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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science, 29 August 2011, Vol.333(7, 2011)
    Description: Fanconi anemia is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Central to this pathway is the Fanconi anemia I-Fanconi anemia D2 (FANCI-FANCD2) (ID) complex, which is activated by DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and monoubiquitination. The 3.4 angstrom crystal structure of the {approx}300 kilodalton ID complex reveals that monoubiquitination and regulatory phosphorylation sites map to the I-D interface, suggesting that they occur on monomeric proteins or an opened-up complex and that they may serve to stabilize I-D heterodimerization. The 7.8 angstrom electron-density map of FANCI-DNA crystals and in vitro data show that each protein has binding sites for both single- and double-stranded DNA, suggesting that the ID complex recognizes DNA structures that result from the encounter of replication forks with an ICL.
    Keywords: Basic Biological Sciences ; 60 Applied LIFE Sciences ; Anemias ; Crystal Structure ; Crystals ; Defects ; DNA Damages ; DNA Repair ; Electron Density ; In Vitro ; Neoplasms ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins ; Repair ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 0193-4511
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 10959203
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 01/2010, Vol.98(3), S1, p.270a
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 00063495
    E-ISSN: 15420086
    Source: Elsevier (via CrossRef)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 October 2018, Vol.115(43), pp.E10022-E10031
    Description: SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) that depletes cellular dNTPs in noncycling cells to promote genome stability and to inhibit retroviral and herpes viral replication. In addition to being substrates, cellular nucleotides also allosterically regulate SAMHD1 activity. Recently, it was shown that high expression levels of SAMHD1 are also correlated with significantly worse patient responses to nucleotide analog drugs important for treating a variety of cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we used biochemical, structural, and cellular methods to examine the interactions of various cancer drugs with SAMHD1. We found that both the catalytic and the allosteric sites of SAMHD1 are sensitive to sugar modifications of the nucleotide analogs, with the allosteric site being significantly more restrictive. We crystallized cladribine-TP, clofarabine-TP, fludarabine-TP, vidarabine-TP, cytarabine-TP, and gemcitabine-TP in the catalytic pocket of SAMHD1. We found that all of these drugs are substrates of SAMHD1 and that the efficacy of most of these drugs is affected by SAMHD1 activity. Of the nucleotide analogs tested, only cladribine-TP with a deoxyribose sugar efficiently induced the catalytically active SAMHD1 tetramer. Together, these results establish a detailed framework for understanding the substrate specificity and allosteric activation of SAMHD1 with regard to nucleotide analogs, which can be used to improve current cancer and antiviral therapies.
    Keywords: Samhd1 ; Allosteric Regulation ; Dntpase ; Nucleotide Analog Drugs ; Substrate Selection ; Allosteric Site -- Drug Effects ; Catalytic Domain -- Drug Effects ; Drug Interactions -- Physiology ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute -- Metabolism ; SAM Domain and HD Domain-Containing Protein 1 -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Biophysical Journal, 31 January 2012, Vol.102(3), pp.75a-75a
    Keywords: Biology
    ISSN: 0006-3495
    E-ISSN: 1542-0086
    Source: ScienceDirect Journals (Elsevier)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 17 April 2018, Vol.115(16), pp.E3798-E3807
    Description: Sterile alpha motif and HD-domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) blocks replication of retroviruses and certain DNA viruses by reducing the intracellular dNTP pool. SAMHD1 has been suggested to down-regulate IFN and inflammatory responses to viral infections, although the functions and mechanisms of SAMHD1 in modulating innate immunity remain unclear. Here, we show that SAMHD1 suppresses the innate immune responses to viral infections and inflammatory stimuli by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and type I interferon (IFN-I) induction. Compared with control cells, infection of SAMHD1-silenced human monocytic cells or primary macrophages with Sendai virus (SeV) or HIV-1, or treatment with inflammatory stimuli, induces significantly higher levels of NF-κB activation and IFN-I induction. Exogenous SAMHD1 expression in cells or SAMHD1 reconstitution in knockout cells suppresses NF-κB activation and IFN-I induction by SeV infection or inflammatory stimuli. Mechanistically, SAMHD1 inhibits NF-κB activation by interacting with NF-κB1/2 and reducing phosphorylation of the NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα. SAMHD1 also interacts with the inhibitor-κB kinase ε (IKKε) and IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7), leading to the suppression of the IFN-I induction pathway by reducing IKKε-mediated IRF7 phosphorylation. Interactions of endogenous SAMHD1 with NF-κB and IFN-I pathway proteins were validated in human monocytic cells and primary macrophages. Comparing splenocytes from knockout and heterozygous mice, we further confirmed SAMHD1-mediated suppression of NF-κB activation, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved property of SAMHD1. Our findings reveal functions of SAMHD1 in down-regulating innate immune responses to viral infections and inflammatory stimuli, highlighting the importance of SAMHD1 in modulating antiviral immunity.
