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  • 1
    In: The Gerontologist, 2014, Vol. 54(Suppl1), pp.S46-S52
    Description: To develop implications for research, practice and policy, selected economics and human resources management research literature was reviewed to compare and contrast nursing home culture change work practices with high-performance human resource management systems in other industries. The organization of nursing home work under culture change has much in common with high-performance work systems, which are characterized by increased autonomy for front-line workers, self-managed teams, flattened supervisory hierarchy, and the aspiration that workers use specific knowledge gained on the job to enhance quality and customization. However, successful high-performance work systems also entail intensive recruitment, screening, and on-going training of workers, and compensation that supports selective hiring and worker commitment; these features are not usual in the nursing home sector. Thus despite many parallels with high-performance work systems, culture change work systems are missing essential elements: those that require higher compensation. If purchasers, including public payers, were willing to pay for customized, resident-centered care, productivity gains could be shared with workers, and the nursing home sector could move from a low-road to a high-road employment system.
    Keywords: 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Nursing Home〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Workforce〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Culture Change〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Resident - Centered Care〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉 ; 〈Kwd〉〈Italic〉Work System〈/Italic〉〈/Kwd〉
    ISSN: 0016-9013
    E-ISSN: 1758-5341
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 14 June 2013, Vol.340(6138), pp.1230531
    Description: In most people, language is processed predominantly by the left hemisphere of the brain, but we do not know how or why. A popular view is that developmental language disorders result from a poorly lateralized brain, but until recently, evidence has been weak and indirect. Modern neuroimaging methods have made it possible to study normal and abnormal development of lateralized function in the developing brain and have confirmed links with language and literacy impairments. However, there is little evidence that weak cerebral lateralization has common genetic origins with language and literacy impairments. Our understanding of the association between atypical language lateralization and developmental disorders may benefit if we reconceptualize the nature of cerebral asymmetry to recognize its multidimensionality and consider variation in lateralization over developmental time. Contrary to popular belief, cerebral lateralization may not be a highly heritable, stable characteristic of individuals; rather, weak lateralization may be a consequence of impaired language learning.
    Keywords: Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Cerebral Cortex -- Physiopathology ; Functional Laterality -- Genetics ; Language Development Disorders -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Nature, July 3, 2014, Vol.511(7507), p.37(2)
    Description: The inner membrane of many bacteria is surrounded by a protective cell wall, which includes an outer membrane adorned with a tightly packed layer of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules. LPS is an elaborate phospholipid that is extensively decorated with sugars, and its presence provides a barrier against harmful agents such as detergents and lipophilic ('greasy') antibiotics. Many of the cellular processes by which LPS is assembled and transported to the outer membrane are essential for survival, and thus are targets for the development of new antibiotics.
    Keywords: Bacterial Cell Walls – Physiological Aspects ; Bacterial Cell Walls – Structure ; Bacterial Cell Walls – Research ; Lipopolysaccharides – Physiological Aspects ; Lipopolysaccharides – Structure ; Lipopolysaccharides – Research
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 4
    In: Nature, 2014
    Description: Two crystal structures of the LptD–LptE protein complex reveal how the cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide is delivered and inserted into the external leaflet of the bacterial outer membrane.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Physics;
    ISSN: 0028-0836
    ISSN: 14764687
    E-ISSN: 14764687
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Nursing Management, October 2013, Vol.21(7), pp.941-949
    Description: Byline: Mary Bishop Keywords: caring; older nurses; retention; work engagement Aim The aim of this evaluation research was to measure the impact of a caring-based intervention on the level of work engagement in older nurses. Background Every effort is needed to retain older nurses at the bedside by assisting them to revitalise the internal motivation and self- reward that brought them to nursing. Method A mixed method evaluation research approach using both qualitative and quantitative measurements was used to determine the impact of a caring-based programme on improving the work engagement scores of older Registered Nurses (RNs). Result The results of this study suggest that leadership strategies aimed at improving work engagement using caring theories have a significant positive impact. Conclusion The findings contribute to our understanding of how work engagement can be enhanced through building work environments where there is a sense of belonging and teamwork, where staff are allowed time to decompress as well as build positive work relationships. Implications for nursing management Nurse Leaders (NLs) bear a responsibility to partner with older Registered Nurses (RNs) to build engagement in their work life while enhancing the quality of care. Successful leaders will find ways to meet these unique challenges by creating a healthy work environment.
