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  • 1
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Collected Magazine, Nov, 2013, Issue 11, p.19(1)
    ISSN: 1179-8548
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2013, Vol.44(2), pp.81-88
    Description: Despite the availability of hundreds of treatment studies in the scientific literature, we know little about whether these treatments work in regular practice. We present an updated review of treatment effectiveness studies for psychological problems in children and adolescents. A literature search yielded 20 recent articles describing effectiveness studies for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and disruptive behavior problems. We compared data from these effectiveness studies with two benchmarks reported in meta-analyses of efficacy trials: the numbers of clients who completed services and the improvements found in those who completed services. All studies of the treatment of internalizing disorders reported completion rates above 80%; the majority of parenting interventions for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems reported that more than 75% of parents who began services completed them. The improvement rates reported in effectiveness studies for internalizing problems were comparable to the benchmarks reported in efficacy studies. There was greater variability in the treatment of disruptive behavior problems, with several studies outperforming the benchmark, and a smaller number yielding poorer results. Practitioners should be encouraged to see promising results that suggest evidence-based treatments for child and adolescent disorders can be effective when used in typical clinical settings.
    Keywords: Effectiveness ; Real World ; Evidence-Based Treatment
    ISSN: 0735-7028
    E-ISSN: 1939-1323
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Food Science, July-Sept, 2012, Vol.77(7-9), p.S302-S306
    Keywords: Friction -- Analysis ; Saliva -- Chemical Properties ; Salivary Glands -- Physiological Aspects ; Tannins -- Chemical Properties ; Taste Buds -- Physiological Aspects
    ISSN: 0022-1147
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Social Science & Medicine, March 2009, Vol.68(6), pp.1183-1190
    Description: Social and biomedical scientists, journal editors, and public health officials continue to debate the merits of the use of race and ethnicity in health-related research. As biomedical research focuses on issues of racial or ethnic health disparities, it remains unclear how biomedical scientists investigate race or ethnicity and health. This paper examines how biomedical researchers construct and analyze race or ethnicity in their studies and what conclusions they make about difference and health. Using content analysis of 204 biomedical research journal publications, which were supported by grants won from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health in the USA, I demonstrate that although authors tended to see race or ethnicity as important and significant in their research, they rarely defined or operationalized the concepts adequately. Moreover, when presenting findings of racial or ethnic difference, authors generally did not provide explanations of the difference. I argue that this under-theorized and unspecified use of race or ethnicity and the biological conclusions drawn about health and difference have the potential to reify “race” and to limit our thinking about what these biomedical differences suggest about health disparities and inequalities in general.
    Keywords: USA ; Race ; Ethnicity ; Biomedical Research ; Genetics ; Health Disparities ; Medicine ; Social Sciences (General) ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0277-9536
    E-ISSN: 1873-5347
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2013, Vol.81(6), pp.988-998
    Description: Objective: In 2 studies, we tested whether parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with self-reports of more positive parenting, even after accounting for observed positive parenting behaviors. Method: In Study 1, 96 mothers with sons 8–11 years of age participated; 44% of the boys were diagnosed with ADHD. The majority of mothers and sons were European Caucasian. In Study 2, 48 parents (24 mother–father pairs) with children 6–12 years of age participated. All children in Study 2 were diagnosed with ADHD, and 75% of the children were boys. More than 90% of the families were Caucasian. In both studies, parents self-reported on their positive parenting, and positive parenting was observed in parent–child interactions. Results: In models including relevant demographic variables, other parental psychopathologies, and both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, parents with higher levels of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms self-reported engaging in significantly more positive parenting behaviors than were observed. Parental inattentive symptoms were not uniquely associated with self-reports of positive parenting. This pattern was found for both mothers and fathers, and across families with and without children diagnosed with ADHD. Conclusions: Results suggest that high levels of parental ADHD symptoms may be associated with over-estimation of positive parenting behaviors. Reasons for the distinction between the types of ADHD symptoms associated with higher self-reports of positive parenting and the clinical implications of the findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Adhd ; Parenting ; Adult Adhd ; Positive Illusory Bias ; Self-Reports
    ISSN: 0022-006X
    E-ISSN: 1939-2117
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 10/2018, Vol.57(10), S, p.S43
    Description: This presentation will enable participants to do the following: 1) review factors contributing to nonadherence in early psychosis in adolescents; 2) gain an understanding of the differences in pharmacokinetics in oral versus depot formulations of antipsychotic medications to guide clinical decision making; 3) become familiar with the evidence for the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic medications in first-episode psychosis; and 4) learn how to address systemic barriers for the use of LAIs in early psychosis.
