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  • 1
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2014, Vol.111(3), pp.506-515
    Description: The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft ® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific ‘note files’ that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data.
    Keywords: Full Papers; Dietary Surveys And Nutritional Epidemiology; Diets; 24 h Dietary Recall; Quality Controls; Methods
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 2
    In: EFSA Supporting Publications, September 2013, Vol.10(9), pp.n/a-n/a
    Keywords: Epic‐Soft ; Pilot‐Paneu ; Dietary Assessment ; Standardisation ; E‐Training
    ISSN: 2397-8325
    E-ISSN: 2397-8325
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Nutrition, 2015, Vol.54(3), pp.437-445
    Description: Byline: Heinz Freisling (1), Marga C. Ocke (2), Corinne Casagrande (1), Genevieve Nicolas (1), Sandra P. Crispim (1), Maryse Niekerk (2), Jan Laan (2), Evelien Boer (2), Stefanie Vandevijvere (3), Mieke Maeyer (4), Jiri Ruprich (5), Marcela Dofkova (5), Inge Huybrechts (1), Ellen Trolle (6), Nadia Slimani (1) Keywords: Dietary assessment; EPIC-Soft (GloboDiet); Children; Infants; Data quality; Europe; Dietary surveys; Standardization Abstract: Purpose We aimed (1) to describe and evaluate the "EPIC-Soft DataEntry" application developed as a user-friendly data entry tool for pan-European and national food consumption surveys among infants and children, and (2) to compare two food record-based dietary assessment methods in terms of food description and quantification using data quality indicators. EPIC-Soft DataEntry was used for both methods. Methods Two pilot studies were performed in both Belgium and Czech Republic in a total of 376 children (3 months to 10 year olds): one using a consecutive 3-day food diary and the second with two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview. The collected dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods by country and by age groups: (i) 〈1 year (ii) 1--3 years (iii) 〉3--10 years. Results Overall, 70 % of the interviewers evaluated the work with EPIC-Soft DataEntry as easy. With both dietary assessment methods, an equally high proportion of specific food names (e.g., "yoghurt, strawberry") were reported, where only between 5 and 15 % of foods were non-specified (e.g., "yoghurt, n.s."). The two 1-day food diaries yielded a higher proportion of foods with detailed description. For example, in the age category of 1--3 year olds in Belgium, for 7 out of 16 systematic questions on food description (e.g., "preservation method,") specific answers were significantly higher (all P 〈 0.03). The proportion of missing quantities of consumed foods was comparable between the two methods. Conclusions The EPIC-Soft DataEntry application was positively evaluated by the majority of the interviewers. Two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries with data entry during a completion interview provide a more detailed description of consumed foods as compared with a 3-day food diary. Author Affiliation: (1) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), 150, Cours Albert Thomas, 69372, Lyon Cedex 08, France (2) National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands (3) Scientific Institute of Public Health (IPH), Brussels, Belgium (4) Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium (5) National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Prague, Czech Republic (6) Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark Article History: Registration Date: 27/05/2014 Received Date: 11/01/2014 Accepted Date: 27/05/2014 Online Date: 11/06/2014 Article note: Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s00394-014-0727-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Dietary assessment ; EPIC-Soft (GloboDiet) ; Children ; Infants ; Data quality ; Europe ; Dietary surveys ; Standardization
    ISSN: 1436-6207
    E-ISSN: 1436-6215
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: PLoS Medicine, 2018, Vol. 15(9)
    Description: BackgroundHelping consumers make healthier food choices is a key issue for the prevention of cancer and other diseases. In many countries, political authorities are considering the implementation of a simplified labelling system to reflect the nutritional quality of food products. The Nutri-Score, a five-colour nutrition label, is derived from the Nutrient Profiling System of the British Food Standards Agency (modified version) (FSAm-NPS). How the consumption of foods with high/low FSAm-NPS relates to cancer risk has been studied in national/regional cohorts but has not been characterized in diverse European populations.Methods and findingsThis prospective analysis included 471,495 adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 1992-2014, median follow-up: 15.3 y), among whom there were 49,794 incident cancer cases (main locations: breast, n = 12,063; prostate, n = 6,745; colon-rectum, n = 5,806). Usual food intakes were assessed with standardized country-specific diet assessment methods. The FSAm-NPS was calculated for each food/beverage using their 100-g content in energy, sugar, saturated fatty acid, sodium, fibres, proteins, and fruits/vegetables/legumes/nuts. The FSAm-NPS scores of all food items usually consumed by a participant were averaged to obtain the individual FSAm-NPS Dietary Index (DI) scores. Multi-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed. A higher FSAm-NPS DI score, reflecting a lower nutritional quality of the food consumed, was associated with a higher risk of total cancer (HRQ5 versus (Q1) = 1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.10, P-trend 〈 0.001). Absolute cancer rates in those with high and low (quintiles 5 and 1) FSAm-NPS DI scores were 81.4 and 69.5 cases/10,000 person-years, respectively. Higher FSAm-NPS DI scores were specifically associated with higher risks of cancers of the colon-rectum, upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, lung for men, and liver and postmenopausal breast for women (all P 〈 0.05). The main study limitation is that it was based on an observational cohort using self-reported dietary data obtained through a single baseline food frequency questionnaire; thus, exposure misclassification and residual confounding cannot be ruled out.ConclusionsIn this large multinational European cohort, the consumption of food products with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher risk of cancer. This supports the relevance of the FSAm-NPS as underlying nutrient profiling system for front-of-pack nutrition labels, as well as for other public health nutritional measures.
