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  • 1
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(12)
    Description: The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (2012) Correction: Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and Resistance Genes in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater for...
    Keywords: Correction
    ISSN: PLoS ONE
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Applied and environmental microbiology, September 2014, Vol.80(17), pp.5282-91
    Description: Wastewater contains large amounts of pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and antimicrobial resistance determinants. Only a little is known about the dissemination of resistance determinants and changes in soil microbial communities affected by wastewater irrigation. Community DNAs from Mezquital Valley soils under irrigation with untreated wastewater for 0 to 100 years were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of sul genes, encoding resistance to sulfonamides. Amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from community DNAs from soils irrigated for 0, 8, 10, 85, and 100 years was performed and revealed a 14% increase of the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in rainy season soils and a 26.7% increase in dry season soils for soils irrigated for 100 years with wastewater. In particular, Gammaproteobacteria, including potential pathogens, such as Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, and Acinetobacter spp., were found in wastewater-irrigated fields. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 96 isolates from soils irrigated with wastewater for 100 years (48 from dry and 48 from rainy season soils) revealed that 46% were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria (mainly potentially pathogenic Stenotrophomonas strains) and 50% with the Bacilli, whereas all 96 isolates from rain-fed soils (48 from dry and 48 from rainy season soils) were affiliated with the Bacilli. Up to six types of antibiotic resistance were found in isolates from wastewater-irrigated soils; sulfamethoxazole resistance was the most abundant (33.3% of the isolates), followed by oxacillin resistance (21.9% of the isolates). In summary, we detected an increase of potentially harmful bacteria and a larger incidence of resistance determinants in wastewater-irrigated soils, which might result in health risks for farm workers and consumers of wastewater-irrigated crops.
    Keywords: Biota ; Soil Microbiology ; Waste Water ; Agricultural Irrigation -- Methods ; Bacteria -- Classification
    ISSN: 00992240
    E-ISSN: 1098-5336
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: 2015, Vol.10(8), p.e0136806
    Description: In this study, we investigated the impact of the cell membrane composition of E. faecalis on its recognition by the host immune system. To this end, we employed an E. faecalis deletion mutant (ΔbgsA) that does not synthesize the major cell membrane glycolipid diglycosyl-diacylglycerol (DGlcDAG). Proteomic analysis revealed that 13 of a total of 21 upregulated surface-associated proteins of E. faecalis ΔbgsA were lipoproteins. This led to a total lipoprotein content in the cell membrane of 35.8% in ΔbgsA compared to only 9.4% in wild-type bacteria. Increased lipoprotein content strongly affected the recognition of ΔbgsA by mouse macrophages in vitro with an increased stimulation of TNF-α production by heat-fixed bacteria and secreted antigens. Inactivation of the prolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (lgt) in ΔbgsA abrogated TNF-α induction by a ΔbgsA_lgt double mutant indicating that lipoproteins mediate increased activation of mouse macrophages by ΔbgsA. Heat-fixed ΔbgsA bacteria, culture supernatant, or cell membrane lipid extract activated transfected HEK cells in a TLR2-dependent fashion; the same was not true of wild-type bacteria. In mice infected intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of E. faecalis we observed a 70% greater mortality in mice infected with ΔbgsA compared with wild-type-infected mice. Increased mortality due to ΔbgsA infection was associated with elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-2. In summary, our results provide evidence that an E. faecalis mutant lacking its major bilayer forming glycolipid DGlcDAG upregulates lipoprotein expression leading to increased activation of the host innate immune system and virulence in vivo.
    Keywords: Correction
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: 2012, Vol.7(9), p.e45397
    Description: Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin), 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole), and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine) in soils irrigated for 19–28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate) were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15×10 −3 ±0.22×10 −3 copies/16S rDNA) than in non-irrigated soils (4.35×10 −5 ±1.00×10 −5 copies/16S rDNA), while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61×10 –4 ±0.59×10 −4 versus 2.99×10 −5 ±0.26×10 −5 copies/16S rDNA). Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a long-term increase in total microbial biomass.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Agriculture ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Engineering ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Microbiology ; Ecology ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of bacteriology, October 2013, Vol.195(19), pp.4436-44
    Description: pIP501 is a conjugative broad-host-range plasmid frequently present in nosocomial Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. We focus here on the functional analysis of the type IV secretion gene traG, which was found to be essential for pIP501 conjugative transfer between Gram-positive bacteria. The TraG protein, which localizes to the cell envelope of E. faecalis harboring pIP501, was expressed and purified without its N-terminal transmembrane helix (TraGΔTMH) and shown to possess peptidoglycan-degrading activity. TraGΔTMH was inhibited by specific lytic transglycosylase inhibitors hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and bulgecin A. Analysis of the TraG sequence suggested the presence of two domains which both could contribute to the observed cell wall-degrading activity: an N-terminal soluble lytic transglycosylase domain (SLT) and a C-terminal cysteine-, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (CHAP) domain. The protein domains were expressed separately, and both degraded peptidoglycan. A change of the conserved glutamate residue in the putative catalytic center of the SLT domain (E87) to glycine resulted in almost complete inactivity, which is consistent with this part of TraG being a predicted lytic transglycosylase. Based on our findings, we propose that TraG locally opens the peptidoglycan to facilitate insertion of the Gram-positive bacterial type IV secretion machinery into the cell envelope.