    Keywords: Nf-kB ; Samhd1 ; Inflammatory Stimuli ; Type I Interferon ; Viral Infection ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation -- Immunology ; Interferon-Alpha -- Biosynthesis ; Nf-Kappa B -- Metabolism ; SAM Domain and HD Domain-Containing Protein 1 -- Physiology ; Virus Diseases -- Immunology
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 29 March 2018, Vol.13(3)
    Description: Human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (A3) proteins are a family of cytidine deaminases that catalyze the conversion of deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuridine (dU) in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). A3 proteins act in the innate immune response to viral infection by mutating the viral ssDNA. One of the most well-studied human A3 family members is A3G, which is a potent inhibitor of HIV-1. Each A3 protein prefers a specific substrate sequence for catalysis—for example, A3G deaminates the third dC in the CC C A sequence motif. However, the interaction between A3G and ssDNA is difficult to characterize due to poor solution behavior of the full-length protein and loss of DNA affinity of the truncated protein. Here, we present a novel DNA-anchoring fusion strategy using the protection of telomeres protein 1 (Pot1) which has nanomolar affinity for ssDNA, with which we captured an A3G-ssDNA interaction. We crystallized a non-preferred adenine in the -1 nucleotide-binding pocket of A3G. The structure reveals a unique conformation of the catalytic site loops that sheds light onto how the enzyme scans substrate in the -1 pocket. Furthermore, our biochemistry and virology studies provide evidence that the nucleotide-binding pockets on A3G influence each other in selecting the preferred DNA substrate. Together, the results provide insights into the mechanism by which A3G selects and deaminates its preferred substrates and help define how A3 proteins are tailored to recognize specific DNA sequences. This knowledge contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of DNA substrate selection by A3G, as well as A3G antiviral activity against HIV-1.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cell Reports, 14 November 2017, Vol.21(7), pp.1707-1714
    Description: The Pif1 helicase functions with DNA polymerase (Pol) δ in DNA synthesis during break-induced replication (BIR), a conserved pathway responsible for replication fork repair and telomere recombination. Pif1 interacts with the DNA polymerase processivity clamp PCNA, but the functional significance of the Pif1-PCNA complex remains to be elucidated. Here, we solve the crystal structure of PCNA in complex with a non-canonical PCNA-interacting motif in Pif1. The structure guides the construction of a Pif1 mutant that is deficient in PCNA interaction. This mutation impairs the ability of Pif1 to enhance DNA strand displacement synthesis by Pol δ and also the efficiency of BIR in cells. These results provide insights into the role of the Pif1-PCNA-Pol δ ensemble during DNA break repair by homologous recombination. The Pif1-PCNA-Pol δ complex plays an important role in DNA repair through break-induced replication. Buzovetsky et al. determine the crystal structure of a non-canonical PCNA-binding motif in Pif1 bound to PCNA. Biochemical and genetic analysis reveal that the Pif1-PCNA complex enhances Pol δ-mediated DNA synthesis.
