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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Global Change Biology, 2015, Vol.21(7), p.2804(14)
    Description: To purchase or authenticate to the full-text of this article, please visit this link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.12876/abstract Byline: Carsten W. Mueller, Janet Rethemeyer, Jenny Kao-Kniffin, Sebastian Loppmann, Kenneth M. Hinkel, James G. Bockheim Keywords: .sub.13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy; .sub.14 C ; density fractionation; drained thaw lake basin; free particulate organic matter; mineral-associated organic matter; occluded organic matter Abstract Permafrost-affected soils of the northern circumpolar region represent 50% of the terrestrial soil organic carbon (SOC) reservoir and are most strongly affected by climatic change. There is growing concern that this vast SOC pool could transition from a net C sink to a source. But so far little is known on how the organic matter (OM) in permafrost soils will respond in a warming future, which is governed by OM composition and possible stabilization mechanisms. To investigate if and how SOC in the active layer and adjacent permafrost is protected against degradation, we employed density fractionation to separate differently stabilized SOM fractions. We studied the quantity and quality of OM in different compartments using elemental analysis, .sub.13C solid-phase nuclear magnetic resonance (.sub.13C-NMR) spectroscopy, and .sub.14C analyses. The soil samples were derived from 16 cores from drained thaw lake basins, ranging from 0 to 5500 years of age, representing a unique series of developing Arctic soils over time. The normalized SOC stocks ranged between 35.5 and 86.2 kg SOC m.sub.-3, with the major amount of SOC located in the active layers. The SOC stock is dominated by large amounts of particulate organic matter (POM), whereas mineral-associated OM especially in older soils is of minor importance on a mass basis. We show that tremendous amounts of over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored as presumably easily degradable OM rich in carbohydrates. Only about 10 kg OC per square meter is present as presumably more stable, mineral-associated OC. Significant amounts of the easily degradable, carbohydrate-rich OM are preserved in the yet permanently frozen soil below the permafrost table. Forced by global warming, this vast labile OM pool could soon become available for microbial degradation due to the continuous deepening of the annually thawing active layer.
    Keywords: Soils ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 1354-1013
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2009, Vol.323(1), pp.111-123
    Description: In a lysimeter experiment with juvenile beech trees ( Fagus sylvatica L.) we studied the development of depth gradients of soil organic matter (SOM) composition and distribution after soil disturbance. The sampling scheme applied to the given soil layers (0–2 cm, 2–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm) was crucial to study the subtle reformation of SOM properties with depth in the artificially filled lysimeters. Due to the combination of physical SOM fractionation with the application of 15 N-labelled beech litter and 13 C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy we were able to obtain a detailed view on vertical differentiation of SOM properties. Four years after soil disturbance a significant decrease of the mass of particulate OM (POM) with depth could be found. A clear depth distribution was also shown for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) within the SOM fractions related to bulk soil. The mineral fractions 〈63 µm clearly dominated C storage (between 47 to 60% of bulk soil C) and N storage (between 68 to 86% of bulk soil N). A drastic increase in aliphatic C structures concomitant to decreasing O/N-alkyl C was detected with depth, increasing from free POM to occluded POM. Only a slight depth gradient was observed for 13 C but a clear vertical incorporation of 15 N from the applied labelled beech litter was demonstrated probably resulting from faunal and fungal incorporation. We clearly demonstrated a significant reformation of a SOM depth profile within a very short time of soil evolution. One important finding of this study is that especially in soils with reforming SOM depth gradients after land-use changes selective sampling of whole soil horizons can bias predictions of C and N dynamics as it overlooks a potential development of gradients of SOM properties on smaller scales.
