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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    In: Rheumatology, 2016, Vol. 55(7), pp.1151-1152
    Description: AKU Society, the Rosetrees Foundation, the Childwick Trust, the Big Lottery and EUFP7
    Keywords: Medicine;
    ISSN: 1462-0324
    E-ISSN: 1462-0332
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 December 2011, Vol.334(6063), pp.1699-703
    Description: Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.
    Keywords: Biological Evolution ; Elephants -- Anatomy & Histology ; Foot -- Anatomy & Histology ; Sesamoid Bones -- Anatomy & Histology ; Toes -- Anatomy & Histology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Motorsport News, May 15, 2013, p.30(1)
    Keywords: Automobile Racing -- Competitions ; Automobile Racing -- Achievements And Awards ; Race Car Drivers -- Competitions ; Race Car Drivers -- Achievements And Awards
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Motorsport News, June 19, 2013, p.40(1)
    Keywords: Automobile Clubs -- Competitions ; Automobile Racing -- Competitions ; Race Car Drivers -- Competitions ; Race Car Drivers -- Rankings
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Motorsport News, July 24, 2013, p.30(1)
    Keywords: Automobile Rallies -- Competitions ; Race Car Drivers -- Appreciation
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: The Lancet, 10 May 2003, Vol.361(9369), pp.1664-1664
    Description: Hospital systems have advanced substantially since the days when a solid building might be erected in the middle of a town and remain in use for decades or even hundreds of years. Experience showed that such a facility had no intrinsic barrier to access so that any riff-raff could come, whilst the purchase...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0140-6736
    E-ISSN: 1474-547X
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  • 7
    In: Science, Dec 13, 1985, Vol.230, p.1270(3)
    Keywords: Optical Scanners -- Innovations ; Reflection (Physics) -- Usage ; Stereoscopes -- Innovations ; Microscopes -- Innovations ; Microscopy -- Innovations
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    In: Science, Dec 13, 1985, Vol.230, p.1270(3)
    Keywords: Optical Scanners -- Innovations ; Reflection (Physics) -- Usage ; Stereoscopes -- Innovations ; Microscopes -- Innovations ; Microscopy -- Innovations
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    In: Journal of Microscopy, July 2018, Vol.271(1), pp.17-30
    Description: Laser ablation machining or microtomy (LAM) is a relatively new approach to producing slide mounted sections of translucent materials. We evaluated the method with a variety of problems from the bone, joint and dental tissues fields where we require thin undecalcified and undistorted sections for correlative light microscopy (LM) and backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM). All samples were embedded in poly‐methylmethacrlate (PMMA) and flat block surfaces had been previously studied by BSE‐SEM and confocal scanning light microscopy (CSLM). Most were also studied by X‐yay microtomography (XMT). The block surface is stuck to a glass slide with cyanoacrylate adhesive. Setting the section thickness and levelling uses inbuilt optical coherence tomographic imaging. Tight focusing of near‐infrared laser radiation in the sectioning plane gives extreme intensities causing photodisruption of material at the focal point. The laser beam is moved by a fast scanner to write a cutting line, which is simultaneously moved by an positioning unit to create a sectioning plane. The block is thereby released from the slide, leaving the section stuck to the slide. Light, wet polishing on the finest grade (4000 grit) silicon carbide polishing paper is used to remove a 1–2 μm thick damaged layer at the surface of the section. Sections produced by laser cutting are fine in quality and superior to those produced by mechanical cutting and can be thinner than the ‘voxel’ in most laboratory X‐ray microtomography systems. The present extensive pilot studies have shown that it works to produce samples which we can study by both light and electron microscopy. There are several types of tissues in bones and teeth which provide mechanical support, are normally calcified, hard and tough, and difficult to slice finely, which must be done to understand normal and altered structure and function and relationships to surrounding soft cellular parts which maintain them. Classically, hard tissues are softened by removing the mineral component so that they may be cut with a knife: crystals cannot be so cut, because they cannot be bent. But if we ‘decalcify’, we remove a main structural component which we need to understand. It has been next to impossible to have thin slices where all the parts are intact and properly connected. We investigated cutting sections by laser machining. In extensive pilot studies, we have shown that the method works to produce slide‐mounted samples which we can study by both light and electron microscopy. The sections produced are thinner than the ‘voxel’ in most laboratory X‐ray microtomography systems. It should be born in mind that the resolution of the light microscope is still far greater than that of even the highest resolution, synchotron XMT and that this is best obtained in the present context from the use of thin sections. Serial slicing can be achieved with as little as 20 μm waste between sections. Productivity is high: one square centimetre blocks can be cut in 10 min. The basic procedure tested to date has used PMMA embedded material, but this could be any resin, including LR White and glycol methacrylate. A flat block face is produced by micromilling or polishing. The block face can be studied by SEM and confocal at this stage. The block face and the underlying few microns are to be contained in the first section. The block face is stuck to a standard glass light microscope slide with a cyanoacrylate adhesive. We focus through the glass slide, the cyanoacrylate adhesive, the block face, and a further increment into the specimen. The focussed, pulsed laser beam is scanned along a 1 mm line, and this swathe is translated in an snake scan to cover the entire area of the block, which is thereby released from the slide, leaving the section stuck to the slide. Light, wet polishing on the finest grade (4000 grit) silicon carbide polishing paper is used to remove a 1–2 μm thick damaged layer at the surface of the section.
    Keywords: Bone ; Enthesis ; Ligament ; Osteoarthritis ; Osteoporosis ; Tendon
    ISSN: 0022-2720
    E-ISSN: 1365-2818
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Medical Hypotheses, 2009, Vol.73(4), pp.503-505
    Description: It is predicted that the total number of mutations present at the first appearance of a fully malignant clone, including passengers, is so large that every individual patient’s cancer is unique from the outset. The initiating (malignant-clone-defining) mutation set (McDMS) defines the cancer, permits absolute identification of cancer cells including all sub-clones, and thus suggests a mode of attack. Directly or otherwise, a useful proportion of the McDMS will give rise to gene products that can be detected and bound by external physical agents in a specific manner. Using such agents cooperatively, as a team, offers prospects for better diagnosis and treatment, especially if they are harnessed together in one molecule so that they can all bind to their targets at the same time without strain, because that will yield enhanced selectivity and strength of binding.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0306-9877
    E-ISSN: 1532-2777
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