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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM, 15 June 2011, Vol.25(11), pp.1459-60
    Keywords: Mass Spectrometry
    ISSN: 09514198
    E-ISSN: 1097-0231
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: The Science of the Total Environment, July 1, 2013, Vol.456-457, p.384(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.078 Byline: Richard C. Sandford, Jane M.B. Hawkins, Roland Bol, Paul J. Worsfold Abstract: Co-deployment of two reagentless UV sensors for high temporal resolution (15min) real time determination of wintertime DOC and nitrate-N export from a grassland lysimeter plot (North Wyke, Devon, UK) is reported. They showed rapid, transient but high impact perturbations of DOC (5.3-23mg CL.sup.-1) and nitrate-N export after storm/snow melt which discontinuous sampling would not have observed. During a winter freeze/thaw cycle, DOC export (1.25kg Cha.sup.-1 d.sup.-1) was significantly higher than typical UK catchment values (maximum 0.25kg Chad.sup.-1) and historical North Wyke data (0.7kg Cha.sup.-1 d.sup.-1). DOC concentrations were inversely correlated with the key DOC physico-chemical drivers of pH (January r=-0.65), and conductivity (January r=-0.64). Nitrate-N export (0.8-1.5mgNL.sup.-1) was strongly correlated with DOC export (r[greater than or equal to]0.8). The DOC:NO.sub.3-N molar ratios showed that soil microbial N assimilation was not C limited and therefore high N accrual was not promoted in the River Taw, which is classified as a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). The sensor was shown to be an effective sentinel device for identifying critical periods when rapid ecosystem N accumulation could be triggered by a shift in resource stoichiometry. It is therefore a useful tool to help evaluate land management strategies and impacts from climate change and intensive agriculture. Article History: Received 22 November 2012; Revised 20 February 2013; Accepted 20 February 2013
    Keywords: Land Management -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Bioresource Technology, November 2011, Vol.102(21), pp.9997-10005
    Description: ► Nutrient and carbon mineralization of composted olive mill pomace were analyzed. ► Quality and particle distribution differed according to the material co-composted. ► Higher content of nutrients and lower carbon contents were found in finer particles. ► Larger particles had higher contents of organic matter and phytotoxic properties. ► Particle size separation facilitates better management of this compost. Composting is a realistic option for disposal of olive mill pomace (OMP) by making it suitable as a soil amendment for organic farming. The chemical and physical characteristics and contribution of particle-size fractions to total nutrients and carbon mineralization of seven commercial composts of OMP (COMP) were investigated. Higher proportions of manure, co-composted with OMP, reduced the organic matter (OM), total carbon and C:N ratio of the product, but increased the content of nutrients and fine particles. The fine particles had higher nutrient contents, but less OM and carbon and, unlike larger particles, did not exhibit any phytotoxicity. Less than 1.5% of added carbon was mineralized in whole compost, but a lower rate was found with larger particles. Separation of COMP by particle size fractionation and application as a soil conditioner is recommended for better optimization of COMP with the 〈1 mm fraction providing the higher quality compost.
    Keywords: Composted Olive Mill Pomace ; C Mineralization ; Particle-Size Fraction ; By-Products ; Agriculture ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0960-8524
    E-ISSN: 1873-2976
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, Feb, 2012, Vol.47, p.373(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.052 Byline: David Fangueiro (a), Joao Coutinho (b), Fernanda Cabral (a), Paula Fidalgo (b), Roland Bol (c), Henrique Trindade (d) Abstract: The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (〉2000 [mu]m, 2000-500 [mu]m, 500-100 [mu]m, 〈100 [mu]m) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg.sup.-1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted ([approximately equal to]1 mg NO-N kg.sup.-1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (〉2000 [mu]m) induced significantly higher N.sub.2O emissions (1.8 mg N.sub.2O-N kg.sup.-1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N.sub.2O-N kg.sup.-1 dry soil). The 〉2000 [mu]m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N.sub.2O emissions. Hence, for N.sub.2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the 〉2000 [mu]m, fraction. Low CH.sub.4 emissions (〈200 [mu]g CH.sub.4-C kg.sup.-1 dry soil d.sup.-1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH.sub.4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO.sub.2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO.sub.2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N.sub.2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil. Author Affiliation: (a) UIQA- Instituto Superior de Agronomia, TU Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal (b) Chemistry Centre, Department of Soil Science, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal (c) Sustainable Soils and Grassland Systems Department, Rothamsted Research North Wyke, Devon, EX20 2SB, UK (d) CITAB - Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, Department of Agronomy, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal Article History: Received 29 June 2011; Revised 19 October 2011; Accepted 24 October 2011