    Keywords: Pif1 ; Pcna ; DNA Polymerase Δ ; PIP Box ; Homologous Recombination ; Break Induced Replication ; Biology
    ISSN: 2211-1247
    E-ISSN: 2211-1247
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Nat Commun, 2018, Vol.9(1), pp.411-411
    Description: Human SAMHD1 (hSAMHD1) is a retroviral restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 infection by depleting the cellular nucleotides required for viral reverse transcription. SAMHD1 is allosterically activated by nucleotides that induce assembly of the active tetramer. Although the catalytic core of hSAMHD1 has been studied extensively, previous structures have not captured the regulatory SAM domain. Here we report the crystal structure of full-length SAMHD1 by capturing mouse SAMHD1 (mSAMHD1) structures in three different nucleotide bound states. Although mSAMHD1 and hSAMHD1 are highly similar in sequence and function, we find that mSAMHD1 possesses a more complex nucleotide-induced activation process, highlighting the regulatory role of the SAM domain. Our results provide insights into the regulation of SAMHD1 activity, thereby facilitating the improvement of HIV mouse models and the development of new therapies for certain cancers and autoimmune diseases.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of virology, 15 March 2018, Vol.92(6)
    Description: Sterile alpha motif and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) regulates intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels and functions as a retroviral restriction factor through its dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) activity. Human SAMHD1 interacts with cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin A2, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK2. This interaction mediates phosphorylation of SAMHD1 at threonine 592 (T592), which negatively regulates HIV-1 restriction. We previously reported that the interaction is mediated, at least in part, through a cyclin-binding motif (RXL, amino acids [aa] 451 to 453). To understand the role of the RXL motif in regulating SAMHD1 activity, we performed structural and functional analyses of RXL mutants and the effect on HIV-1 restriction. We found that the RXL mutation (R451A and L453A, termed RL/AA) disrupted SAMHD1 tetramer formation and abolished its dNTPase activity and in cells. Compared to wild-type (WT) SAMHD1, the RL/AA mutant failed to restrict HIV-1 infection and had reduced binding to cyclin A2. WT SAMHD1 and RL/AA mutant proteins were degraded by Vpx from HIV-2 but were not spontaneously ubiquitinated in the absence of Vpx. Analysis of proteasomal and autophagy degradation revealed that WT and RL/AA SAMHD1 protein levels were enhanced only when both pathways of degradation were simultaneously inhibited. Our results demonstrate that the RXL motif of human SAMHD1 is required for its HIV-1 restriction, tetramer formation, dNTPase activity, and efficient phosphorylation at T592. These findings identify a new functional domain of SAMHD1 important for its structural integrity, enzyme activity, phosphorylation, and HIV-1 restriction. SAMHD1 is the first mammalian dNTPase identified as a restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 replication by decreasing the intracellular dNTP pool in nondividing cells, although the critical mechanisms regulating SAMHD1 function remain unclear. We previously reported that mutations of a cyclin-binding RXL motif in human SAMHD1 significantly affect protein expression levels, half-life, nuclear localization, and phosphorylation, suggesting an important role of this motif in modulating SAMHD1 functions in cells. To further understand the significance and mechanisms of the RXL motif in regulating SAMHD1 activity, we performed structural and functional analyses of the RXL motif mutation and its effect on HIV-1 restriction. Our results indicate that the RXL motif is critical for tetramer formation, dNTPase activity, and HIV-1 restriction. These findings help us understand SAMHD1 interactions with other host proteins and the mechanisms regulating SAMHD1 structure and functions in cells.
    Keywords: HIV-1 ; Samhd1 ; Cyclin Binding ; Dntpase ; Infection ; Restriction ; Structure ; HIV Infections ; HIV-1 ; Mutation, Missense ; Protein Multimerization ; SAM Domain and HD Domain-Containing Protein 1
    ISSN: 0022538X
    E-ISSN: 1098-5514
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  • 10
    In: Cell Research, 2016
    Description: Dear Editor, Since ZIKV outbreak was first reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean, it has spread to both North America and Asia [1]. Preliminary reports have now estimated as many as 1.3 million cases of infection in this widespread epidemic [2]. Initially it was thought that the ZIKV only as fever, myalgia, and rash; causes mild symptoms such recent studies have revealed that ZIKV can also cause severe neurological patholo- gies such as neonatal microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome [3].
    Keywords: 抑制机制 ; 蛋白酶 ; 病毒 ; 激活;
    ISSN: 1001-0602
    E-ISSN: 1748-7838
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