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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 20 April 2010, Vol.107(16), pp.7184-9
    Description: Extragalactic X-ray surveys over the past decade have dramatically improved understanding of the majority populations of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over most of the history of the universe. Here we briefly highlight some of the exciting discoveries about AGN demography, physics, and ecology, with a focus on results from Chandra. We also discuss some key unresolved questions and future prospects.
    Keywords: Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena ; Astrophysics - Cosmology And Nongalactic Astrophysics;
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2013, Vol.104(5), pp.765-785
    Description: System justification theory (SJT) posits that members of low-status groups are more likely to see their social systems as legitimate than members of high-status groups because members of low-status groups experience a sense of dissonance between system motivations and self/group motivations ( Jost, Pelham, Sheldon, & Sullivan, 2003 ). The author examined the status–legitimacy hypothesis using data from 3 representative sets of data from the United States (American National Election Studies and General Social Surveys) and throughout the world (World Values Survey; total N across studies = 151,794). Multilevel models revealed that the average effect across years in the United States and countries throughout the world was most often directly contrary to the status–legitimacy hypothesis or was practically zero. In short, the status–legitimacy effect is not a robust phenomenon. Two theoretically relevant moderator variables (inequality and civil liberties) were also tested, revealing weak evidence, null evidence, or contrary evidence to the dissonance-inspired status–legitimacy hypothesis. In sum, the status–legitimacy effect is not robust and is unlikely to be the result of dissonance. These results are used to discuss future directions for research, the current state of SJT, and the interpretation of theoretically relevant but contrary and null results.
    Keywords: Legitimacy ; System Justification Theory ; Social Status ; Inequality
    ISSN: 0022-3514
    E-ISSN: 1939-1315
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  • 3
    In: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, June 2013, Vol.42(s1), pp.S48-S49
    Description: Purpose for the ProgramTo encourage undergraduate nursing students to think about nursing from a global perspective and explore the needs of underserved childbearing women. Furthermore, to introduce students to scholarly writing for professional presentations or publications. Proposed ChangeTypically, undergraduate nursing students who take courses for honors credit write a literature review or give a presentation to peers/clinical staff on a particular topic germane to the class. Though these exercises are valuable, they do not challenge the students to think about nursing from a global perspective, nor do they require them to write at a professional level worthy of publication/presentation.This program encouraged students to choose a topic related to the health care of underserved childbearing women in the United States and across the globe. Each student chose a different topic and met with the instructor on a regular basis to complete a scholarly paper and an abstract that could be submitted to a professional nursing organization. Implementation, Outcomes, and EvaluationStudents who enrolled in a maternal–child nursing course decided on a project that would enhance their understanding from a global perspective of the nursing implications for underserved childbearing populations. Students were asked to share resources and findings as they conducted literature reviews for their papers. The students wrote a 200‐word abstract and the combined instructor–student effort resulted in the submission of the abstract for presentation at an international nursing conference.Students chose challenging topics. Some of these topics included nursing care of pregnant women, incarcerated women, health implications during pregnancy, delivery for immigrant woman with genital mutilation, nursing considerations for the families with surrogate pregnancies in the United States and Europe, and care of homeless pregnant women in the United States and Europe. Students had never written an abstract before this class, but were successful with coaching. The abstract submitted by the instructor/student team to the international conference of Sigma Theta Tau was accepted as a poster presentation. Implications for Nursing PracticeThis program demonstrates that undergraduate nursing students are able to perform scholarly activities that add to nursing knowledge before the official start of their nursing careers. Early guidance and encouragement may lead to novice nurses who are eager to join and contribute to a global nursing community.
