-2023
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 03 February 2017, Vol.292(5), pp.1934-1950
    Description: RNA degradation is crucial for regulating gene expression in all organisms. Like the decapping of eukaryotic mRNAs, the conversion of the 5'-terminal triphosphate of bacterial transcripts to a monophosphate can trigger RNA decay by exposing the transcript to attack by 5'-monophosphate-dependent ribonucleases. In both biological realms, this deprotection step is catalyzed by members of the Nudix hydrolase family. The genome of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative epsilonproteobacterium, encodes two proteins resembling Nudix enzymes. Here we present evidence that one of them, HP1228 (renamed HpRppH), is an RNA pyrophosphohydrolase that triggers RNA degradation in H. pylori, whereas the other, HP0507, lacks such activity. In vitro, HpRppH converts RNA 5'-triphosphates and diphosphates to monophosphates. It requires at least two unpaired nucleotides at the 5' end of its substrates and prefers three or more but has only modest sequence preferences. The influence of HpRppH on RNA degradation in vivo was examined by using RNA-seq to search the H. pylori transcriptome for RNAs whose 5'-phosphorylation state and cellular concentration are governed by this enzyme. Analysis of cDNA libraries specific for transcripts bearing a 5'-triphosphate and/or monophosphate revealed at least 63 potential HpRppH targets. These included mRNAs and sRNAs, several of which were validated individually by half-life measurements and quantification of their 5'-terminal phosphorylation state in wild-type and mutant cells. These findings demonstrate an important role for RppH in post-transcriptional gene regulation in pathogenic Epsilonproteobacteria and suggest a possible basis for the phenotypes of H. pylori mutants lacking this enzyme.
    Keywords: Helicobacter Pylori ; Nudix ; RNA Degradation ; RNA Modification ; RNA Turnover ; RNA-Protein Interaction ; Deep Sequencing ; Gene Regulation ; Acid Anhydride Hydrolases -- Metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Helicobacter Pylori -- Metabolism ; RNA Stability -- Physiology ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; RNA, Messenger -- Metabolism
    E-ISSN: 1083-351X
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: BMC bioinformatics, 29 April 2014, Vol.15, pp.122
    Description: RNA-seq and its variant differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) are today routine methods for transcriptome analysis in bacteria. While expression profiling and transcriptional start site prediction are standard tasks today, the problem of identifying transcriptional units in a genome-wide fashion is still not solved for prokaryotic systems. We present RNAseg, an algorithm for the prediction of transcriptional units based on dRNA-seq data. A key feature of the algorithm is that, based on the data, it distinguishes between transcribed and un-transcribed genomic segments. Furthermore, the program provides many different predictions in a single run, which can be used to infer the significance of transcriptional units in a consensus procedure. We show the performance of our method based on a well-studied dRNA-seq data set for Helicobacter pylori. With our algorithm it is possible to identify operons and 5'- and 3'-UTRs in an automated fashion. This alleviates the need for labour intensive manual inspection and enables large-scale studies in the area of comparative transcriptomics.
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Gene Expression Profiling -- Methods ; Sequence Analysis, RNA -- Methods
    E-ISSN: 1471-2105
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Methods, 15 September 2015, Vol.86, pp.89-101
    Description: The global mapping of transcription boundaries is a key step in the elucidation of the full complement of transcriptional features of an organism. It facilitates the annotation of operons and untranslated regions as well as novel transcripts, including - and -encoded small RNAs (sRNAs). So called RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) based on deep sequencing of cDNAs has greatly facilitated transcript mapping with single nucleotide resolution. However, conventional RNA-seq approaches typically cannot distinguish between primary and processed transcripts. Here we describe the recently developed differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq) approach, which facilitates the annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS) based on deep sequencing of two differentially treated cDNA library pairs, with one library being enriched for primary transcripts. Using the human pathogen as a model organism, we describe the application of dRNA-seq together with an automated TSS annotation approach for generation of a genome-wide TSS map in bacteria. Besides a description of transcriptome and regulatory features that can be identified by this approach, we discuss the impact of different library preparation protocols and sequencing platforms as well as manual and automated TSS annotation. Moreover, we have set up an easily accessible online browser for visualization of the transcriptome data from this and our previous dRNA-seq study.
