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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2016, Vol.776(1), pp.51-65
    Description: This study addressed the influence of common shoreline engineering structures (off-bankline revetment, rip rap and wing dike) on richness, biomass and secondary production of native and non-native macroinvertebrates in the navigation channel and near-shore habitats in the Elbe River (Germany). Within the navigation channel, only marginal differences among engineering structures were observed, and non-native species were absent from all samples. At the shoreline, secondary production of non-native species was significantly greater at the rip rap and represented 59% of total secondary production in near-shore habitats. Conversely, secondary production of native species at the shoreline was 9-fold lower at the rip rap and more than twice the rates at the wing dike. Differences in secondary production among engineering structures were attributed to differential distribution of substrate types. Boulder substrates, the dominant substrate type in the rip rap, promoted contributions of non-native species while macrophytes and silt were associated with high contributions of native species at the off-bankline revetment. Our results reveal that the morphological configuration of engineering structures in large rivers not only controls the rate of secondary production for macroinvertebrates but also the contribution of non-native species to total community functioning.
    Keywords: Ecosystem functioning ; Elbe River ; Dikerogammarus villosus ; Neozoa ; Non-native species ; River engineering
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 1573-5117
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Protist, July 2012, Vol.163(4), pp.495-528
    Description: Cercomonads are important components of microbial food webs in soils and aquatic sediments. Here, we investigated the general morphology, behaviour, life cycle and 18S rDNA phylogeny of cercomonad cultures from a German grassland soil habitat. We describe ten new species including two new genera from 23 strains. Three , two and three species are described. Based on large phylogenetic distance and distinct morphology, we erect two novel clade B genera near the root of the cercomonad tree. nov. gen. bears a number of characters unusual for cercomonads: Its anterior flagellum is extremely long, it mostly does not glide, and in its most frequent life stage the cell body does not attach to the substratum, but produces unattached pseudopodia. Furthermore, it has a unique nucleus with a peripheral nucleolus that attaches to the nuclear envelope opposite the basal body connection. nov. gen. is extremely metabolic. It is characterized by a very high beating frequency of the anterior flagellum, fast gliding, rapid changes in shape and strong cytoplasmic streams. A new genus is erected for the previously described species . The general morphology of cercomonad species often does not correspond with their phylogenetic position: closely related species may have a very different morphology.
    Keywords: 18s Rdna Phylogeny ; Brevimastigomonas ; Cercomonas ; Metabolomonas ; Nucleocercomonas ; Soil Diversity ; Biology ; Zoology
    ISSN: 1434-4610
    E-ISSN: 1618-0941
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Pedobiologia - International Journal of Soil Biology, 10 January 2013, Vol.56(1), pp.1-7
    Description: Research on soil microbiota is one of the frontiers in biodiversity research. Bacterivores, such as protozoans, contribute significantly to mineralization processes and key ecosystem functions in soil. Protozoan grazing on rhizobacteria stimulates microbial mineralization processes and thereby indirectly nutrient cycling. Understanding the diversity of protozoans and their fundamental functions is essential for knowledge of nutrient cycling. However, reliable data on protozoan numbers and taxonomic composition in soil are scarce. We compared the occurrence of morphotypes of small cultivable protozoans of eight different grassland and forest sites in Germany. The investigated sites differed both in landscape type and intensity of land use. Additionally, we modified a liquid aliquot method to determine protozoan abundances and community structure on the morphotype level in soil. Protozoan abundances at the investigated sites ranged between 1.7 and 12.7 × 10 ind. g dry weight. The dominant groups were various amoebae (49.9 ± 12.4%) and cercozoans (32.4 ± 13.2%), followed by stramenopiles (7.7 ± 4.2%), euglenozoans (7.5 ± 7.6%), apusomonads (1.5 ± 1.5%) and ciliates (0.5 ± 0.7%). Heterotrophic flagellates and naked amoebae showed similar contributions to total protozoan abundances at all sites. Protozoan abundances were slightly higher and more variable in grassland sites compared to forest sites. Both habitat types showed a surprisingly similar community structure on a rough taxonomic level, but a more diverse pattern at a higher taxonomic resolution.
