Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 2013, Vol.70(1), pp.19-52
A new detailed multiphase halogen mechanism, the CAPRAM Halogen Module 2.0 (HM2), has been developed and coupled to the multiphase chemistry mechanism RACM-MIM2ext/CAPRAM 3.0n. The overall mechanism comprises 1,705 reactions including 595 reactions of the HM2. Halogen chemistry box model studies have been, for the first time, performed with a non-permanent cloud scenario for pristine open ocean regions in mid-latitudes. Moreover, detailed time-resolved reaction flux analysis has been used to investigate the multiphase halogen reaction cycles in more detail. Clouds significantly change the multiphase halogen chemical system and new reaction cycles are proposed for in-cloud conditions. While most gas phase concentrations are decreased for chlorine and iodine species, they are increased for bromine. Flux analyses determined the relative contributions of the methylene dihalides CH 2 IX (X = Cl, Br, I) as the main I atom source with a contribution of about 80 % to the total iodocarbon sources. Furthermore, HOI was confirmed to be important for chlorine activation. It is shown that 25 % of the ozone loss can be attributed to halogens. VOC oxidation by halogens is important as halogens account for about 20 % of the methane oxidation and up to 80 % of the oxidation of other VOCs. In other cases, enhanced VOC and VOC oxidation product concentration levels were found. For example, 15 % of the methyl peroxyl radicals are formed after the reaction of chlorine atoms with methane or methyl hydroperoxide. In the aqueous phase, changes in the oxidation of organics do only occur for highly oxidised organics without a C-H bond. For example, over 80 % of oxalic acid are oxidised by electron transfer with Cl 2 − in deliquescent particles during non-cloud periods.
Halogen chemistry ; Multiphase chemistry modelling ; CAPRAM Halogen Module
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