    Keywords: Differential RNA-Seq ; Transcriptional Start Sites ; Comparative Transcriptomics ; Small Rnas ; Promoter Motifs ; Gene Regulation ; 5′Utr ; Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology
    ISSN: 1046-2023
    E-ISSN: 1095-9130
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, 01 January 2015, Vol.197(1), pp.18-28
    Description: While the model organism Escherichia coli has been the subject of intense study for decades, the full complement of its RNAs is only now being examined. Here we describe a survey of the E. coli transcriptome carried out using a differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach, which can distinguish between primary and processed transcripts, and an automated prediction algorithm for transcriptional start sites (TSS). With the criterion of expression under at least one of three growth conditions examined, we predicted 14,868 TSS candidates, including 5,574 internal to annotated genes (iTSS) and 5,495 TSS corresponding to potential antisense RNAs (asRNAs). We examined expression of 14 candidate asRNAs by Northern analysis using RNA from wild-type E. coli and from strains defective for RNases III and E, two RNases reported to be involved in asRNA processing. Interestingly, nine asRNAs detected as distinct bands by Northern analysis were differentially affected by the rnc and rne mutations. We also compared our asRNA candidates with previously published asRNA annotations from RNA-seq data and discuss the challenges associated with these cross-comparisons. Our global transcriptional start site map represents a valuable resource for identification of transcription start sites, promoters, and novel transcripts in E. coli and is easily accessible, together with the cDNA coverage plots, in an online genome browser.
    Keywords: Escherichia Coli -- Metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; RNA, Antisense -- Metabolism ; RNA, Bacterial -- Metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: EMBO journal: European Molecular Biology Organization, 2016, Issue 9, pp.991-1011
    Description: The molecular roles of many RNA‐binding proteins in bacterial post‐transcriptional gene regulation are not well understood. Approaches combining in vivo UV crosslinking with RNA deep sequencing (CLIP‐seq) have begun to revolutionize the transcriptome‐wide mapping of eukaryotic RNA‐binding protein target sites. We have applied CLIP‐seq to chart the target landscape of two major bacterial post‐transcriptional regulators, Hfq and CsrA, in the model pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium. By detecting binding sites at single‐nucleotide resolution, we identify RNA preferences and structural constraints of Hfq and CsrA during their interactions with hundreds of cellular transcripts. This reveals 3′‐located Rho‐independent terminators as a universal motif involved in Hfq–RNA interactions. Additionally, Hfq preferentially binds 5′ to sRNA‐target sites in mRNAs, and 3′ to seed sequences in sRNAs, reflecting a simple logic in how Hfq facilitates sRNA–mRNA interactions. Importantly, global knowledge of Hfq sites significantly improves sRNA‐target predictions. CsrA binds AUGGA sequences in apical loops and targets many Salmonella virulence mRNAs. Overall, our generic CLIP‐seq approach will bring new insights into post‐transcriptional gene regulation by RNA‐binding proteins in diverse bacterial species.
    Keywords: Clip ; Csra ; Hfq ; Non‐Coding Rna ; Peak Calling ; Post‐Transcriptional Control ; Small Rna ; Terminator ; Translation
    ISSN: 0261-4189
    Source: Fundación Dialnet
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  • 8
    In: EMBO Journal, 02 May 2016, Vol.35(9), pp.991-1011
    Description: The molecular roles of many ‐binding proteins in bacterial post‐transcriptional gene regulation are not well understood. Approaches combining crosslinking with deep sequencing (‐seq) have begun to revolutionize the transcriptome‐wide mapping of eukaryotic ‐binding protein target sites. We have applied ‐seq to chart the target landscape of two major bacterial post‐transcriptional regulators, Hfq and CsrA, in the model pathogen Typhimurium. By detecting binding sites at single‐nucleotide resolution, we identify preferences and structural constraints of Hfq and CsrA during their interactions with hundreds of cellular transcripts. This reveals 3′‐located Rho‐independent terminators as a universal motif involved in Hfq– interactions. Additionally, Hfq preferentially binds 5′ to ‐target sites in s, and 3′ to seed sequences in s, reflecting a simple logic in how Hfq facilitates – interactions. Importantly, global knowledge of Hfq sites significantly improves ‐target predictions. CsrA binds sequences in apical loops and targets many virulence s. Overall, our generic ‐seq approach will bring new insights into post‐transcriptional gene regulation by ‐binding proteins in diverse bacterial species. A new pipeline for ‐seq in maps global –protein interactions and offers a tool for improved understanding of post‐transcriptional control in bacteria. Transcriptome‐wide mapping of Hfq and CsrA target sites by CLIP‐seq. Rho‐independent terminators comprise a general Hfq‐binding motif. Hfq binds 5′ to sRNA‐binding sites in mRNA targets and 3′ to seed sequences in cognate the sRNAs. CsrA preferentially recognizes AUGGA sequences present in loops of hairpin structures. CsrA binds and regulates many mRNAs encoding virulence factors. A new pipeline for CLIP‐seq in maps global RNA–protein interactions and offers a tool for improved understanding of post‐transcriptional control in bacteria.
