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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, 2014, Vol.49(1), pp.36-41
    Description: The long-term implications of concussive injuries for brain and cognitive health represent a growing concern in the public consciousness. As such, identifying measures sensitive to the subtle yet persistent effects of concussive injuries is warranted. To investigate how concussion sustained early in life influences visual processing in young adults. We predicted that young adults with a history of concussion would show decreased sensory processing, as noted by a reduction in P1 event-related potential component amplitude. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Thirty-six adults (18 with a history of concussion, 18 controls) between the ages of 20 and 28 years completed a pattern-reversal visual evoked potential task while event-related potentials were recorded. The groups did not differ in any demographic variables (all P values 〉 .05), yet those with a concussive history exhibited reduced P1 amplitude compared with the control participants (P = .05). These results suggest that concussion history has a negative effect on visual processing in young adults. Further, upper-level neurocognitive deficits associated with concussion may, in part, result from less efficient downstream sensory capture.
    Keywords: Electroencephalography ; Athletic Injuries -- Physiopathology ; Brain Concussion -- Physiopathology ; Cognition -- Physiology ; Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory -- Physiology ; Sensation -- Physiology
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2017, Vol.49, p.858
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Wolters Kluwer - Ovid (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, 2014, Vol.49(1), pp.24-35
    Description: Increasing attention is being paid to the deleterious effects of sport-related concussion on cognitive and brain health. To evaluate the influence of concussion incurred during early life on the cognitive control and neuroelectric function of young adults. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Forty young adults were separated into groups according to concussive history (0 or 1+). Participants incurred all injuries during sport and recreation before the age of 18 years and were an average of 7.1 ± 4.0 years from injury at the time of the study. All participants completed a 3-stimulus oddball task, a numeric switch task, and a modified flanker task during which event-related potentials and behavioral measures were collected. Reaction time, response accuracy, and electroencephalographic activity. Compared with control participants, the concussion group exhibited decreased P3 amplitude during target detection within the oddball task and during the heterogeneous condition of the switch task. The concussion group also displayed increased N2 amplitude during the heterogeneous version of the switch task. Concussion history was associated with response accuracy during the flanker task. People with a history of concussion may demonstrate persistent decrements in neurocognitive function, as evidenced by decreased response accuracy, deficits in the allocation of attentional resources, and increased stimulus-response conflict during tasks requiring variable amounts of cognitive control. Neuroelectric measures of cognitive control may be uniquely sensitive to the persistent and selective decrements of concussion.
    Keywords: Electroencephalography ; Attention -- Physiology ; Brain Concussion -- Physiopathology ; Cognition -- Physiology ; Event-Related Potentials, P300 -- Physiology ; Reaction Time -- Physiology
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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  • 4
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2011, Vol.365(3), pp.279-281
    Description: Sports are a common cause of spine injuries. Video footage documented an 18-year-old football player who sustained a cervical spine fracture during a head-down tackling maneuver. A telemetry system in the player's helmet measured the location and magnitude of the impact that caused the injury. To the Editor: During an investigation of concussion in American football players, we captured in vivo biomechanical data on a cervical spine fracture as it occurred in a male athlete (age, 18 years; height, 189.0 cm; weight, 79.4 kg) who was performing a head-down tackling maneuver. The cornerback's helmet was equipped with the Head Impact Telemetry System (Simbex), a six-accelerometer array that measures the location and magnitude of an impact. The impact magnitude was quantified by measuring peak linear and rotational acceleration of the head with the use of the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) and Head Injury Criteria (HIC).1, . . .
    Keywords: Football ; Pain ; Spine (Cervical) ; Telemetry ; Medical Imaging ; Biomechanics ; Injuries ; Concussion;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 5
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2016, Vol.48(5S Suppl 1), pp.815-816
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 6
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2015, Vol.47(5S Suppl 1), pp.9-10
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2014, Vol.46, p.17
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Wolters Kluwer - Ovid (via CrossRef)
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  • 8
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2011, Vol.43(5 Suppl 1), pp.129-129
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    Source: Copyright © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. All rights reserved.〈img src=http://exlibris-pub.s3.amazonaws.com/LWW%20logo.png style="vertical-align:middle;margin-left:7px"〉
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  • 9
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2013, Vol.45(4), pp.755-761
    Description: PURPOSE: Recent literature suggests that subconcussive impacts may influence cognitive functioning across the life span. These effects are suggested to manifest as functional and possibly structural changes. Head impact biomechanics during American football have been characterized from the high school to professional level, but style of play has not been considered. The aim of this investigation was to quantify and compare head impact frequencies and magnitudes between two different offensive schemes. METHODS: We investigated the frequencies and magnitudes (linear acceleration [g], rotational acceleration [rad·s], and HITsp) of head impacts sustained by 83 high school football athletes, playing for schools using two different offensive schemes. The two schemes comprised a run-first offense (42 athletes) and a pass-first offense (41 athletes). The Head Impact Telemetry System was used to record head impact measures. RESULTS: A total of 35,620 impacts were recorded across two seasons. Athletes in the run-first offense sustained an average of 456 head impacts per season (41 practices and 9 games), whereas the pass-first offense athletes sustained an average of 304 head impacts per season (44 practices and 9 games). The pass-first offense, however, sustained significantly higher impact magnitudes (P values 〈 0.05; 28.56g, 1777.58 rad·s, and 16.24) than the run-first offense (25.67g, 1675.36 rad·s, and 15.48) across a season. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a first look at how different offensive strategies may influence head impact exposure in football athletes. In the study population, a run-first offense was associated with more frequent head impacts, of smaller magnitude, than a pass-first offense.
    Keywords: Medicine ; Physical Therapy;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of athletic training, 2011, Vol.46(1), pp.85-91
    Description: Postural control and cognitive function are adversely affected by acute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Whether postural-control deficits persist beyond the acute stage in individuals with a history of mTBI is unclear. To determine if postural-control deficits persist in individuals with a history of mTBI. Retrospective cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. As part of an ongoing investigation examining cognitive and motor deficits associated with mTBI, 224 individuals participated in the study. Of these, 62 participants self-reported at least 1 previous physician-diagnosed mTBI. Postural control was assessed using the NeuroCom Sensory Organization Test (SOT) postural-assessment battery. The SOT postural assessment yields 4 indices of postural control: a composite balance score, a visual ratio score, a somatosensory score, and a vestibular score. Postural dynamics were also examined by calculating approximate entropy of center-of-pressure excursions in the anteroposterior and mediolateral axis for each test condition. Minimal differences in the SOT indices were noted among individuals with and without a history of previous mTBI (P 〉 .05). In the group with a history of mTBI, anteroposterior postural irregularity decreased as postural difficulty increased. In contrast, the group without a history of mTBI displayed increased postural irregularity in the mediolateral direction. Individuals with a history of mTBI exhibited altered postural dynamics compared with individuals without a history of mTBI. These findings support the notion that changes in cerebral functioning that affect postural control may persist long after acute injury resolution.
    Keywords: Brain Concussion ; Post-Concussion Syndrome ; Postural Balance -- Physiology
    ISSN: 10626050
    E-ISSN: 1938-162X
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