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins -- Metabolism ; Enterococcus Faecalis -- Enzymology ; Enterococcus Faecium -- Enzymology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial -- Physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic -- Physiology ; Peptidoglycan -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00219193
    E-ISSN: 1098-5530
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, 10 May 2010, Vol.33(7-8), pp.948-956
    Description: We present a video-densitometric quantification method for the triazine herbicides atraton, terbumeton, simazine, atrazine, and terbutylazine. Triazine herbicides were separated on silica gel using methyl-t-butyl ether, cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v) as mobile phase. The quantification is based on...
    Keywords: Derivatization ; Hptlc ; Linear Calibration Range ; Quantification ; TLC ; Triazine Herbicides ; Video Densitometry ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 1082-6076
    E-ISSN: 1520-572X
    Source: Taylor & Francis (Taylor & Francis Group)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2015, Vol.10(7), p.e0132949
    Description: In this study, we investigated the impact of the cell membrane composition of E. faecalis on its recognition by the host immune system. To this end, we employed an E. faecalis deletion mutant (ΔbgsA) that does not synthesize the major cell membrane glycolipid diglycosyl-diacylglycerol (DGlcDAG). Proteomic analysis revealed that 13 of a total of 21 upregulated surface-associated proteins of E. faecalis ΔbgsA were lipoproteins. This led to a total lipoprotein content in the cell membrane of 35.8% in ΔbgsA compared to only 9.4% in wild-type bacteria. Increased lipoprotein content strongly affected the recognition of ΔbgsA by mouse macrophages in vitro with an increased stimulation of TNF-α production by heat-fixed bacteria and secreted antigens. Inactivation of the prolipoprotein diacylglycerol transferase (lgt) in ΔbgsA abrogated TNF-α induction by a ΔbgsA_lgt double mutant indicating that lipoproteins mediate increased activation of mouse macrophages by ΔbgsA. Heat-fixed ΔbgsA bacteria, culture supernatant, or cell membrane lipid extract activated transfected HEK cells in a TLR2-dependent fashion; the same was not true of wild-type bacteria. In mice infected intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of E. faecalis we observed a 70% greater mortality in mice infected with ΔbgsA compared with wild-type-infected mice. Increased mortality due to ΔbgsA infection was associated with elevated plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-2. In summary, our results provide evidence that an E. faecalis mutant lacking its major bilayer forming glycolipid DGlcDAG upregulates lipoprotein expression leading to increased activation of the host innate immune system and virulence in vivo.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in microbiology, 2015, Vol.6, pp.163
    Description: Long-term irrigation with untreated wastewater can lead to an accumulation of antibiotic substances and antibiotic resistance genes in soil. However, little is known so far about effects of wastewater, applied for decades, on the abundance of IncP-1 plasmids and class 1 integrons which may contribute to the accumulation and spread of resistance genes in the environment, and their correlation with heavy metal concentrations. Therefore, a chronosequence of soils that were irrigated with wastewater from 0 to 100 years was sampled in the Mezquital Valley in Mexico in the dry season. The total community DNA was extracted and the absolute and relative abundance (relative to 16S rRNA genes) of antibiotic resistance genes (tet(W), tet(Q), aadA), class 1 integrons (intI1), quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes (qacE+qacEΔ1) and IncP-1 plasmids (korB) were quantified by real-time PCR. Except for intI1 and qacE+qacEΔ1 the abundances of selected genes were below the detection limit in non-irrigated soil. Confirming the results of a previous study, the absolute abundance of 16S rRNA genes in the samples increased significantly over time (linear regression model, p 〈 0.05) suggesting an increase in bacterial biomass due to repeated irrigation with wastewater. Correspondingly, all tested antibiotic resistance genes as well as intI1 and korB significantly increased in abundance over the period of 100 years of irrigation. In parallel, concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr significantly increased. However, no significant positive correlations were observed between the relative abundance of selected genes and years of irrigation, indicating no enrichment in the soil bacterial community due to repeated wastewater irrigation or due to a potential co-selection by increasing concentrations of heavy metals.
    Keywords: Incp-1 Plasmids ; Aminoglycoside Resistance ; Class 1 Integrons ; Quaternary Ammonium Compound Resistance ; Tetracycline Resistance ; Wastewater Irrigation
    ISSN: 1664-302X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Planar Chromatography – Modern TLC, 06/2010, Vol.23(3), pp.193-197
    ISSN: 0933-4173
    E-ISSN: 1789-0993
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 10
    In: Nutraceutical Business Review, 2018, Vol.5(4), p.36(3)
    Keywords: Pharmaceutical Industry – Methods ; Saponins – Methods ; Medicinal Plants – Methods ; Herbal Medicine – Methods ; Merck & Company Inc.
    ISSN: 2065-1835
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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