    Keywords: Nursing Education ; Global Maternity/Child Nursing
    ISSN: 0884-2175
    E-ISSN: 1552-6909
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Pediatrics, April 2013, Vol.131(4), pp.e1204-10
    Description: We investigated the role of risk tolerance, time preference, and asthma-specific attitudes in adherence to asthma control medications. Students with persistent asthma completed an online survey on asthma beliefs, risk tolerance, and time preference (n = 47). The time preference questions measure the degree to which the individual discounts future outcomes and essentially prefers immediate gratification to delayed gratification. The risk tolerance questions indicate the individual's dislike of uncertainty about outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Feelings of embarrassment and concern about medication, as well as risk tolerance and time preference, were found to be significant predictors of adherence to control medication in the logistic regression. Analysis of probabilities associated with different profiles shows that at high rates of risk tolerance and discounting of future outcomes, the probability of adherence is near 0 regardless of asthma-specific attitudes. Asthma attitudes have a statistically significant effect for individuals with low rates of risk tolerance and time preference. The risk tolerance and time preferences of the target group should be considered when designing an asthma-intervention program. Individuals who strongly prefer immediate gratification over future benefits and are willing to tolerate uncertain outcomes are unlikely to adhere to controller medication, regardless of their asthma attitudes. In contrast, efforts to affect relevant attitudes will be most fruitful for individuals with low rates of risk tolerance and time preference. However, as we cannot extrapolate these results to a larger population, we must view them with caution.
    Keywords: Personality ; Anti-Asthmatic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Asthma -- Drug Therapy ; Medication Adherence -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00314005
    E-ISSN: 1098-4275
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Marriage and Family, Feb, 2013, Vol.75, p.235(17)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2012.01028.x/abstract Byline: Martina Brandt(1), Christian Deindl(2) Keywords: aging; family policy; intergenerational transfers; multilevel models; parent-child relations; social context Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, N = 60,250 dyads from 13 European countries). Multilevel models showed that social policy plays an important role for intergenerational transfer patterns: The more public assistance was provided to citizens, the more likely parents supported their adult children financially and practically, but this support was less intense in terms of money and time given. Thus, the analyses support the specialization hypothesis that posits a division of labor between family and state for downward intergenerational transfers. Author Affiliation: (1)Max-Planck-Institute for Social Law and Social Policy (2)University of Cologne .sub.* Correspondence: (*) Munich Centre for the Economics of Aging, Max-Planck-Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Amalienst 33, 80799 Munich, Germany (brandt@mea.mpisoc.mpg.de). Article Note: (*) University of Cologne, Research Institute for Sociology, Greinst 2, 50939 Cologne, Germany (deindl@wiso.uni-koeln.de). This paper was edited by David Demo.
    Keywords: Social Policy -- Demographic Aspects ; Intergenerational Transmission -- Social Aspects ; Parent-child Relations -- Research
    ISSN: 0022-2445
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, May 2012, Vol.74(9), pp.1418-1425
    Description: This study investigates the role of childhood conditions and social inequality in older Europeans' propensity to age successfully, controlling for later life risk factors. Successful aging was assessed following Rowe and Kahn's conceptualization, using baseline interviews from the first two waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). These data were merged with retrospective information on participants from 13 Continental European countries, collected as part of the SHARELIFE project. Our sample consists of 22,464 men and women, who are representative of the non-institutionalized population aged 50 or older (mean age: 63.3) in their respective country. Estimating multilevel logistic models, we controlled for demographics (age, sex), childhood conditions (SES, health, cognition), later life risk factors (various dimensions of SES and health behaviors), as well as social inequality (measured by country-specific Gini coefficients). There is an independent association of childhood living conditions with elders' odds of aging well. Higher parental SES, better math and reading skills, as well as self-reports of good childhood health were positively associated with successful aging, even if contemporary characteristics were controlled for. Later life SES and health behaviors exhibited the expected correlations with our dependent variable. Moreover, lower levels of income inequality were associated with a greater probability of meeting Rowe and Kahn's successful aging criteria. We conclude that unfavorable childhood conditions exhibit a harmful influence on individuals' chances to age well across all European welfare states considered in this study. Policy interventions should thus aim at improving the conditions for successful aging throughout the entire life course. Highlights► This study uses unique life history data from 13 European countries to trace the origins of successful aging. ► Childhood conditions greatly impact individuals' odds of aging successfully, independent of later life risk factors. ► Lower social inequality in a country is associated with higher odds of aging well. ► Welfare state policies have the capacity to improve conditions for healthy and active aging from early life onwards.
