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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Oct, 2013, Vol.65, p.144(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.05.023 Byline: Maha Chalhoub, Patricia Garnier, Yves Coquet, Bruno Mary, Francois Lafolie, Sabine Houot Abstract: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250-400 kg ha.sup.-1 of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32-79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6-8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha.sup.-1 every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50-70 kg N ha.sup.-1 over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 INRA-AgroParisTech Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) INRA, US 1158 Agro-Impact, F-02000 Barenton Bugny, France (d) INRA, UMR1114 INRA-UAPV EMMAH, F-84914 Avignon, France Article History: Received 17 October 2012; Revised 19 May 2013; Accepted 20 May 2013
    Keywords: Loams -- Technology Application ; Cropping Systems -- Technology Application ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Usage ; Municipal Solid Wastes -- Technology Application
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Renewable Energy, April 2017, Vol.103, pp.295-307
    Description: A simple model is proposed to describe transient heat and moisture transfer in the soil under moderate climates to predict near surface ground temperatures using a minimum set of variables and easily accessible weather data. The model is computationally efficient enough to allow for multi-year simulations of shallow ground heat exchangers. It uses a realistic representation of the interactions between the main processes occurring at the soil surface and the heat and moisture dynamics in the soil including the influence of water content on soil thermal properties. The model has been tested against soil temperature measurements taken at different depths (from 0.06 to 1.5 m) on a grass-covered site. Measurements, including meteorological data, were recorded with a time step of 10 min for one year. It is shown that the agreement between soil temperatures predicted by the proposed model and measurements is relatively good for either dry or rainy conditions. Average errors are between +0.47 and + 1.63 °C. Furthermore, this study shows that a proper account of the soil surface cover and site-specific soil properties is necessary to obtain accurate soil temperature predictions.
    Keywords: Heat Transfer ; Shallow Ground Heat Exchanger ; Energy Balance ; Soil Temperature ; Engineering
    ISSN: 0960-1481
    E-ISSN: 1879-0682
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, October 2013, Vol.65, pp.144-157
    Description: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250–400 kg ha of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32–79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6–8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50–70 kg N ha over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts.
    Keywords: Nitrogen Mineralisation ; Compost ; Pastis Model ; Long-Term ; Organic Matter Stability ; Field Experiment ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.65, pp.144-157
    Description: Regular application of composts on cropped soils has been shown to restore soil organic matter contents. The effect of repeated applications of three urban composts on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in a cropped loamy soil was compared to farmyard manure application and a control receiving no amendment. Each amendment application brought on average 250–400 kg ha⁻¹ of total N. After five applications, total organic N increased in amended soils from 9 to 27% compared to control and the increase of soil organic N corresponded to 32–79% of total N brought by the amendments. The PASTIS model was used to describe the N balance in the soil-plant system during the 2 years after a sixth amendment application and provided correct predictions of N dynamics in cropped plots. The N availability increased in all treatments receiving organic amendments. The N availability in the soils amended with urban composts or manure was predominantly driven by the biodegradability of the organic amendments, their mineral N content and by the cropping conditions. Composts with high biodegradability exhibited higher proportion of N recovery by plants (21% for the municipal solid waste compost) during the year following their application, while more stabilised composts (biowaste compost, co-compost of sludge and green wastes) increased the N availability mainly through the increase of soil organic N content and mineralisation after several compost applications (6–8% of the soil organic N increase). Mature composts behaved comparably to FYM, except that for FYM very little N from the last application was available. Regular compost applications equivalent to 200 kg N ha⁻¹ every other year could increase N availability for crops of 50–70 kg N ha⁻¹ over the 2 years of the crop rotation. However, the most stabilised composts led to a higher crop N recovery but also to potential higher amounts of leached N compared to less mature composts. ; p. 144-157.