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(12), p.e51201
    Description: Leaching losses of nitrogen (N) from soil and atmospheric N deposition have led to widespread changes in plant community and microbial community composition, but our knowledge of the factors that determine ecosystem N retention is limited. A common feature of extensively managed, species-rich grasslands is that they have fungal-dominated microbial communities, which might reduce soil N losses and increase ecosystem N retention, which is pivotal for pollution mitigation and sustainable food production. However, the mechanisms that underpin improved N retention in extensively managed, species-rich grasslands are unclear. We combined a landscape-scale field study and glasshouse experiment to test how grassland management affects plant and soil N retention. Specifically, we hypothesised that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands of high conservation value would have lower N loss and greater N retention than intensively managed, species-poor grasslands, and that this would be due to a greater immobilisation of N by a more fungal-dominated microbial community. In the field study, we found that extensively managed, species-rich grasslands had lower N leaching losses. Soil inorganic N availability decreased with increasing abundance of fungi relative to bacteria, although the best predictor of soil N leaching was the C/N ratio of aboveground plant biomass. In the associated glasshouse experiment we found that retention of added 15 N was greater in extensively than in intensively managed grasslands, which was attributed to a combination of greater root uptake and microbial immobilisation of 15 N in the former, and that microbial immobilisation increased with increasing biomass and abundance of fungi. These findings show that grassland management affects mechanisms of N retention in soil through changes in root and microbial uptake of N. Moreover, they support the notion that microbial communities might be the key to improved N retention through tightening linkages between plants and microbes and reducing N availability.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Chemistry ; Plant Biology ; Ecology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 15 October 2017, Vol.596-597, pp.61-68
    Description: Global population increase will require rapid increase of food production from existing agricultural land by 2050, which will inevitably mean the increase of agricultural productivity. Due to agricultural sustainable intensification since the 1990s, crop production in Huantai County of northern China has risen to 15 t ha yr for the annual wheat–maize rotation system. We examined the temporal dynamics of nitrogen (N) budget, N losses, and N use efficiency (NUE) during the 35 years (1980–2014) in Huantai. The results revealed that atmospheric N deposition increased 220% while reactive N losses decreased by 21.5% from 1980s to 2010s. During 1980–2002, annual N partial factor productivity (PFP ), apparent NUE and N recovery efficiency (RE ) increased from 20.3 to 40.7 kg grain kg N , from 36.5% to 71.0%, and from 32.4% to 57.7%, respectively; meanwhile, reactive N losses intensity, land use intensity and N use intensity decreased by 69.8%, 53.4%, 50.0%, respectively, but without further significant changes after 2002. Overall increases in NUE and decreases in N losses were largely due to the introduction of optimized fertilization practice, mechanization and increased incorporation of crop straw in Huantai. Straw incorporation was also significant in soil N stock accrual and fertility improvement. By 2030, northern China may reach the lowest end of PFP values in developed countries (〉 45 kg grain kg N ). These agricultural sustainable intensification practices will be critical in maintaining high grain yields and associated decreases in environmental pollution, although water use efficiency in the region still needs to be improved.
    Keywords: Sustainable Intensification ; Nitrogen ; High Yield ; Nitrogen Use Efficiency ; Losses ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 July 2013, Vol.456-457, pp.384-391
    Description: Co-deployment of two reagentless UV sensors for high temporal resolution (15 min) real time determination of wintertime DOC and nitrate-N export from a grassland lysimeter plot (North Wyke, Devon, UK) is reported. They showed rapid, transient but high impact perturbations of DOC (5.3–23 mg C L ) and nitrate–N export after storm/snow melt which discontinuous sampling would not have observed. During a winter freeze/thaw cycle, DOC export (1.25 kg C ha d ) was significantly higher than typical UK catchment values (maximum 0.25 kg C ha d ) and historical North Wyke data (0.7 kg C ha d ). DOC concentrations were inversely correlated with the key DOC physico-chemical drivers of pH (January r = − 0.65), and conductivity (January r = − 0.64). Nitrate–N export (0.8–1.5 mg N L ) was strongly correlated with DOC export (r ≥ 0.8). The DOC:NO –N molar ratios showed that soil microbial N assimilation was not C limited and therefore high N accrual was not promoted in the River Taw, which is classified as a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). The sensor was shown to be an effective sentinel device for identifying critical periods when rapid ecosystem N accumulation could be triggered by a shift in resource stoichiometry. It is therefore a useful tool to help evaluate land management strategies and impacts from climate change and intensive agriculture.
