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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Immunological Methods, 2006, Vol.311(1), pp.164-173
    Description: The detection and quantification of specific T lymphocytes against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has proven an important laboratory marker in the monitoring of patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT). In these patients HCMV infections may cause severe disease and death. However, the determination of HCMV-specific T lymphocytes may be limited by lymphopenia occurring after transplantation. We evaluated a commercial test kit for the reliable determination of HCMV-specific T lymphocyte development in lymphopenic patients after stem cell transplantation. Using a whole blood protocol for the flow cytometric detection of antigen-specific CD4 T-helper and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes this test kit measures intracellular cytokine production after stimulation with HCMV antigen. The measurement of HCMV-specific T lymphocytes was feasible when at least 3000 CD4 or 1000 CD8 T cells could be counted by flow cytometry. Detection of HCMV-specific T lymphocytes was possible, on average, 67 (SD ± 61) days after transplantation for CD4 cells and 27 (SD ± 13) days for CD8 cells, thus being still within the critical time for HCMV reactivation. In conclusion, the use of modern test kits permits the measurement of HCMV-specific T lymphocytes in stem cell transplant recipients and may be included in the HCMV monitoring system after SCT.
    Keywords: Flow Cytometric Analysis ; Antigen-Specific T Lymphocytes ; Intracellular Cytokine Expression ; Stem Cell Transplantation ; Human Cytomegalovirus ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0022-1759
    E-ISSN: 1872-7905
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Virology, 2006, Vol.35(2), pp.160-166
    Description: The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes severe complications in immunosuppressed patients, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The immunological components important for the control of HCMV are still not completely understood. To evaluate the importance of cellular and humoral immunity in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients, we analysed levels of HCMV specific IFN-γ producing CD4 cells and glycoprotein B (gB) specific antibodies in HCMV positive SCT patients with and without reactivation episodes after SCT. Patients without HCMV reactivation episodes showed a slow but steady increase in both parameters after SCT, indicating that initial high levels of gB specific antibodies or HCMV specific CD4 IFN-γ+ cells are not necessary to prevent reactivation of HCMV. In contrast, patients with reactivation episodes showed a steep, significant increase in HCMV specific CD4 IFN-γ+ counts just prior to HCMV reactivation, followed by a decline after the reactivation period. Patients who underwent only a single reactivation generated significant higher amounts of CD4 IFN-γ+ cells, than did patients with further reactivation episodes. The course of gB specific antibodies for reactivating patients was different, with significantly higher average values in the patients with HCMV reactivation. This indicates that patients with a HCMV reactivation exhibit a stronger humoral dominated immune response.
    Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) ; Hcmv Specific Cd4 + IFN-Γ+ Cells ; Glycoprotein B (Gb) Specific Antibodies ; Stem Cell Transplant Recipients ; Biology
    ISSN: 1386-6532
    E-ISSN: 1873-5967
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 2005, Vol.194(1), pp.55-59
    Description: Intracellular glutathione (GSH) plays an important regulatory role in the host response to viral infections. Replenishment of intracellular GSH is a desirable yet challenging goal, since systemic GSH supplementation is rather inefficient due to a short half-life of GSH in blood plasma. Further, GSH is not taken up by cells directly, but needs to be broken down into amino acids and resynthesized to GSH intracellularly, this process often being impaired during viral infections. These obstacles may be overcome by a novel glutathione derivative S-acetylglutathione (S-GSH), which is more stable in plasma and taken up directly by cells with subsequent conversion to GSH. In the present study, in vitro effects of supplementation with S-GSH or GSH on intracellular GSH levels, cell survival and replication of human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were studied in human foreskin fibroblasts. In addition, in vivo effects of supplementation with S-GSH or GSH on HSV-1-induced mortality were studied in hr/hr mice. In cell culture, viral infection resulted in a significant decrease of intracellular GSH levels. S-GSH efficiently and dose-dependently (5 and 10 mM tested) restored intracellular GSH, and this replenishment was more efficient than with GSH supplementation. In mice, S-GSH, but not GSH, significantly decreased HSV-1-induced mortality ( P 〈0.05). The data suggest that S-GSH is a suitable antiviral agent against HSV-1 both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that this drug may be of benefit in the adjunctive therapy of HSV-1 infections.
    Keywords: Intracellular glutathione ; S-acetylglutathione ; Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection ; Antiviral drugs
    ISSN: 0300-8584
    E-ISSN: 1432-1831
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  • 4
    Language: German
    Description: Thesis (doctoral)--Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 1998 ; 70 p
    Source: Center for Research Libraries
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