    Keywords: Medical And Health Sciences ; Health Sciences ; Nutrition And Dietetics ; Medicin Och Hälsovetenskap ; Hälsovetenskaper ; Näringslära
    ISBN: 0004459149000
    ISSN: 1549-1277
    E-ISSN: 15491676
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of nutrition, July 2010, Vol.140(7), pp.1280-6
    Description: Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intake of 25 nutrients (excluding intake from dietary supplements) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database. We used a graphic presentation of mean nutrient intakes by region and sex relative to the overall EPIC means to contrast patterns within and between 10 European countries. In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar. We confirmed large variability in nutrient intakes across the EPIC study populations and identified 3 main region-specific patterns with a geographical gradient within and between European countries.
    Keywords: Diet ; Food Preferences ; Geography
    ISSN: 00223166
    E-ISSN: 1541-6100
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Epidemiology, 7/15/1991, 07/15/1991, Vol.134(2), pp.157-166
    Description: Two parallel case-control studies were conducted in the Marseilles metropolitan area of France from 1979 to 1985 on cancers and adenomatous polyps of the colorectum. All cases of cancer (n = 389) and polyps (n = 252) were incident and histologically confirmed. Controls (n = 641) matched for sex and age were selected among patients undergoing functional reeducation for injury or trauma in one of five hospital centers. Intake of alcoholic beverages was investigated by questions on daily or weekly intake of wine, beer, apéritifs, and distillates during different life periods. Questions on alcoholic beverages were integrated in a detailed diet history interview questionnaire. The risk of rectal cancer was elevated in male beer drinkers (relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.95) and in men and women combined (relative risk = 1.71), while beer consumption was not associated with colon cancer. Total ethanol intake and consumption of wine and distillates were not associated with the risk of cancer of the colon or rectum, nor with risk of polyps. Adjustment in the statistical analysis for energy intake and for other dietary variables (fiber from fruits and fiber from vegetables), which were found to be risk factors in the study, did not substantially change the results found for beer and other alcoholic beverages. Etiologic hypotheses related to nitrosamine content of beer are discussed in the light of growing epidemiologic evidence that beer consumption specifically increases the risk of rectal cancer.
    Keywords: Alcohol Drinking -- Adverse Effects ; Beer -- Adverse Effects ; Colonic Neoplasms -- Epidemiology ; Intestinal Polyps -- Epidemiology ; Rectal Neoplasms -- Epidemiology;
    ISSN: 0002-9262
    E-ISSN: 1476-6256
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, May 2009, Vol.89(5), pp.1441-52
    Description: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possibly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 452,755 subjects (131,985 men and 320,770 women) completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 and were followed up for cancer incidence and mortality until 2006. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend = 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend 〈 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P = 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers. This modifying effect was found for fruit and vegetables combined and for vegetables alone (P for interaction 〈 0.01 for both). These findings suggest that a high consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of CRC, especially of colon cancer. This effect may depend on smoking status.
    Keywords: Fruit ; Vegetables ; Colorectal Neoplasms -- Epidemiology
    ISSN: 00029165
    E-ISSN: 1938-3207
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  • 8
    In: EFSA Supporting Publications, September 2012, Vol.9(9), pp.n/a-n/a
    Keywords: Europe ; Food Consumption Survey ; Dietary Monitoring ; Children ; Toddlers ; Infants ; Breast Feeding Mothers
    ISSN: 2397-8325
    E-ISSN: 2397-8325
    Source: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 9
    In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2006, Vol.96(S2), pp.S12-S23
    Description: Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts = 4??4%, peanuts = 2??3% and seeds = 1??3%. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake = 0??15 g/d, average portion size = 15??1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake = 2??99 g/d, average portion size = 34??7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28??5 v. 23??1 g/d, P 〈0??01) and peanuts (46??1 v. 35??1 g/d, P 〈0??01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group.
    Keywords: Epic; Tree Nuts; Peanuts; Seeds; Descriptive Study; Intake; Portion Size
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    E-ISSN: 1475-2662
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: The British journal of nutrition, November 2006, Vol.96 Suppl 2, pp.S12-23
    Description: Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts = 4. 4%, peanuts = 2.3 % and seeds = 1.3 %. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake = 0.15 g/d, average portion size = 15.1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake = 2.99 g/d, average portion size = 34.7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28.5 v. 23.1 g/d, P〈0.01) and peanuts (46.1 v. 35.1 g/d, P〈0.01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group.
    Keywords: Arachis ; Diet Surveys ; Nuts ; Seeds
    ISSN: 0007-1145
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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