    Keywords: Clip ; Csra ; Hfq ; Non‐Coding Rna ; Peak Calling ; Post‐Transcriptional Control ; Small Rna ; Terminator ; Translation
    ISSN: 0261-4189
    E-ISSN: 1460-2075
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  • 9
    Language: English
    Description: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has in recent years become the preferred method for gene expression analysis and whole transcriptome annotation. While initial RNA-seq experiments focused on eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which can be purified from the cellular ribonucleic acid (RNA) pool with relative ease, more advanced protocols had to be developed for sequencing of microbial transcriptomes. The resulting RNA-seq data revealed an unexpected complexity of bacterial transcriptomes and the requirement for specific analysis methods, which in many cases is not covered by tools developed for processing of eukaryotic data. The aim of this thesis was the development and application of specific data analysis methods for different RNA-seq-based approaches used to gain insights into transcription and gene regulatory processes in prokaryotes. The differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) approach allows for transcriptional start site (TSS) annotation by differentiating between primary transcripts with a 5’-triphosphate (5’-PPP) and processed transcripts with a 5’-monophosphate (5’-P). This method was applied in combination with an automated TSS annotation tool to generate global trancriptome maps for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). In the E. coli study we conducted different downstream analyses to gain a deeper understanding of the nature and properties of transcripts in our TSS map. Here, we focused especially on putative antisense RNAs (asRNAs), an RNA class transcribed from the opposite strand of known protein-coding genes with the potential to regulate corresponding sense transcripts. Besides providing a set of putative asRNAs and experimental validation of candidates via Northern analysis, we analyzed and discussed different sources of variation in RNA-seq data. The aim of the H. pylori study was to provide a detailed description of the dRNA-seq approach and its application to a bacterial model organism. It includes information on experimental protocols and requirements for data analysis to generate a genome-wide TSS map. We show how the included TSS can be used to identify and analyze transcriptome and regulatory features and discuss challenges in terms oflibrary preparation protocols, sequencing platforms, and data analysis including manual and automated TSS annotation. The TSS maps and associated transcriptome data from both H. pylori and E. coli were made available for visualization in an easily accessible online browser. Furthermore, a modified version of dRNA-seq was used to identify transcriptome targets of the RNA pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) in H. pylori. RppH initiates 5’-end-dependent degradation of transcripts by converting the 5’-PPP of primary transcripts to a 5’-P. I developed an analysis method, which uses data from complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries specific for transcripts carrying a 5’-PPP, 5’-P or both, to specifically identify transcripts modified by RppH. For this, the method assessed the 5’-phosphorylation state and cellular concentration of transcripts in rppH deletion in comparison to strains with the intact gene. Several of the identified potential RppH targets were further validated via half-life measurements and quantification of their 5’-phosphorylation state in wild-type and mutant cells. Our findings suggest an important role for RppH in post-transcriptional gene regulationin H. pylori and related organisms. In addition, we applied two RNA-seq -based approaches, RNA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (RIP-seq) and cross-linking immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (CLIP-seq), to