    Keywords: Protists ; Community Structure ; Grassland ; Forest ; Flagellates ; Amoebae ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Zoology
    ISSN: 0031-4056
    E-ISSN: 1873-1511
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Hydrobiologia, 2019, Vol.841(1), p.121(11)
    Description: The role of hydromorphological degradation and temporal variation for food webs in human-modified rivers is still not fully evaluated. We tested the hypothesis that man-made engineering structures alter macroinvertebrate resource use in the Elbe River (Germany) in relation to seasonal variation. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and mixing models revealed that dietary contributions of benthic organic matter (BOM) and phytoplankton were driven by engineering structure. Contributions of biofilm were driven by season, while contributions of terrestrial particulate organic matter (t-POM) were driven by both engineering structure and season. Contributions of t-POM were larger than those of phytoplankton in spring and summer, but not in autumn, which adds to the debate about the sources of organic matter fuelling riverine benthic food webs. Resource availability was not systematically related to resource use, indicating that factors other than resource limitation were responsible for the observed results. By demonstrating that human alterations determine consumer resource use independently from resource availability, our study links hydromorphological modifications to fluxes of matter in riverine food webs. Future studies should quantify organic matter fluxes from various autochthonous and allochthonous pathways in human-modified and natural rivers to allow for a robust synthesis of how hydromorphological modifications alter benthic food webs.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Freshwater & Marine Ecology ; Ecology ; Zoology ; Elbe River ; Food Web ; Stable Isotopes ; Mixing Model ; Non-Native Species ; River Engineering ; Biology ; Oceanography ; Zoology ; Ecology;
    ISSN: 0018-8158
    E-ISSN: 15735117
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    Description: Shore zones of large rivers are hot spots of biodiversity and contribute significantly to riverine ecosystem functioning. Today, shore degradation and other structural impair-ments like river straightening and channelization are strong impact factors on river ecosystem health. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how structural shore zone degradation affects benthic community composition and their inherent ecosystem functions. In this thesis I tested the influence of training structure induced environmental factors on benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and the share of non-native species. Moreover, I assessed the community-associated ecosystem functions in terms of secondary production and resource utilization. In the main channel, communities were composed of only a few specialized taxa with low abundances, which contributed little to riverine secondary production. This is probably due to the harsh conditions produced by constantly high flow velocities and relocation of the fine sandy sediment. Main channel habitats were hardly affected by the adjacent training structure. Hence, species compositions and productivities were similar at all investigated main channel sites. By contrast, each of the shore communities was diverse, highly abundant and productive in comparison to the main channel. However, variations between shore structure communities and their ecosystem functions were prominent. One particular training structure, i.e. the off-bankline revetment, bore the most diverse and by far most productive benthic community, which utilized vast total amounts of basal resources (1,323 g DM m-² y-1). Varying sediment compositions, availability of macrophytes and diverse flow velocities, including lentic conditions, were revealed as key factors for increasing biodiversity, secondary production and resource utilization. Allochthonous boulder habitats were generally highly prone to non-native species invasion. Neozoa proved less productive than many native community members and consumed minor relative and total amounts of the prevailing resource pelagic algae. The present quantitative comparison of shore type specific effects on biodiversity, biomass and productivity provides managers with a tool to improve the ecological attributes of