    Keywords: Crop Rotation ; Long Term Effects ; Municipal Solid Waste ; Manure Spreading ; Organic Soils ; Loam Soils ; Sludge ; Prediction ; Biodegradability ; Soil Organic Matter ; Nitrogen ; Models ; Nitrogen Content ; Composted Manure ; Crops ; Mineralization ; Green Waste ; Animal Manures
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2013, Vol.13(7), pp.1284-1300
    Description: Byline: Maha Chalhoub (1), Laurence Amalric (1), Solene Touze (1), Pierre Galle (1), Pascal E. Reiller (2), NoA〈〈lle Doucet (3), Blandine Clozel (1), Philippe Bataillard (1) Keywords: Partition coefficient; PCB; Resuspension; Field-aged contaminated sediment; Suspended particulate matter Abstract: Purpose Remobilization of polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments by anthropogenic activities (e.g. dredging) or natural flow conditions could lead to the release of PCBs into the water column and consequently increase the availability of PCBs to benthic organisms. The fate of the released PCBs following such events is not well understood and such knowledge is necessary for the management of contaminated sediments. The objective of this study was to understand the processes that control the fate of PCBs following remobilization of field-aged contaminated sediments. Materials and methods Sediments contaminated with PCBs collected from Lake Bourget (Savoie, France) were resuspended in a column experiment. The relationships between physical--chemical parameters--i.e. suspended particulate matter, pH, inorganic and organic carbon content, redox-sensitive species and the concentrations of dissolved PCBs both in the water column and in the interstitial water of the sediment--were investigated so as to determine the key processes controlling PCB fate. Results and discussion Following the simulated resuspension event (SRE), dissolved PCBs were found in much higher concentrations in the water column than under stationary conditions. Desorption of PCBs from the sediment depended on the degree of the hydrophobicity of the PCBs and the initial PCB content in the sediment. Principal component analysis showed that the variations in the concentrations of released PCBs over time and space closely followed those of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and not those of redox conditions. The partitioning behaviour of PCBs on SPM showed that equilibrium state was not attained within 40 days following the SRE. A particle size fractionation study, before and after remobilization of the sediment, showed the presence of PCBs in every fraction of the sediment, but with higher amounts in large particles with high organic matter content and in the finest fractions. Remobilization of contaminated sediment did not affect this distribution profoundly but a significant enrichment in PCBs of the clay-sized fraction was observed in the re-settled sediment. Conclusions Sediment resuspension induced non-equilibrium conditions in the water column for more than 5 weeks and led to the enrichment with PCBs of the newly formed surface bed sediment. This enrichment was due to the preferential re-sorption of PCBs on clay-sized particles during the SRE and to the physical segregation and accumulation of the less dense particles at the surface of the sediment column such particles thought to be the principal carriers of contaminants. These changes concerned 〈0.05 % of the total PCB content. Author Affiliation: (1) BRGM, 3 Avenue C. Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060, Orleans, France (2) Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, LANIE, Bat 391 PC 33, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France (3) ARTELIA, 6 Rue Lorraine, BP 218, 38130, Echirolles, France Article History: Registration Date: 12/03/2013 Received Date: 27/02/2012 Accepted Date: 12/03/2013 Online Date: 09/05/2013 Article note: Responsible editor: Trudy J. Estes Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi: 10.1007/s11368-013-0683-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Keywords: Partition coefficient ; PCB ; Resuspension ; Field-aged contaminated sediment ; Suspended particulate matter
    ISSN: 1439-0108
    E-ISSN: 1614-7480
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2018, Vol.6 Article 226
    Description: For the last 20 years, the concept of ecosystem has constituted one of the key pillars on which the study of “ecosystem services,” i.e., the benefits that human populations derive from nature, has been based. Yet, at this stage, one could argue that, in general and especially in fields related to agriculture, the ecosystem framework tends to limit unnecessarily the range of benefits to humans that are considered in practice, to hinder the necessary measurement of services, and to make it challenging to convince individuals to take nature's services into account in their decision making. In the present Perspective piece, we analyze these 3 arguments in detail, conclude that the current focus on ecosystems is more a liability than an asset in the field, and suggest a return to the less constraining notions of “nature's functions and services,” without a necessary tie to ecosystems.The services provided by nature to human populations have been the object of extensive research since WWII (e.g., Baveye et al., 2013). In the hundreds of articles, books, and reports published on the topic in the 1960s and 70s, terms like “environmental services,” “environmental amenities,” or “nature's services” (Westman, 1977; Baveye et al., 2013) were generally used to refer to benefits derived from nature. Westman (1977), an ecologist by training, perceived nature through the lens of a broadly-defined concept of “ecosystem,” but did not see the need to invoke this concept when referring to the benefits humans derive from nature. The alternative expression of “ecosystem services,” apparently coined by Ehrllich and Ehrlich (1981), gained little traction until 1997, but was then given significant prominence by Costanza et al. (1997), Daily (1997), and especially the publication of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). This terminology became the norm in the field, at least until recently. In the last couple of years, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) proposed what they viewed as a paradigm shift away from the concept of “ecosystem