    Keywords: Europe ; Successful Aging ; Adult Health ; Childhood Conditions ; Social Inequality ; Sharelife
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 18735347
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  • 7
    Article
    Article
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2013, Vol.368(23), pp.2149-2152
    Description: The changes wrought by HIV have affected research, clinical practice, and policy. And the AIDS epidemic provided the foundation for a revolution that upended traditional approaches to “international health,” replacing them with innovative global approaches to disease. Over the past half-century, historians have used episodes of epidemic disease to investigate scientific, social, and cultural change. Underlying this approach is the recognition that disease, and especially responses to epidemics, offers fundamental insights into scientific and medical practices, as well as social and cultural values. As historian Charles Rosenberg wrote, “disease necessarily reflects and lays bare every aspect of the culture in which it occurs.”1 Many historians would consider it premature to write the history of the HIV epidemic. After all, more than 34 million people are currently infected with HIV. Even today, with long-standing public health campaigns and . . .
    Keywords: Aids (Disease) -- Prevention ; Aids (Disease) -- Research ; Public Health;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 8
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2012, Vol.366(1), pp.1-7
    Description: In the past 200 years, the Journal has covered and participated in seismic change in medical knowledge and practice. Yet the Journal 's history also exposes a stability of orientation and approach to fundamental problems of disease in patients and populations. With this issue, the New England Journal of Medicine marks its 200th anniversary. In January 1812, as the first issue came off the handset letterpress, few of its founders could have predicted such continuity and success. (See Figure 1, from an 1812 issue.) John Collins Warren, the renowned Boston surgeon, his colleague James Jackson, a founder of Massachusetts General Hospital, and the small group of distinguished colleagues who joined them in starting the New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery, and the Collateral Branches of Science expressed modest and largely local aspirations for the enterprise. Boston, a growing urban center, and . . .
    Keywords: Massachusetts ; Cancer ; Editorials ; Medicine ; Pneumonia ; Science ; Digital Archives ; Society ; Epidemics ; Tuberculosis ; 20th Century ; Angina Pectoris ; Medical Intelligence ; New England Journal of Medicine;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 13 June 2012, Vol.307(22), pp.2370-1; author reply 2371
    Keywords: European Continental Ancestry Group -- Statistics & Numerical Data ; Trans Fatty Acids -- Blood
    ISSN: 00987484
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, May 15, 2013, Vol.230, p.44(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.11.125 Byline: A. Brandt, A. Balducci Abstract: Ferrocene can be used as a precursor for the synthesis of carbon-coated [alpha]-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nano-particles. The pyrolysis of ferrocene leads to the formation of a compound that can be fully converted into carbon-coated [alpha]-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nano-particles via a simple oxidation in air. This simple, fast and cheap synthetic route enables the realization of carbon-coated nano-particles with particle size in the range of 50-150nm. Moreover, varying the oxidation temperature, it is possible to control precisely the carbon coating present on the nano-particles. The so obtained carbon-coated [alpha]-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 nano-particles can be easily processed in water to realize composite electrodes with a composition suitable for practical application. When used in combination with conventional electrolytes such electrodes display high specific capacity (over 800mAhg.sup.-1 at 0.13Ag.sup.-1), excellent cycling retention (higher than 99% after 50 cycles), and remarkable rate performance (over 400mAhg.sup.-1 at 5Ag.sup.-1). Author Affiliation: Westfalische Wilhelms-Universitat, Institut fur Physikalische Chemie/MEET, Corrensstr. 28/30, 48149 Munster, Germany Article History: Received 6 July 2012; Revised 20 November 2012; Accepted 29 November 2012
    Keywords: Metallocenes -- Usage ; Batteries -- Usage ; Iron Compounds -- Usage ; Electrolytes ; Pyrolysis
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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