large river ecosystems with an unchangeable, impaired macrostructure. In its entirety, this thesis constitutes a sound basis to increase the mechanistic understanding of the way in which shore zone manipulation can affect riverine benthic communities and their associated ecosystem functions. Die Uferbereiche großer Flüsse sind für die Biodiversität und Funktion dieser Ökosys-teme von enormer Bedeutung. Uferdegradierung und Kanalisierung gehören zu wichti-gen Faktoren, die Flussökosysteme nachhaltig beeinträchtigen. Wie sich anthropogene Umstrukturierungen der Uferbereiche auf die Zusammensetzung benthischer Ge-meinschaften und deren Ökosystemfunktion auswirken ist jedoch weitestgehend unbe-kannt. In dieser Arbeit werden die Effekte von uferspezifischen Habitatfaktoren auf die Komposition des Makrozoobenthos und den Anteil an Neozoen getestet. Zudem wurden die gemeinschaftsassoziierten Ökosystemfunktionen in Bezug auf Sekundärproduktion und Ressourcennutzung erfasst und bewertet. Die benthische Gemeinschaft des Hauptstroms bestand lediglich aus wenigen spezialisierten Arten, welche nur geringfügig zur Gesamtsekundärproduktion des Flusses beitrugen. Dies war vermutlich auf die rauen Bedingungen im Hauptstrom (insbesondere hohe Strömungsgeschwindigkeiten und damit verbundener Sedimenttransport) zurückzuführen. Die Makrozoobenthosgemeinschaften des Hauptroms wurden von den jeweils angrenzenden Ufertypen nicht beeinflusst. Im Gegensatz zum Hauptstrom zeigte jeder der untersuchten Ufertypen hohe Dichten an benthischen Invertebraten wobei sich Zusammensetzung und Funktion der Artengemeinschaften zwischen den Ufertypen stark unterschieden. Dabei brachte das Parallelwerk die diverseste und produktivste Makroinvertebratenfauna hervor, welche enorme Mengen basaler Ressourcen ingestierte (1,323 g DM m-2y-1). Hauptfaktoren für eine Erhöhung von Biodiversität, Sekundärproduktion und Ressourcennutzung waren neben variablen Sedimentzusammensetzungen und Makrophytenbeständen sich oft ändernde Fließgeschwindigkeiten mit lentischen Phasen. Allochthone Steinhabitate waren generell anfällig für die Invasion nicht heimischer Arten. Diese Neozoen waren weniger produktiv als viele heimische Taxa und nutzten nur geringe Mengen pelagischer Algen, welche die meist verfügbare Ressource darstellten. Aus dem ökologischen Vergleich der verschiedenen Ufertypen lassen sich Managementempfehlungen zur Verbesserung des ökologischen Zustandes in Bezug auf Biodiversität und Ökosystemfunktionen ableiten, welche für große Flüsse mit degradierter und unveränderbarer Makrostruktur in Betracht gezogen werden können. In ihrer Gesamtheit liefert diese Arbeit ein fundiertes mechanistisches Verständnis über die Effekte von Ufermanipulationen auf benthische Gemeinschaften und deren assoziierte Ökosystemfunktionen in großen Flüssen.
    Keywords: Info:Eu-Repo/Classification/Ddc/550 ; Ddc:550 ; Makroinvertebraten ; Großer Fluss ; Nahrungsnetz ; Produktion ; Längen-Massen-Relation ; Funktionelle Bewertung ; Macroinvertebrates ; Large River ; Food Web ; Production ; Length-Mass Regression ; Functional Assessment
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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  • 6
    Dissertation
    Dissertation
    Saechsische Landesbibliothek- Staats- und Universitaetsbibliothek Dresden
    Language: English
    Description: Shore zones of large rivers are hot spots of biodiversity and contribute significantly to riverine ecosystem functioning. Today, shore degradation and other structural impair-ments like river straightening and channelization are strong impact factors on river ecosystem health. However, we still lack a thorough understanding of how structural shore zone degradation affects benthic community composition and their inherent ecosystem functions. In this thesis I tested the influence of training structure induced environmental factors on benthic macroinvertebrate community composition and the share of non-native species. Moreover, I assessed the community-associated ecosystem functions in terms of secondary production and resource utilization. In the main channel, communities were composed of only a few specialized taxa with low abundances, which contributed little to riverine secondary production. This is probably due to the harsh conditions produced by constantly high flow velocities and relocation of the fine sandy sediment. Main channel habitats were