services” toward that of “nature's contributions to people” (NCP), perceived as significantly better in a number of respects (Díaz et al., 2015; Pascual et al., 2017). Nature's contributions to people are defined as “all the contributions, both positive and negative, of living nature (diversity of organisms, ecosystems, and their associated ecological and evolutionary processes) to people's quality of life” (Díaz et al., 2018). This proposal has rapidly stimulated an occasionally heated debate in which various protagonists (e.g., Braat, 2018; Faith, 2018; Peterson et al., 2018; see also the many e-letters posted at science.sciencemag.org/content/359/6373/270/tab-e-letters) have tried to demonstrate the respective merits of the “ecosystem services” and NCP perspectives. One could argue at this stage that these relative merits, let alone the fundamental differences among the two terminologies, remain very fuzzy. At first glance, one would be tempted to say that a major difference is that the NCP terminology has eliminated any reliance on the notion of ecosystem, which would constitute a clear paradigm shift, but closer scrutiny shows that this is not the case; ecosystems still constitute implicitly the framework in which NCP are envisaged.Yet, as we advocate in this short article, dropping the concept of ecosystem when assessing the functions or services of nature, at least in certain circumstances, might be a step in the right direction. Especially in an agricultural context, a number of obstacles are associated with the concept, and constitute as many compelling arguments, if not necessarily to adopt the controversial notion of Nature's Contributions to People, at least to move away from that of “ecosystem” services.Criticisms of the concept of ecosystem among ecologists are not new. They have surfaced periodically over the last 30 years (e.g., Golley, 1991; Blew, 1996; Gignoux et al., 2012; Tassin, 2012; Silvertown, 2015). Several authors have criticized in particular the dichotomy between humans and nature that the notion of ecosystem implies (e.g., Berkes and Folke, 1998), and the hierarchical, scale-dependent structure of many ecosystems, which raises tricky methodological issues (Miller, 2008; Scholes, 2017). Various researchers have argued that, in its classical acception, the concept of ecosystem cannot be reconciled with the common observation of ecological systems as metastable adaptive systems that usually operate far from equilibrium (e.g., Blandin and Bergandi, 2000; O' Neill, 2001), and new conceptualizations of ecosystems have emerged (e.g., Jørgensen et al., 2007).Yet, the reasons for moving away from the classical concept of ecosystem when dealing with nature's services are different than those traditionally advocated by ecologists. There are basically three key reasons, namely that the ecosystem framework tends to limit unnecessarily the range of benefits to humans that are considered in practice, that it causes as yet unresolved difficulties for the measurement of ecosystem services, and that it makes it challenging to convince stakeholders to take nature's services into account in their decision making.
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Natural Capital ; Assessment ; Ecosystem Services ; Sustainability ; Sustainable Development ; Nature Valuation ; Ecology
    ISSN: 2296-701X
    E-ISSN: 2296-701X
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  • 7
    Language: French
    Description: This research aimed at evaluating the effect of repeated application of different types of urban composts on the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) in a cultivated loamy soil. We conducted a field study to quantify the impact of compost on soil water dynamics, solute transport and nitrogen leaching. In addition to the monitoring of soil water potential and water content using tensiometers and TDRs, a tracer study was carried out to evaluate the effect of compost application on the transport of non-sorbing conservative solutes in soil. The dynamics of nitrogen was evaluated by sampling destructively the soil to measure its mineral nitrogen content. The deterministic soil-crop model PASTIS was used to simulate the observed water and N dynamics. Compost application affected the soil water properties only in the upper tilled horizon by increasing its water holding capacity and reducing cumulative evaporation under high evaporative demand. This could be explained by the increase in soil organic matter content after 10 years of compost application. Simulated N fluxes showed that the application of urban composts increased nitrogen availability for plants. Compost with high biodegradability presented higher nitrogen release the year following its application, while composts with low biodegradability allowed long term availability of N after several years of compost application L'objectif de la thèse est d'étudier l'impact d'apports répétés de composts urbains sur la dynamique de l'eau et de l'azote dans le système sol-plante, en sol cultivé. La dynamique de l'eau a été suivie en sol nu et en sol cultivé avec du maïs à l'aide de sondes TDR et de tensiomètres, entre 20 et 160 cm de profondeur. Un suivi de la dynamique d'un traceur de l'eau (anion bromure) et de l'azote minéral du sol a été réalisé par des prélèvements destructifs. Les données mesurées ont été utilisées pour simuler la dynamique de l'eau et de l'azote dans le sol suite aux apports de composts à l'aide du modèle PASTIS. L'apport de composts a affecté les propriétés hydriques de l'horizon de surface du sol, en augmentant la rétention en eau et en diminuant les flux d'évaporation par rapport au témoin. Cet effet peut être relié à l'augmentation de la teneur en matière organique du sol après 10 ans d'apports des composts. La modélisation de la dynamique de carbone et de l'azote dans le sol a permis de montrer l'importance des arrières effets des apports précédents sur la fourniture en azote minéral du sol et un effet positif de l'apport de PRO sur la disponibilité de l'azote pour la plante. L'apport d'un compost à forte biodégradabilité, comme amendement organique, présente plus d'intérêt durant l'année qui suit son apport, alors que les composts à faible biodégradabilité représentent l'avantage d'avoir une minéralisation plus importante à long terme (après des apports répétés).