    Keywords: Lysimeter ; Particulate organic matter ; Mineral bound organic matter ; Isotopic tracer ; C ; N ; C-CPMAS NMR ; Fungal hyphae
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Fungal biology and biotechnology, 2017, Vol.4, pp.10
    Description: The industrial applications of cellulases are mostly limited by the costs associated with their production. Optimized production pathways are therefore desirable. Based on their enzyme inducing capacity, celluloses are commonly used in fermentation media. However, the influence of their physiochemical characteristics on the production process is not well understood. In this study, we examined how physical, structural and chemical properties of celluloses influence cellulase and hemicellulase production in an industrially-optimized and a non-engineered filamentous fungus: RUT-C30 and . The performance was evaluated by quantifying gene induction, protein secretion and enzymatic activities. Among the three investigated substrates, the powdered cellulose was found to be the most impure, and the residual hemicellulosic content was efficiently perceived by the fungi. It was furthermore found to be the least crystalline substrate and consequently was the most readily digested cellulose in vitro. In vivo however, only RUT-C30 was able to take full advantage of these factors. When comparing carbon catabolite repressed and de-repressed strains of and , we found that /- is at least partially responsible for this observation, but that the different wiring of the molecular signaling networks is also relevant. Our findings indicate that crystallinity and hemicellulose content are major determinants of performance. Moreover, the genetic background between WT and modified strains greatly affects the ability to utilize the cellulosic substrate. By highlighting key factors to consider when choosing the optimal cellulosic product for enzyme production, this study has relevance for the optimization of a critical step in the biotechnological (hemi-) cellulase production process.
    Keywords: Cellulase Production ; Cellulose Crystallinity ; Microcrystalline Cellulose ; Neurospora Crassa ; Powdered Cellulose ; Rut-C30 ; Trichoderma Reesei
    E-ISSN: 2054-3085
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2016, Vol.6(1), pp.29478-29478
    Description: Soil organic carbon (SOC) from aboveground and belowground sources has rarely been differentiated although it may drive SOC turnover and stabilization due to a presumed differing source dependent degradability. It is thus crucial to better identify the location of SOC from different sources for the parameterization of SOC models, especially in the less investigated subsoils. The aim of this study was to spatially assess contributions of organic carbon from aboveground and belowground parts of beech trees to subsoil organic carbon in a Dystric Cambisol. Different sources of SOC were distinguished by solvent-extractable and hydrolysable lipid biomarkers aided by C analyses of soil compartments 〈63 μm. We found no effect of the distance to the trees on the investigated parameters. Instead, a vertical zonation of the subsoil was detected. A high contribution of fresh leaf- and root-derived organic carbon to the upper subsoil (leaf- and root-affected zone) indicate that supposedly fast-cycling, leaf-derived SOC may still be of considerable importance below the A-horizon. In the deeper subsoil (root-affected zone), roots were an important source of fresh SOC. Simultaneously, strongly increasing apparent C ages (3860 yrs BP) indicate considerable contribution of SOC that may be inherited from the Pleistocene parent material.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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  • 5
    In: Nature Geoscience, 2014, Vol.7(6), p.428
    ISSN: 1752-0894
    E-ISSN: 1752-0908
    Source: Nature Publishing Group
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  • 6
    In: Nature Communications, 2014, Vol.5
    Description: The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established, and clay content or mineral surface area has been used to estimate the sequestration potential of soils. Here, via incubation of a sieved (〈2 mm) topsoil with labelled litter, we find that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind organic matter (OM). Surprisingly, 〈19% of the visible mineral areas show an OM attachment. OM is preferentially associated with organo-mineral clusters with rough surfaces. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. These results, which provide evidence that only a limited proportion of the clay-sized surfaces contribute to OM sequestration, revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration in soils and the widely used carbon saturation estimates. Clay-sized particles bind organic matter and sequester carbon and nitrogen in soils, yet extent and localization of organic matter coverage remain unclear. Using NanoSIMS, Vogel et al. chemically image soils at ultra-high resolution and show that only particles with rough surfaces react with organic matter.
    Keywords: Article;
    ISSN: 2041-1723
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 01 May 2017, Vol.293, pp.44-53
    Description: Organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost affected soils of the higher northern latitudes is known to be highly vulnerable to ongoing climatic change. Although the ways to quantify soil OC and to study connected C dynamics from ecosystem to global scale in the Arctic has improved substantially over the last years, the basic mechanisms of OC sequestration are still not well understood. Here we demonstrate a first approach to directly study micro scale soil structures mainly responsible for soil OC (SOC) stabilization using nano scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). A cross section from a permafrost layer of a Cryosol from Northern Alaska was analysed using a cascade of imaging techniques from reflectance light microscopy (RLM) to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to NanoSIMS. This allowed for the direct evaluation of micro scale soil structures known to be hot spots for microbial activity and SOC stabilization in temperate soils. The imaging techniques were supported by classical soil analyses. Using this unique set of techniques we are able to evidence the formation of micro-aggregate structures in the vicinity of plant residues in permafrost soils. This clearly indicates biogeochemical interfaces at plant surfaces as important spheres for the formation of more complex soil structures in permafrost soils. Organo-mineral associations from these hot spots of microbial activity were recovered from plant residues (free particulate organic matter, fPOM) as fine grained mineral fraction with a typically low C/N ratio. This nicely illustrates the link between classical bulk analysis and state of the art spectromicroscopic techniques.
