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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 24 May 2016, Vol.32(20), pp.5038-47
    Description: Although drug-eluting stent technologies have significantly improved clinical outcomes over the past decade, substantial issues with postimplantation vessel reocclusion still remain. To combat these issues, bioactive amphiphilic macromolecules (AMs), comprised of a functional end group, a branched hydrophobic domain, and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) tail, were investigated as a therapeutic coating to reduce smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and platelet adhesion. In this study, grafting-from and grafting-to approaches for AM surface functionalization were compared to determine the effects of fabrication method on bioactive delivery characteristics, including the AM loading, release, and biological activity. Grafted-from coatings were formed by stepwise synthesis of phosphonate AMs, 1pM, on the substrate, first by alkyl phosphonate coordination to stainless steel and subsequent carbodiimide coupling to conjugate the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains. In contrast, grafted-to monolayers were assembled utilizing presynthesized 1pM in a tethering by aggregation and growth technique. Coatings formed using the grafting-from approach yielded high AM grafting density and a highly ordered layer, which corresponded to a slower release rate and sustained bioactivity over 28 days. In contrast, the grafted-to coatings yielded less dense, heterogeneous layers, which released faster and were therefore less efficacious in suppressing prolonged SMC proliferation. Both coatings significantly reduced platelet adhesion compared to an uncoated control, but similar platelet adhesion results between grafted-from and grafted-to coatings suggest that both surfaces maintained a molecular density favorable for antiplatelet activity. Overall, the grafting-from method produced uniform coatings with improved loading, release, and bioactive properties compared to the grafting-to approach, highlighting the potential of AM controlled release coatings for therapeutic delivery.
    Keywords: Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Coated Materials, Biocompatible -- Chemistry ; Drug Carriers -- Chemistry ; Polyethylene Glycols -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 07437463
    E-ISSN: 1520-5827
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  • 2
    In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2015, Vol.47(10), pp.2014-2023
    Description: PURPOSE: With the growing popularity of long-distance running races, an emerging area of interest for race organizers is the ability to electronically track and understand participant status throughout events to optimize runner and spectator experience and to identify and respond to the dynamic needs of both communities. This study examines the potential value of developing real-time patient tracking systems (PTS) at marathons based on the Chicago Medical Patient Tracking System (CMPTS). METHODS: Data collected from the CMPTS and timing mats along the course for two running races in 2012 and 2013 were analyzed for data completeness and data value. Subjects consisted of patients who were tracked electronically in the system. RESULTS: A comparison of medical data collected by PTS and paper forms is provided. Once fully implemented, PTS have the potential to capture more accurate and more detailed information compared with paper forms. A significant amount of records obtained by paper forms lacks any time or diagnosis information. CONCLUSIONS: A set of best practices for tracking applications and data collection at marathons is proposed to improve accuracy based on CMPTS implementations from 2012 to 2013. Developing and conforming to standards for data collection at marathons and other mass-gathering events could improve data sets created from PTS, which can be used to improve operational decisions at such events and can provide the foundation for prediction models for enhancing planning and preparedness.
    Keywords: Running ; Patient Identification Systems -- Organization & Administration;
    ISSN: 0195-9131
    E-ISSN: 15300315
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: JAMA, 10 May 2016, Vol.315(18), pp.2018
    Keywords: Energy Drinks ; Blood Pressure -- Physiology ; Heart Rate -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00987484
    E-ISSN: 1538-3598
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 06 March 2012, Vol.109(10), pp.3950-5
    Description: Bacteria have evolved a variety of mechanisms for developing community-based biofilms. These bacterial aggregates are of clinical importance, as they are a major source of recurrent disease. Bacterial surface fibers (pili) permit adherence to biotic and abiotic substrates, often in a highly specific manner. The Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) represents a remarkable family of extracellular fibers that are associated with both disease-causing and commensal strains. ECP plays a dual role in early-stage biofilm development and host cell recognition. Despite being the most common fimbrial structure, relatively little is known regarding its biogenesis, architecture, and function. Here we report atomic-resolution insight into the biogenesis and architecture of ECP. We also derive a structural model for entwined ECP fibers that not only illuminates interbacteria communication during biofilm formation but also provides a useful foundation for the design of novel nanofibers.