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Urban Composts ; Loamy Soil ; Dynamics of Water ; Modeling Water and Nitrogen ; Nitrogen Availability for Plants ; Composts Urbains ; Sol Limoneux ; Dynamique Hydrique Du Sol ; Modélisation de La Dynamique de L'Eau et de L'Azote ; Minéralisation Des Composts ; Disponibilité de L'Azote Pour La Plante
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Vadose Zone Journal, 2013, Vol.12(1), pp.1-11
    Description: Urban waste compost additions to soil can increase soil organic matter content and improve soil physical conditions, leading to agronomic and environmental benefits. The need for information still exists to evaluate more precisely the effects of urban waste compost on soil physical properties. Three types of urban waste composts, a biowaste compost (BIO), a municipal solid waste compost (MSW), and a co-compost of green waste and sewage sludge (GWS), were applied once every 2 yr on a loamy soil for 10 yr. The effects of the three composts on soil water and solute transport dynamics were tested. Soil water matric head and water content were monitored using tensiometers and time domain reflectometry probes, respectively. A Br− tracer experiment was also conducted to evaluate the effect of compost application on nonsorbing solute transport. Water content measurements showed that the application of composts significantly (P 〈 0.05) affected soil water content in the plow layer, with average increases of 0.03 cm3 cm−3 for the GWS and MSW compost, and 0.015 cm3 cm−3 for the BIO compost compared with a control without organic amendment. Bromide tracing during the wetting period showed that the application of urban waste composts did not affect the soil's potential for leaching. The application of composts did reduce soil evaporation during the spring, however, which in turn favored downward Br− migration in the soil.
    Keywords: Sciences of the Universe ; Continental Interfaces, Environment ; Environmental Sciences ; Global Changes ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    E-ISSN: 1539-1663
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: World Geothermal Congress 2015, 19 April 2015
    Description: Prediction of soil thermal regime is still a difficult task for design of ground-coupled heat pump system units (GCHP). A Field experiment was carried out to study the near-surface and moisture transport effects on soil temperature distribution. Energy balance components at the soil surface was monitored using a meteorological station, that included a pyrgeometer and a pyranometer to measure short and far infrared radiation, and using two heat flux plates installed in the soil at a depth of 0.08 m to measure ground heat fluxes. A 2.5 m deep trench has been dug in order to (i) characterize soil hydraulic and thermal properties at different depths and (ii) install tensiometers and thermocouples allowing continuous measurements of soil water tension and soil temperature. We observed that variations of soil properties along the profile as well as compaction influenced soil thermal properties. Results showed that temporal variations of soil heat flux at 8 cm depth closely followed those of available energy (net radiation), vertical turbulent heat fluxes (latent and sensible fluxes) near the soil's surface.
    Keywords: Physics ; Mechanics ; Thermics ; Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Climatology ; Sciences of the Universe ; Earth Sciences ; Hydrology ; Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Energy Balance ; Heat Transfer ; Soil Moisture ; Shallow Ground Heat Exchanger ; Physics
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Geothermal Congress : EGC 2016, September 2016
    Description: A test facility for closed-loop shallow ground heat exchangers has been implemented in Orléans (France) in 2008. Different configurations have been tested and evaluated, beginning with the traditional horizontal and vertical ground heat exchangers. For five years, a special attention has been given to this test facility to innovative ground heat exchangers with a focus on " compact coil ground heat exchangers " (CGHE). CGHE are ground heat exchangers with a coil spring shape which are installed at a depth between 2 and 10 m. These systems represent an alternative solution to borehole heat exchangers, installed at about 100 m and requiring a drilling machine, and horizontal ground heat exchangers, installed at about 1 m depth and requiring a sufficient land area. The CGHE are installed with a simple backhoe and require less land area than horizontal ground heat exchangers. In order to improve the design and thermal performances of these CGHE, research works have been carried out in the four following axis:-First, different types of CGHE have been tested in order to compare their performances and to propose improvements to the CGHE design.-Second, coupled heat and mass transfers in the vicinity of the heat exchanger pipe have been investigated in a laboratory experiment to better understand soil temperature and moisture content evolution as a function of heat-carrier fluid temperature.-Third, the soil – atmosphere interaction has been characterized by means of a detailed instrumentation in the subsurface soil (temperature and humidity probes) and in the atmosphere (weather data station). Finally, two same geometries of CGHE have been installed in different environmental conditions to improve the installation process by changing the properties of the filling material. This study aims at showing these experiments and results obtained through a pluri-annual research program on these CGHE using a scale 1 test facility. In conclusion, some recommendations will be proposed to better install these particular types of ground heat exchangers.
    Keywords: Engineering Sciences ; Mechanics ; Thermics ; Compact Coil Ground Heat Exchanger ; Experimental Setup ; Heat Transfer
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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