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  • 1
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2016, Vol.43(12), pp.741-749
    Description: BACKGROUND: Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. METHODS: Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P 〈 0.01). Among 54 Ct-concordant dyads with ompA genotype data for both members, 96.2% had identical genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher organism load appears associated with concordance among women. Same-genotype chlamydial concordance was high in sexual partnerships. No behavioral factors were sufficiently discriminating to guide partner services activities. Findings may help model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.
    Keywords: Chlamydia Infections -- Genetic Aspects ; Chlamydia Infections -- Development And Progression ; Virulence (Microbiology) -- Genetic Aspects ; Genotypes -- Health Aspects ; Disease Susceptibility -- Genetic Aspects;
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    E-ISSN: 15374521
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 2003, Vol.70(1), pp.93-99
    Description: Objectives: We evaluated the prevalence of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) chlamydia and gonorrhea in clients at a methadone maintenance program and a residential detoxification program. Methods: We collected urine specimens for chlamydia and gonorrhea ligase chain reaction testing and assessed sexual, substance abuse and STI histories. Results: Of 700 subject assessments, 490 occurred among detoxification clients and 210 in methadone maintenance. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 5/700 (0.9, 95% CI=0.1- 1.8%) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in none. All chlamydia infected subjects were recruited from the detoxification program. Subjects reported high risk sexual behavior: 17% reported commercial sex exchange, and 22% reported inconsistent condom use with multiple sexual partners during the prior 2 months. Conclusion: Based on prevalence in Boston, MA, universal screening for STI in substance abuse treatments programs is not warranted. However, routine screening for younger substance abusers and in communities with high prevalence should be considered.
    Keywords: Sexually Transmitted Infection ; Drug Treatment ; Detoxification ; Chlamydia ; Gonorrhea ; Methadone ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 0376-8716
    E-ISSN: 1879-0046
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2016, p.1
    ISSN: 0148-5717
    Source: Wolters Kluwer - Ovid - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (via CrossRef)
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Adolescent Health, 2009, Vol.45(1), pp.63-69
    Description: To examine associations between depressive symptoms and dyad-level sexual risk behavior in young heterosexual dyads with sexually transmitted infection (STI). Chlamydia-positive 14–24-year-old, heterosexually active outpatients and their opposite-sex partners completed an assessment that included demographics, past and recent STI risk behaviors, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Participants in the top 25% of BDI scores within gender were categorized as depressed. Variables were created to identify dyads in which the female or male partner was depressed, as well as a measure of concordance of depression between partners. Dyad-level STI risk variables were created from the STI risk characteristics reported by each dyad member, and associations between these and the depression variables were analyzed. The 130 dyads were comprised of young men and women at high STI risk. One-third of dyads had at least one depressed partner. Dyads in which the female partner was depressed had greater partner age difference, greater total number of lifetime partners, and one or more partners reporting substance use within 2 hours before sex, compared with dyads in which the female partner was not depressed. Dyads in which the male partner was depressed were more likely than the nondepressed-male dyads to report substance use before sex. All dyads in which both partners were depressed reported substance use before sex. In young, chlamydia-infected, heterosexual dyads, depressive symptoms, especially in women, is related to increased dyad-level STI risk, including greater partner age difference, more partners, and substance use before sex.
    Keywords: Depressive Symptoms ; Unsafe Sex ; Sexual Partners ; Dyad ; Medicine ; Social Welfare & Social Work
    ISSN: 1054-139X
    E-ISSN: 1879-1972
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2005, Vol. 43(2), p.684
    Description: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is estimated to be the most widely prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection in the world. Wet-mount microscopy is the most common diagnostic method, although it is less sensitive than culture. The OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (Genzyme Diagnostics, Cambridge, Mass.) (referred to here as OSOM) is a new point-of-care diagnostic assay for T. vaginalis that uses an immunochromatographic capillary flow (dipstick) assay and provides results in 10 min. The purpose of this study was to determine the test characteristics of OSOM compared to those of a composite reference standard (CRS) comprised of wet-mount microscopy and T. vaginalis culture. This multicenter cross-sectional study enrolled sexually active women 〉 or =18 years of age who presented with symptoms of vaginitis, exposure to T. vaginalis, or multiple sexual partners. Vaginal-swab specimens were obtained for T. vaginalis culture, wet mount, and rapid testing. The prevalence of T. vaginalis in this sample was 23.4% (105 of 449) by the CRS. The sensitivity and specificity of OSOM vaginal-swab specimens were 83.3 and 98.8%, respectively, while wet mount had a sensitivity and specificity of 71.4 and 100%, respectively, compared to the CRS. OSOM performed significantly better than wet mount (P = 0.004) and detected T. vaginalis in samples that required 48 to 72 h of incubation prior to becoming culture positive. The performance of the rapid test was not affected by the presence of coinfections with chlamydia and gonorrhea. The OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a simple, objective test that can be expected to improve the diagnosis of T. vaginalis, especially where microscopy and culture are unavailable.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0095-1137
    ISSN: 00951137
    E-ISSN: 1098660X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, February 2009, Vol.80(2), pp.176-8
    Description: Although nitazoxanide has been shown to have activity against Echinococcus multilocularis in animal studies and against E. granulosus in vitro, its use in treatment of human cystic echinococcosis has not been reported. We report a case of progressive bony hydatid disease treated with nitazoxanide that showed a clinical and radiologic response. The patient had a 40-year history of hydatid disease involving the left hip. Despite prolonged courses of albendazole and praziquantel, she had progressive disease with extensive involvement of the left hemipelvis and adjacent soft tissue cysts. She was treated with nitazoxanide, 500 mg twice a day for 3 months in combination with albendazole. The clinical response was supported by imaging showing marked improvement in the soft tissue cysts, with stable disease in the bony pelvis. Although further studies are required, this case suggests that nitazoxanide may be an effective treatment option in hydatid disease, particularly in patients with progressive disease who are receiving conventional therapy.
    Keywords: Antiparasitic Agents -- Therapeutic Use ; Bone Diseases, Infectious -- Drug Therapy ; Echinococcosis -- Drug Therapy ; Echinococcus Granulosus -- Drug Effects ; Pelvis -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Thiazoles -- Therapeutic Use
    E-ISSN: 1476-1645
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 02/01/2009, Vol.80(2), pp.176-178
    ISSN: 0002-9637
    E-ISSN: 1476-1645
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Emerging infectious diseases, January 2019, Vol.25(1), pp.153-156
    Description: We report 3 cases of koala bite wound infection with Lonepinella koalarum-like bacteria requiring antimicrobial and surgical management. The pathogens could not be identified by standard tests. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes identified the genus. Clinicians should isolate bacteria and determine antimicrobial susceptibilities when managing these infections.
    Keywords: 16s Rrna ; Australia ; Lonepinella ; Lonepinella Koalarum ; Pasteurellaceae ; Phascolarctos Cinereus ; Bacteria ; Colony Morphology ; Housekeeping Genes ; Infb ; Koala Bite ; Recn ; Rpob ; Saliva ; Wound Infection ; Zoonoses ; Pasteurellaceae -- Isolation & Purification ; Pasteurellaceae Infections -- Diagnosis ; Phascolarctidae -- Microbiology ; Wound Infection -- Diagnosis
    ISSN: 10806040
    E-ISSN: 1080-6059
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