    Keywords: Biofilms ; Escherichia Coli -- Growth & Development ; Fimbriae, Bacterial -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Current Treatment Options in Oncology, 2014, Vol.15(3), pp.365-379
    Description: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies characterized by variable but most often indolent biologic behavior. Well-differentiated NETs can be broadly classified as either carcinoid or pancreatic NET. Although they have similar characteristics on routine histologic evaluation, the 2 tumor subtypes have different biology and respond differently to treatment, with most therapeutic agents demonstrating higher response rates in pancreatic NETs compared with carcinoid. Until recently, systemic treatment options for patients with advanced NETs were limited. However, improvements in our understanding of signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis, growth, and spread of NETs have translated into an expansion of treatment options. Aberrant signaling through the mechanistic pathway of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Additionally, altered expression of mTOR pathway components has been observed in NETs and has been associated with clinical outcomes. Targeting the mTOR pathway has emerged as an effective treatment strategy in the management of advanced NETs. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study of patients with advanced pancreatic NET, treatment with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS). Largely based upon these data, everolimus has been approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic NET. The activity of everolimus remains under investigation in patients with carcinoid tumors. In a randomized study of patients with advanced carcinoid tumors associated with carcinoid syndrome, the addition of everolimus to octreotide was associated with improved PFS compared with octreotide. However, the results did not meet the prespecified level of statistical significance based on central review of radiographic imaging. Results from a randomized study examining the efficacy of everolimus in patients with nonfunctional gastrointestinal and lung NETs are awaited. In addition, further investigation is needed to determine whether primary tumor site or other clinical and molecular factors can impact response to mTOR inhibition. Although everolimus can slow tumor progression, significant tumor reduction is rarely obtained. Targeting multiple signaling pathways is a treatment strategy that may provide better tumor control and overcome resistance mechanisms involved with targeting a single pathway. Results of ongoing and future studies will provide important information regarding the added benefit of combining mTOR inhibitors with other targeted agents, such as VEGF pathway inhibitors, and cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NETs.
    Keywords: Neuroendocrine tumor ; Carcinoid ; Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor ; mTOR inhibitor ; Everolimus
    ISSN: 1527-2729
    E-ISSN: 1534-6277
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of Urology, September 2013, Vol.190(3), pp.1015-1020
    Description: It is recognized that there is a strong association between bladder and bowel dysfunction. We determined the association of constipation and/or encopresis with specific lower urinary tract conditions. We reviewed our database of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and divided cases into 3 categories of bowel dysfunction (constipation, encopresis and constipation plus encopresis) and 4 lower urinary tract conditions (dysfunctional voiding, idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder, detrusor underutilization disorder and primary bladder neck dysfunction). Associations between bowel dysfunction types and each lower urinary tract condition were determined. Of 163 males and 205 females with a mean age of 8.5 years constipation was the most common bowel dysfunction (27%). Although encopresis is generally thought to reflect underlying constipation, only half of children with encopresis in this series had constipation. Dysfunctional voiding was associated with the highest incidence of bowel dysfunction. All but 1 patient with encopresis had associated urgency and detrusor overactivity, and the encopresis resolved in 75% of patients after initiation of anticholinergic therapy. Constipation was significantly more common in girls (27%) than in boys (11%, p 〈0.01), while encopresis was more common in boys (9%) than in girls (3%, p = 0.02), likely reflecting the higher incidence of dysfunctional voiding in girls and idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder in boys. Active bowel dysfunction was seen in half of the children with a lower urinary tract condition. Constipation was more common in patients with dysfunctional voiding, while encopresis was significantly increased in those with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder and in those with dysfunctional voiding, severe urgency and detrusor overactivity. Anticholinergics, despite their constipating effect, given for treatment of detrusor overactivity resolved encopresis in most children with this bowel dysfunction.
    Keywords: Constipation ; Encopresis ; Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0022-5347
    E-ISSN: 1527-3792
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 15 July 2017, Vol.82(2), pp.127-138
    Description: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk. We used Cre/loxP transgenic mice to conditionally target InsRs in fetally derived placental trophoblasts. Adult offspring were evaluated for effects of placental trophoblast-specific InsR deficiency on stress sensitivity, cognitive function, sensorimotor gating, and prefrontal cortical transcriptional reprogramming. To evaluate molecular mechanisms driving sex-specific outcomes, we assessed genome-wide expression profiles in the placenta and fetal brain. Male, but not female, mice with placental trophoblast-specific InsR deficiency showed a significantly increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response and impaired sensorimotor gating, phenotypic effects that were associated with dysregulated nucleotide metabolic processes in the male prefrontal cortex. Within the placenta, InsR deficiency elicited changes in gene expression, predominantly in male mice, reflecting potential shifts in vasculature, amino acid transport, serotonin homeostasis, and mitochondrial function. These placental disruptions were associated with altered gene expression profiles in the male fetal brain and suggested delayed cortical development. Together, these data demonstrate the novel role of placental InsRs in sex-specific neurodevelopment and reveal a potential mechanism for neurodevelopmental disorder risk in pregnancies complicated by maternal metabolic disorders, including diabetes and obesity.