    Keywords: Caring ; Older Nurses ; Retention ; Work Engagement
    ISSN: 0966-0429
    E-ISSN: 1365-2834
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, December 2015, Vol.96(12), pp.e20-e20
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2015.10.052 Byline: Lauri Bishop Author Affiliation: Columbia University Article Note: (miscellaneous) Research Poster 4930
    Keywords: Medicine ; Physical Therapy
    ISSN: 0003-9993
    E-ISSN: 1532-821X
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The Social Science Journal, December 2013, Vol.50(4), pp.510-520
    Description: A frame analysis was conducted on newspaper articles, news magazine articles, and the transcripts of broadcast segments on the need for and rediscovery of unstructured play that appeared between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. This time frame was selected to coincide with the recent revival of interest in play, both among scholars and the public. The eight frames that emerged from the coverage reveal that the spontaneity in play valued by children and endorsed by scholars is absent from recent descriptions by journalists of play. Journalists did not frame play as a respite for children from daily life, or an “interlude” ( ) undertaken to escape the real world. Play as portrayed through these frames must be productive – a “useful pastime” ( ). Descriptions of play by journalists support the “rhetoric of progress” discussed by Sutton-Smith. Play is seen as the “optimal state of being for children” ( ), rather than something a child simply wants to do for fun. Few of the sources consulted by journalists favor letting kids go off in an unsupervised fashion. Kids can play, but only if they do so in clearly defined spaces and according to clearly laid out schedules.
    Keywords: Play ; Children ; News Media ; Frame Analysis ; Social Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0362-3319
    E-ISSN: 1873-5355
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  • 8
    In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, October 2012, Vol.53(10), pp.1082-1083
    Description: Most people have 23 pairs of chromosomes; one set from the mother and one from the father. However, nondisjunction errors during meiosis can lead to a case of trisomy, where there are three rather than two chromosomes. Although such events are not uncommon, they are usually lethal, and account for a high proportion of spontaneous abortions. There is surprisingly little research on sex chromosome trisomies: The explanation is largely due to the mild impact of the trisomy, which means that many people who have a sex chromosome trisomy would not be aware of their status. Most of the information about prevalence and consequences of sex chromosome trisomies comes from a set of studies carried out in the 1960-1970s in which newborn babies underwent chromosome screening. Findings from the newborn screening studies were summarized in a systematic review by Leggett, Jacobs, Nation, Scerif, and Bishop (2010), who noted a reduction in IQ in XXX, XXY and XYY groups, with both groups of males showing evidence of disproportionate verbal impairments. The report by Lee et al. makes a unique contribution by extending the study of the impact of supernumerary sex chromosomes to include rare cases of children with four or five sex chromosomes. They demonstrate a clear "dosage" effect, whereby the more chromosomes, the greater the negative impact on IQ and development. The study by Lee et al. (2012) has important clinical implications, as well as theoretical importance, because parental choices can be influenced by what they are told about the likely outcome of the child. It is important to emphasise that although there is an increased risk of both structural language problems and autistic features in children with additional sex chromosomes, there is wide individual variation. Some children with trisomies do not have any difficulties, and only a minority merit a diagnosis of autistic disorder (Bishop et al., 2011; Ross et al., 2012).
    Keywords: Genetics; Autism; Neonates; Intelligence Quotient; Incidence; Screening Tests; Scientific Research; Language Impairments; Risk; Child Development; Individual Differences; Clinical Diagnosis; Prenatal Influences;
    ISSN: 0021-9630
    E-ISSN: 1469-7610
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Theory, Culture & Society, Dec, 2011, Vol.28(7-8), p.270-286
    Keywords: Underground Areas -- Military Aspects ; Aerial Reconnaissance -- Planning ; Military Planning -- Methods
    ISSN: 0263-2764
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Sports Medicine, 2010, Vol.40(12), pp.995-1017
    Description: A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of teamsport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa ). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple- sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performanceenhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sportrelevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health).
    Keywords: Dietary Supplements -- Health Aspects ; Drugs And Athletes -- Health Aspects;
    ISSN: 0112-1642
    E-ISSN: 1179-2035
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