    Keywords: Psychosis ; Teenagers ; Literature Reviews ; Risk Factors ; Psychosis ; Adolescence ; First Time ; Neuroleptics ; Clinical Decision Making ; Pharmacokinetics ; Antipsychotic Drugs ; Psychoses ; Decision Making;
    ISSN: 08908567
    E-ISSN: 15275418
    Source: Elsevier (via CrossRef)
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Bacteriology, June, 2012, Vol.194(11-12), p.3165(8)
    Description: Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, also known as conjugative transposons) are mobile elements that are found integrated in a host genome and can excise and transfer to recipient cells via conjugation. ICEs and conjugative plasmids are found in many bacteria and are important agents of horizontal gene transfer and microbial evolution. Conjugative elements are capable of self-transfer and also capable of mobilizing other DNA elements that are not able to self-transfer. Plasmids that can be mobilized by conjugative elements are generally thought to contain an origin of transfer (oriT), from which mobilization initiates, and to encode a mobilization protein (Mob, a relaxase) that nicks a site in oriT and covalently attaches to the DNA to be transferred. Plasmids that do not have both an oriT and a cognate mob are thought to be nonmobilizable. We found that Bacillus subtilis carrying the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 can transfer three different plasmids to recipient bacteria at high frequencies. Strikingly, these plasmids do not have dedicated mobilization-oriT functions. Plasmid mobilization required conjugation proteins of ICEBs1, including the putative coupling protein. In contrast, plasmid mobilization did not require the ICEBs1 conjugative relaxase or cotransfer of ICEBs1, indicating that the putative coupling protein likely interacts with the plasmid replicative relaxase and directly targets the plasmid DNA to the ICEBs1 conjugation apparatus. These results blur the current categorization of mobilizable and nonmobilizable plasmids and indicate that conjugative elements play a role in horizontal gene transfer even more significant than previously recognized.
    Keywords: Bacillus Subtilis -- Genetic Aspects ; Bacterial Genetics -- Research ; Genetic Transformation -- Research ; Plasmids -- Research
    ISSN: 0021-9193
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Criminal Justice, 2007, Vol.35(1), pp.17-27
    Description: Following reinstatement of the death penalty after the Supreme Court's decision in (1976), social scientists carefully documented evidence of racial and gender bias against defendants and victims at all stages of the death penalty system, from charging to conviction and sentencing. Despite these consistent findings, questions remained. One crucial unknown was whether or not racial bias uncovered in investigations of African Americans and Whites also negatively impacted members of other minority groups, in particular the largest minority group in the U.S.–Hispanics. Are Hispanics, as both victims and defendants, treated more like non-Hispanic Whites or African Americans? This research examined all death-eligible homicides in San Joaquin County, California from 1977 through 1986. Using logistic regression analysis, the investigation uncovered patterns of racial and gender bias, finding defendants in Hispanic victim cases were less likely to face a death-eligible charge than defendants in White victim cases. Evidence of discrimination may have implications for how Hispanic integration and race and ethnicity are understood and for evaluating the success of statutory reforms designed to insure fairness and constitutionality of the death penalty.
    Keywords: Social Welfare & Social Work ; Law
    ISSN: 0047-2352
    E-ISSN: 1873-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 2011, Vol.42(2), pp.169-175
    Description: In recent decades, psychologists have been actively involved in the development and evaluation of parenting programs and are now turning their attention to the implementation of these evidence-based programs in real-world contexts. In the current study, we examined administrators' reasons for adopting an evidence-based parenting program and service providers' use of and adherence to this program in community agencies. Surveys were completed online by 63 administrators and 215 service providers from 69 different agencies. Although the majority of trained service providers used the program, a significant minority (25.6%) had not delivered it since completing training. The average adherence rate reported by the service providers who used the program was 85.9%; the most common explanations provided for omitting session objectives were that they did not have enough time in session and because they did not consider the activities relevant for the parents they were seeing. Implications and suggestions for psychologists involved in the implementation of parenting programs are discussed.
    Keywords: Implementation ; Parenting Program ; Usage ; Adherence ; Adoption
    ISSN: 0735-7028
    E-ISSN: 1939-1323
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  • 10
    In: Journal of Food Science, April 2012, Vol.77(4), pp.C381-C387
    Description: Understanding astringency has focused on the interaction of tannins with the salivary proline‐rich proteins (PRPs), although it remains unclear if other astringents precipitate the PRPs or how this interaction relates to sensory perceptions of astringency. We used 2 approaches to compare how distinct classes of astringent compounds interacted with the salivary PRPs and mucins. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we evaluated protein patterns and characterized the salivary proteins present in the supernatants and pellets of pooled saliva assayed with tannin, alum, and hydrochloric acid solutions. Tannins and alum precipitated many of the PRPs, but acid did not. Mucins were precipitated by both the acid and alum, but not by the tannins. From our research, it appears that the precipitation of salivary proteins may be involved in the mechanism of astringency, but the precipitation of PRPs is not requisite for the development of astringency. We also measured mucin and deoxyribonucleic acid content of expectorated solutions of astringents that panelists swished in their mouths to determine if astringency was associated with a loss of oral lubricating films.
    Keywords: Acids ; Alum ; Mucins ; Proline‐Rich Proteins ; Tannins
    ISSN: 0022-1147
    E-ISSN: 1750-3841
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