    Keywords: Particulate Organic Matter ; Mineral Associated Organic Matter ; Micro Aggregate ; Nanosims ; SEM ; Supervised Image Classification ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, Nov 27, 2018
    Description: Subsoils are known to harbor large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) and may represent key global carbon (C) sinks given appropriate management. Although rhizodeposition is a major input pathway of organic matter to subsoils, little knowledge exists on C dynamics, particularly stabilization mechanisms, such as soil aggregation, in the rhizosphere of different soil depths. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of natural and elevated root exudation on C allocation and aggregation in the topsoil and subsoil of a mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest. We experimentally added model root exudates to soil at two different concentrations using artificial roots and analyzed how these affect SOC, nitrogen, microbial community composition, and size distribution of water-stable aggregates. Based on the experimental data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the spatial distribution of the formation of soil aggregates and their binding strength. Our results demonstrate that greater exudate additions affect the microbial community composition in favor of fungi which promote the formation of macroaggregates. This effect was most pronounced in the C-poor subsoil, where macroaggregation increased by 86% and SOC content by 10%. Our modeling exercise reproduced the observed increase in subsoil SOC at high exudate additions. We conclude that elevated root exudation has the potential to increase biotic macroaggregation and thus the C sink strength in the rhizosphere of forest subsoils.
    Keywords: Soil Structure ; Fungi ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 2296-665X
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, Feb 9, 2018
    Description: Plant roots are major transmitters of atmospheric carbon into soil. The rhizosphere, the soil volume around living roots influenced by root activities, represents hotspots for organic carbon (OC) inputs, microbial activity, and carbon turnover. Rhizosphere processes remain poorly understood and the observation of key mechanisms for carbon transfer and protection in intact rhizosphere microenvironments are challenging. We deciphered the fate of photosynthesis-derived OC in intact wheat rhizosphere, combining stable isotope labeling at field scale with high-resolution 3D-imaging. We used nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry and focus ion beam-scanning electron microscopy to generate insights into rhizosphere processes at nanometer scale. In immature wheat roots, the carbon circulated through the apoplastic pathway, via cell walls, from the stele to the cortex. The carbon was transferred to substantial microbial communuties, mainly represented by bacteria surrounding peripheral root cells. Iron oxides formed bridges between roots and bigger mineral particles, such as quartz, and surrounded bacteria in microaggregates close to the root surface. Some microaggregates were also intimately associated with the fungal hyphae surface. Based on these results, we propose a conceptual model depicting the fate of carbon at biogeochemical interfaces in the rhizosphere, at the forefront of growing roots. We observed complex interplays between vectors (roots, fungi, bacteria), transferring plant-derived OC into root-free soil and stabilizing agents (iron oxides, root and microorganism products), potentially protecting plant-derived OC within microaggregates in the rhizosphere.
    Keywords: Soil Structure ; Soil Microbiology ; Soil Carbon
    ISSN: 2296-665X
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Sci Rep, 2018, Vol.8(1), pp.3367-3367
    Description: Subaerial endolithic systems of the current extreme environments on Earth provide exclusive insight into emergence and development of soils in the Precambrian when due to various stresses on the surfaces of hard rocks the cryptic niches inside them were much more plausible habitats for organisms than epilithic ones. Using an actualistic approach we demonstrate that transformation of silicate rocks by endolithic organisms is one of the possible pathways for the beginning of soils on Earth. This process led to the formation of soil-like bodies on rocks in situ and contributed to the raise of complexity in subaerial geosystems. Endolithic systems of East Antarctica lack the noise from vascular plants and are among the best available natural models to explore organo-mineral interactions of a very old “phylogenetic age” (cyanobacteria-to-mineral, fungi-to-mineral, lichen-to-mineral). On the basis of our case study from East Antarctica we demonstrate that relatively simple endolithic systems of microbial and/or cryptogamic origin that exist and replicate on Earth over geological time scales employ the principles of organic matter stabilization strikingly similar to those known for modern full-scale soils of various climates.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 2045-2322
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