identify transcripts bound by Hfq and CsrA, two RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with an important role in post-transcriptional regulation. For RIP-seq -based identification of CsrA binding regions in Campylobacter jejuni(C. jejuni), we used annotation-based analysis and, in addition, a self-developed peak calling method based on a sliding window approach. Both methods revealed flaA mRNA, encoding the major flagellin, as the main target and functional analysis of identified targets showed a significant enrichment of genes involved in flagella biosynthesis. Further experimental analysis revealed the role of flaA mRNA in post-transcriptional regulation. In comparison to RIP-seq, CLIP-seq allows mapping of RBP binding sites with a higher resolution. To identify these sites an approach called “block-based peak calling” was developed and resulting peaks were used to identify sequence and structural constraints required for interaction of Hfq and CsrA with Salmonella transcripts. Overall, the different RNA-seq-based approaches described in this thesis together with their associated analyis pipelines extended our knowledge on the transcriptional repertoire and modes of post-transcriptional regulation in bacteria. The global TSS maps, including further characterized asRNA candidates, putative RppH targets, and identified RBP interactomes will likely trigger similar global studies in the same or different organisms or will be used as a resource for closer examination of these features. RNA-Sequenzierung (RNA-seq) entwickelte sich in den letzten Jahren zur bevorzugten Methode für Genexpressionsanalysen und die Annotation ganzer Transkriptome. Nachdem sich erste RNA-seq-Experimente hauptsächlich mit eukaryotischen Boten-RNAs (mRNAs) beschäftigt hatten, da diese sich relativ einfach aus dem zellulären RNA-Gemisch aufreinigen lassen, war die Entwicklung von fortschrittlicheren Methoden nötig, um mikrobielle Transkriptome zu sequenzieren. Die sich daraus ergebenden RNA-seq-Daten enthüllten eine unerwartete Komplexität bakterieller Transkriptome und die Notwendigkeit der Anwendung spezifischer Analyseverfahren, welche von Tools zur Prozessierung eukaryotischer Daten häufig nicht zur Verfügung gestellt werden. Das Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit war die Entwicklung und Anwendung spezifischer Verfahren zur Datenanalyse für verschiedene RNA-seq-basierte Methoden, um Erkenntnisse bezüglich Transkription und genregulatorischer Vorgänge bei Prokaryoten zu erlangen. Die Differentielle-RNA-Sequenzierungsmethode (dRNA-seq) ermöglicht die Annotation von Transkriptionsstartpunkten (TSS), indem sie Primärtranskripte mit einem 5'-Triphosphat (5'-PPP) von prozessierten Transkripten mit einem 5'-Monophosphat (5'-P) unterscheidet. Diese Methode wurde in Kombination mit einem automatisierten TSS-Annotationstool zur Erstellung globaler Transkriptomkarten für Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) verwendet. In der E. coli-Studie haben wir verschiedene Folgeanalysen durchgeführt, um ein tieferes Verständnis für die Natur und Eigenschaften der in unserer Transkriptomkarte enthaltenen Transkripte zu erlangen. Das Hauptaugenmerk lag dabei auf mutmaßlichen Antisense-RNAs (asRNAs). Diese stellen eine RNA-Klasse dar, welche vom entgegengesetzten Strang von bekannten proteinkodierenden Genen transkribiert wird, und die das Potenzial hat, entsprechende Sense-Transkripte zu regulieren. Wir stellen nicht nur eine Liste mutmaßlicher asRNAs zur Verfügung, von der einige Kandidaten durch Northern Blots validiert wurden, sondern diskutierten auch von uns untersuchte Gründe für auftretende Variation bei RNA-seq-Daten. Das Ziel der H. pylori-Studie war es, eine detaillierte Beschreibung der dRNA-seq-Methode und deren Anwendung auf einen bakteriellen Modellorganismus zur Verfügung zu stellen. Sie enthält Informationen bezüglich experimenteller Protokolle und für die Datenanalyse notwendige Schritte, zur Erstellung einer genomweiten