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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, Jan 31, 2012, Vol.285, p.226(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.10.007 Byline: Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu Keywords: Dairy wastewater; Coagulation; MBR Abstract: The significant improvements of membrane technology in reliability and cost effectiveness have increased the reuse probability and recycling extent of dairy wastewater. However, membrane fouling still remains a major bottleneck in wide application. In order to solve the problem, this paper investigated the possibility and applicability of coagulation-membrane bioreactor (MBR) hybrid system in reclaiming dairy wastewater. A comparative experiment based on the removal efficiencies and the membrane performance was designed to achieve the purpose. The results showed that polyaluminium chloride as the appropriate coagulant in coagulation process was effective for turbidity removal. Coagulation process played a very important role in stabilizing the effluent of MBR and the level of transmembrane pressure. MBR was a crucial process in turbidity and aluminum removal. MBR had the capability to resist shock loading and to maintain the high COD removal. Biological flocs in MBR could improve the fouling level of membrane. The hybrid system reduced 98% COD from the original and COD value of the wastewater came down to 8mg/L. The combination of coagulation with MBR presents the possibility and applicability to reclaim effluent in dairy industries. Article History: Received 5 July 2011; Revised 1 October 2011; Accepted 8 October 2011
    Keywords: Dairy Products Industry ; Wastewater
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Desalination, Feb 1, 2012, Vol.286, p.263(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.11.033 Byline: Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu, Fang Xie Keywords: SRT; Sludge concentration; Polysaccharide; Removal efficiency Abstract: In order to maintain the reliable operation in membrane bioreactor (MBR), a concept of moderate solids retention time (SRT) was introduced and particular attention was paid to the identification of moderate SRT in this paper. It was difficult to choose a singly constant SRT as the moderate SRT due to the different type of MBRs. However, the performance in MBR such as sludge concentration, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration, soluble microbial products (SMP) concentration and removal efficiency of nitrogen, presented different variations and therefore could be chosen as indicators to provide information about and predict arrival of the moderate SRT. Results indicated that the moderate SRT could be defined as a range of SRT, which balanced the advantages and the drawbacks of SRT for reliable operation in MBR. Moreover, this paper suggested that lots of information should be collected and used to build a valid database about the moderate SRT for reliable operation in MBRs. Article History: Received 9 July 2011; Revised 10 November 2011; Accepted 10 November 2011
    Keywords: Sludge
    ISSN: 0011-9164
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Electrochimica Acta, 2010, Vol.55(22), pp.6865-6871
    Description: Novel sol-enhanced Ni–TiO nano-composite coatings were electroplated by adding a transparent TiO sol into the traditional electroplating Ni solution. It was found that the structure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the nano-composite coatings were largely determined by the sol concentration. The higher sol concentration in the plating electrolyte led to a higher content of TiO nano-particles in the coating matrix. The coating prepared at the sol concentration of 12.5 mL/L had the best microhardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Adding excessive sol to the electrolyte changed the surface microstructure, caused cracking on the coating surface and deteriorated the properties. It was demonstrated that the corrosion resistance of the composite coatings is determined by two factors: surface microstructure and incorporation of TiO nano-particles.
    Keywords: Sol-Enhanced Electroplating ; Ni–Tio 2 Composite Coatings ; Microhardness ; Wear Resistance ; Corrosion Resistance ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0013-4686
    E-ISSN: 1873-3859
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Polymer, 01 September 2011, Vol.52(19), pp.4387-4395
    Description: Methacrylic acid (MAA) is investigated as a novel interfacial modifier for styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/boehmite (BM) composite via a direct blending method. The reaction mechanism for the modification was revealed to be the BM/MAA coordination and MAA/rubber grafting reaction. The substantiated BM/MAA coordination can improve the dispersion of BM in rubber matrix. It is illustrated that the ultimate mechanical performance and interfacial interaction are significantly enhanced by the modification. The strong interaction between BM and SBR and the improved dispersion of BM in the rubber matrix are responsible for the largely enhanced mechanical properties.