    Keywords: Epigenetic ; Insulin ; Prefrontal Cortex ; Prenatal ; Serotonin ; Sex ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Biological Psychiatry, 15 May 2018, Vol.83(10), pp.886-894
    Description: Parental stress exposures are implicated in the risk for offspring neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, prompting critical examination of preconception and prenatal periods as vulnerable to environmental insults such as stress. Evidence from human studies and animal models demonstrates the influence that both maternal and paternal stress exposures have in changing the course of offspring brain development. Mechanistic examination of modes of intergenerational transmission of exposure during pregnancy has pointed to alterations in placental signaling, including changes in inflammatory, nutrient-sensing, and epigenetic pathways. Transmission of preconception paternal stress exposure is associated with changes in epigenetic marks in sperm, with a primary focus on the reprogramming of DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications, and small noncoding RNAs. In this review, we discuss evidence supporting the important contribution of intergenerational parental stress in offspring neurodevelopment and disease risk, and the currently known epigenetic mechanisms underlying this transmission.
    Keywords: Epigenetics ; Intergenerational Transmission ; Placenta ; PTSD ; Sperm ; Stress ; Medicine ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0006-3223
    E-ISSN: 1873-2402
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  • 9
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(5)
    Description: Grip kinetics and their variation are emerging as important considerations in the clinical assessment of handwriting pathologies, fine motor rehabilitation, biometrics, forensics and ergonomic pen design. This study evaluated the intra- and inter-participant variability of grip shape kinetics in adults during signature writing. Twenty (20) adult participants wrote on a digitizing tablet using an instrumented pen that measured the forces exerted on its barrel. Signature samples were collected over 10 days, 3 times a day, to capture temporal variations in grip shape kinetics. A kinetic topography (i.e., grip shape image) was derived per signature by time-averaging the measured force at each of 32 locations around the pen barrel. The normalized cross correlations (NCC) of grip shape images were calculated within- and between-participants. Several classification algorithms were implemented to gauge the error rate of participant discrimination based on grip shape kinetics. Four different grip shapes emerged and several participants made grip adjustments (change in grip shape or grip height) or rotated the pen during writing. Nonetheless, intra-participant variation in grip kinetics was generally much smaller than inter-participant force variations. Using the entire grip shape images as a 32-dimensional input feature vector, a K-nearest neighbor classifier achieved an error rate of % in discriminating among participants. These results indicate that writers had unique grip shape kinetics that were repeatable over time but distinct from those of other participants. The topographic analysis of grip kinetics may inform the development of personalized interventions or customizable grips in clinical and industrial applications, respectively.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Engineering ; Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European journal of clinical nutrition, May 2018, Vol.72(5), pp.657-664
    Description: Collateral fattening refers to the process whereby excess fat is deposited as a result of the body's attempt to counter a deficit in lean mass through overeating. Its demonstration and significance to weight regulation and obesity can be traced to work on energy budget strategies in growing mammals and birds, and to men recovering from experimental starvation. The cardinal features of collateral fattening rests upon (i) the existence of a feedback system between lean tissue and appetite control, with lean tissue deficit driving hyperphagia, and (ii) upon the occurrence of a temporal desynchronization in the recovery of body composition, with complete recovery of fat mass preceeding that of lean mass. Under these conditions, persistent hyperphagia driven by the need to complete the recovery of lean tissue will result in the excess fat deposition (hence collateral fattening) and fat overshooting. After reviewing the main lines of evidence for the phenomenon of collateral fattening in body composition autoregulation, this article discusses the causes and determinants of the desynchronization in fat and lean tissue recovery leading to collateral fattening and fat overshooting, and points to their significance in the mechanisms by which dieting, developmental programming and sedentariness predispose to obesity.
    Keywords: Adiposity ; Appetite Regulation ; Body Composition ; Obesity -- Prevention & Control
    ISSN: 09543007
    E-ISSN: 1476-5640
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