    Keywords: Dissolved Organic Carbon (Doc) ; Nitrate ; Reagentless Uv Sensor ; In-Situ Monitoring ; High Temporal Resolution ; Grassland ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the total environment, 2013, Vol.456, pp.384-391
    Description: Co-deployment of two reagentless UV sensors for high temporal resolution (15min) real time determination of wintertime DOC and nitrate-N export from a grassland lysimeter plot (North Wyke, Devon, UK) is reported. They showed rapid, transient but high impact perturbations of DOC (5.3–23mg CL⁻¹) and nitrate–N export after storm/snow melt which discontinuous sampling would not have observed. During a winter freeze/thaw cycle, DOC export (1.25kg Cha⁻¹d⁻¹) was significantly higher than typical UK catchment values (maximum 0.25kg Chad⁻¹) and historical North Wyke data (0.7kg Cha⁻¹d⁻¹). DOC concentrations were inversely correlated with the key DOC physico-chemical drivers of pH (January r=−0.65), and conductivity (January r=−0.64). Nitrate–N export (0.8–1.5mgNL⁻¹) was strongly correlated with DOC export (r≥0.8). The DOC:NO₃–N molar ratios showed that soil microbial N assimilation was not C limited and therefore high N accrual was not promoted in the River Taw, which is classified as a nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ). The sensor was shown to be an effective sentinel device for identifying critical periods when rapid ecosystem N accumulation could be triggered by a shift in resource stoichiometry. It is therefore a useful tool to help evaluate land management strategies and impacts from climate change and intensive agriculture. ; p. 384-391.
    Keywords: Snowmelt ; Dissolved Organic Carbon ; Watersheds ; Nitrates ; Ecosystems ; Nitrate Nitrogen ; Freezing ; Rivers ; Climate Change ; History ; Winter ; Grasslands ; Storms ; Stoichiometry ; Ph ; Soil
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric Environment, 2012, Vol.47, pp.373-380
    Description: The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (〉2000 μm, 2000–500 μm, 500–100 μm, 〈100 μm) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO–N kg dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (∼1 mg NO–N kg dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (〉2000 μm) induced significantly higher N O emissions (1.8 mg N O–N kg dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N O–N kg dry soil). The 〉2000 μm, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N O emissions. Hence, for N O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the 〉2000 μm, fraction. Low CH emissions (〈200 μg CH –C kg dry soil d ) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N O contributed 10–30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil. ► Slurry particle size has no effect on NO emissions following soil application. ► Slurry separation does not increase NO emissions after soil application. ► The grossest slurry fraction is the main contributor to N O emissions when whole slurry is applied to soil. ► CO emissions should not be disregarded since it is still the major contributor to GHG emissions.
    Keywords: Gaseous Emissions ; Carbon ; Nitrogen Dynamics ; Slurry Treatment ; Particle Size Fractionation ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    E-ISSN: 1873-2844
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Atmospheric environment, 2012, Vol.47, pp.373-380
    Description: The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (〉2000 μm, 2000–500 μm, 500–100 μm, 2000 μm) induced significantly higher N₂O emissions (1.8 mg N₂O–N kg⁻¹ dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N₂O–N kg⁻¹ dry soil). The 〉2000 μm, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N₂O emissions. Hence, for N₂O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the 〉2000 μm, fraction. Low CH₄ emissions (〈200 μg CH₄–C kg⁻¹ dry soil d⁻¹) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH₄ emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO₂ emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO₂ emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N₂O contributed 10–30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil. ; p. 373-380.
    Keywords: Particle Size ; Methane ; Agricultural Soils ; Anaerobic Digestion ; Environmental Impact ; Nitric Oxide ; Nitrous Oxide ; Soil Treatment ; Atmospheric Chemistry ; Carbon Dioxide ; Soil Amendments ; Cattle Manure ; Greenhouse Gas Emissions ; Ammonium Sulfate ; Slurries ; Greenhouse Gases ; Cambisols ; Sandy Loam Soils
    ISSN: 1352-2310
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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