TSS-Karte. Wir zeigen, wie die enthaltenen TSS verwendet werden können, um verschiedene Transkriptomelemente, einschließlich solcher mit regulatorischen Eigenschaften, zu identifizieren und zu analysieren. Zusätzlich diskutieren wir Probleme, welche bei der Erstellung von Sequenzierlibraries, der Verwendung von Sequenzierplattformen und bei der Datenanalyse, einschließlich manueller und automatisierter TSS-Annotation, auftreten können. Die TSS-Karten für H. pylori und E. coli, einschließlich der damit verbundenen Transkriptomdaten, haben wir in Form eines leicht zugänglichen Online-Browsers verfügbar gemacht. Desweiteren wurde eine modifizierte Version der dRNA-seq-Methode verwendet, um Transkripte zu identifizieren, welche von der RNA Pyrophosphohydrolase (RppH) in H. pylori gespalten werden. RppH initiiert den vom 5'-Ende abhängigen RNA-Abbau, indem sie das 5'-PPP von Primärtranskripten in ein 5'-P umwandelt. Ich habe eine Analysemethode entwickelt, welche Daten basierend auf unterschiedlichen Komplementär-DNA (cDNA)-Libraries verwendet, welche entweder spezifisch für Transkripte mit einem 5'-PPP oder einem 5'-P sind, oder beides enthalten, um spezifisch Transkripte zu indentifizieren, die durch RppH modifiziert werden. Um dies zu erreichen wurden der 5'-Phosphorylierungsstatus und die zelluläre Konzentration der Transkripte zwischen einer rppH-Deletionsmutante und Stämmen mit intaktem Gen verglichen. Weiterhin wurden mehrere der identifizierten, von RppH gespaltenen Transkripte durch Messung ihrer Halbwertszeit und Quantifizierung ihres 5'-Phosphorylierungsstatus bei Wildtyp- und mutierten Zellen validiert. Unsere Ergebnisse lassen auf eine wichtige Rolle von RppH bei der Genregulation in H. pylori und verwandten Organismen schließen. Zusätzlich haben wir zwei weitere RNA-seq-basierte Methoden namens RNA-Immunpräzipitation gefolgt von RNA-Sequenzierung (RIP-seq) und Quervernetzung und Immunpräzipitation gefolgt von RNA-Sequenzierung (CLIP-seq) verwendet, um Transkripte zu identifizieren, welche von Hfq und CsrA gebunden werden, zwei RNA-Bindeproteinen (RBPs), die eine wichtige Rolle bei posttranskriptionaler Regulation spielen. Zur RIP-seq-basierten Identifikation von CsrA-Binderegionen bei Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) haben wir eine annotationsbasierte Analyse und zusätzlich eine eigens entwickelte Peak-Bestimmungsmethode verwendet. Beide Methoden haben die flaA mRNA, we...
    Keywords: Bakterien ; Sequenzanalyse ; Rns ; Ddc:570
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Molecular Cell, 07 June 2018, Vol.70(5), pp.971-982.e6
    Description: The conserved RNA-binding protein ProQ has emerged as the centerpiece of a previously unknown third large network of post-transcriptional control in enterobacteria. Here, we have used UV crosslinking and RNA sequencing (CLIP-seq) to map hundreds of ProQ binding sites in and . Our analysis of these binding sites, many of which are conserved, suggests that ProQ recognizes its cellular targets through RNA structural motifs found in small RNAs (sRNAs) and at the 3′ end of mRNAs. Using the mRNA as a model for 3′ end targeting, we reveal a function for ProQ in protecting mRNA against exoribonucleolytic activity. Taken together, our results underpin the notion that ProQ governs a post-transcriptional network distinct from those of the well-characterized sRNA-binding proteins, CsrA and Hfq, and suggest a previously unrecognized, sRNA-independent role of ProQ in stabilizing mRNAs. Using CLIP-seq, Holmqvist et al. map transcriptome-wide interactions of the emerging global RNA-binding protein ProQ in and . Their data suggest ProQ to target sRNAs and mRNA 3′ UTRs primarily through a structural code and to stabilize some mRNAs by counteracting 3′ exoribonuclease activity.
    Keywords: Proq ; Clip-Seq ; RNA-Binding Protein ; 3′ Utr ; Post-Transcriptional Control ; Exoribonuclease ; Biology
    ISSN: 1097-2765
    E-ISSN: 1097-4164
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