hardly affected by the adjacent training structure. Hence, species compositions and productivities were similar at all investigated main channel sites. By contrast, each of the shore communities was diverse, highly abundant and productive in comparison to the main channel. However, variations between shore structure communities and their ecosystem functions were prominent. One particular training structure, i.e. the off-bankline revetment, bore the most diverse and by far most productive benthic community, which utilized vast total amounts of basal resources (1,323 g DM m-² y-1). Varying sediment compositions, availability of macrophytes and diverse flow velocities, including lentic conditions, were revealed as key factors for increasing biodiversity, secondary production and resource utilization. Allochthonous boulder habitats were generally highly prone to non-native species invasion. Neozoa proved less productive than many native community members and consumed minor relative and total amounts of the prevailing resource pelagic algae. The present quantitative comparison of shore type specific effects on biodiversity, biomass and productivity provides managers with a tool to improve the ecological attributes of large river ecosystems with an unchangeable, impaired macrostructure. In its entirety, this thesis constitutes a sound basis to increase the mechanistic understanding of the way in which shore zone manipulation can affect riverine benthic communities and their associated ecosystem functions. Die Uferbereiche großer Flüsse sind für die Biodiversität und Funktion dieser Ökosys-teme von enormer Bedeutung. Uferdegradierung und Kanalisierung gehören zu wichti-gen Faktoren, die Flussökosysteme nachhaltig beeinträchtigen. Wie sich anthropogene Umstrukturierungen der Uferbereiche auf die Zusammensetzung benthischer Ge-meinschaften und deren Ökosystemfunktion auswirken ist jedoch weitestgehend unbe-kannt. In dieser Arbeit werden die Effekte von uferspezifischen Habitatfaktoren auf die Komposition des Makrozoobenthos und den Anteil an Neozoen getestet. Zudem wurden die gemeinschaftsassoziierten Ökosystemfunktionen in Bezug auf Sekundärproduktion und Ressourcennutzung erfasst und bewertet. Die benthische Gemeinschaft des Hauptstroms bestand lediglich aus wenigen spezialisierten Arten, welche nur geringfügig zur Gesamtsekundärproduktion des Flusses beitrugen. Dies war vermutlich auf die rauen Bedingungen im Hauptstrom (insbesondere hohe Strömungsgeschwindigkeiten und damit verbundener Sedimenttransport) zurückzuführen. Die Makrozoobenthosgemeinschaften des Hauptroms wurden von den jeweils angrenzenden Ufertypen nicht beeinflusst. Im Gegensatz zum Hauptstrom zeigte jeder der untersuchten Ufertypen hohe Dichten an benthischen Invertebraten wobei sich Zusammensetzung und Funktion der Artengemeinschaften zwischen den Ufertypen stark unterschieden. Dabei brachte das Parallelwerk die diverseste und produktivste Makroinvertebratenfauna hervor, welche enorme Mengen basaler Ressourcen ingestierte (1,323 g DM m-2y-1). Hauptfaktoren für eine Erhöhung von Biodiversität, Sekundärproduktion und Ressourcennutzung waren neben variablen Sedimentzusammensetzungen und Makrophytenbeständen sich oft ändernde Fließgeschwindigkeiten mit lentischen Phasen. Allochthone Steinhabitate waren generell anfällig für die Invasion nicht heimischer Arten. Diese Neozoen waren weniger produktiv als viele heimische Taxa und nutzten nur geringe Mengen pelagischer Algen, welche die meist verfügbare Ressource darstellten. Aus dem ökologischen Vergleich der verschiedenen Ufertypen lassen sich Managementempfehlungen zur Verbesserung des ökologischen Zustandes in Bezug auf Biodiversität und Ökosystemfunktionen ableiten, welche für große Flüsse mit degradierter und unveränderbarer Makrostruktur in Betracht gezogen werden können. In ihrer Gesamtheit liefert diese Arbeit ein fundiertes mechanistisches Verständnis über die Effekte von Ufermanipulationen auf benthische Gemeinschaften und deren assoziierte Ökosystemfunktionen in großen Flüssen.
    Keywords: Makroinvertebraten ; Großer Fluss ; Nahrungsnetz ; Produktion ; Längen-Massen-Relation ; Funktionelle Bewertung ; Macroinvertebrates ; Large River ; Food Web ; Production ; Length-Mass Regression ; Functional Assessment ; Ddc:550 ; Rvk:Wi 4820
    Source: Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations
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