    Keywords: Boehmite ; Methacrylic Acid ; Rubber ; Engineering ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0032-3861
    E-ISSN: 1873-2291
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 07 June 2011, Vol.108(23), pp.9589-94
    Description: Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical to the patterning and development of a variety of organ systems, and both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent Hh pathway activation are known to promote tumorigenesis. Recent studies have shown that in tumors promoted by Hh ligands, activation occurs within the stromal microenvironment. Testing whether ligand-driven Hh signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis, we found that Hh antagonism reduced the vascular density of Hh-producing LS180 and SW480 xenografts. In addition, ectopic expression of sonic hedgehog in low-Hh-expressing DLD-1 xenografts increased tumor vascular density, augmented angiogenesis, and was associated with canonical Hh signaling within perivascular tumor stromal cells. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying Hh-mediated tumor angiogenesis, we established an Hh-sensitive angiogenesis coculture assay and found that fibroblast cell lines derived from a variety of human tissues were Hh responsive and promoted angiogenesis in vitro through a secreted paracrine signal(s). Affymetrix array analyses of cultured fibroblasts identified VEGF-A, hepatocyte growth factor, and PDGF-C as candidate secreted proangiogenic factors induced by Hh stimulation. Expression studies of xenografts and angiogenesis assays using combinations of Hh and VEGF-A inhibitors showed that it is primarily Hh-induced VEGF-A that promotes angiogenesis in vitro and augments tumor-derived VEGF to promote angiogenesis in vivo.
    Keywords: Hedgehog Proteins -- Genetics ; Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Neovascularization, Pathologic -- Genetics ; Signal Transduction -- Genetics ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A -- Genetics
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, 24 June 2015, Vol.137(24), pp.7706-17
    Description: A series of 20 4'-O-glycosides of the aminoglycoside antibiotic paromomycin were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit protein synthesis by bacterial, mitochondrial and cytosolic ribosomes. Target selectivity, i.e., inhibition of the bacterial ribosome over eukaryotic mitochondrial and cytosolic ribosomes, which is predictive of antibacterial activity with reduced ototoxicity and systemic toxicity, was greater for the equatorial than for the axial pyranosides, and greater for the d-pentopyranosides than for the l-pentopyranosides and d-hexopyranosides. In particular, 4'-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl paromomycin shows antibacterioribosomal activity comparable to that of paromomycin, but is significantly more selective showing considerably reduced affinity for the cytosolic ribosome and for the A1555G mutant mitochondrial ribosome associated with hypersusceptibility to drug-induced ototoxicity. Compound antibacterioribosomal activity correlates with antibacterial activity, and the ribosomally more active compounds show activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The paromomycin glycosides retain activity against clinical strains of MRSA that are resistant to paromomycin, which is demonstrated to be a consequence of 4'-O-glycosylation blocking the action of 4'-aminoglycoside nucleotidyl transferases by the use of recombinant E. coli carrying the specific resistance determinant.
    Keywords: Anti-Bacterial Agents -- Chemistry ; Bacteria -- Drug Effects ; Paromomycin -- Analogs & Derivatives ; Ribosomes -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 00027863
    E-ISSN: 1520-5126
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, May, 2010, Vol.38(4), p.495(13)
    Description: In this study we sought to examine how consumers perceive price unfairness when they learn that they have missed a price promotion after making a purchase, and explore the accompanying negative emotions and behavioral responses. The promotions that consumers learn they have missed could occur either before purchasing (i.e., prepurchase promotion) or after purchasing (i.e., postpurchase promotion). By conducting a 2 (attribution of responsibility: internal vs. external attribution) X 2 (time of the missed promotion: prepurchase vs. postpurchase promotion) experiment with 202 participants, we found that greater perceived price unfairness (PPU) is generated when consumers attribute missing the promotion to the sellers' actions. Additionally, PPU is more likely to induce anger than disappointment and regret. The time of the missed promotion alters the impact of PPU on regret. Lastly, consumers who experience high levels of anger and disappointment tend to complain and spread negative word of mouth while those who experience high regret tend to be inactive. Keywords: perceived price unfairness, attribution of responsibility, missing price promotion, negative emotions, postpurchase behaviors.
    Keywords: Sales Promotions -- Methods ; Sales Promotions -- Usage ; Consumer Behavior -- Observations
    ISSN: 0301-2212
    E-ISSN: 11796391
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 1 January 2011, Vol.340(1/2), pp.291-301
    Description: Sheepfolds represent significant hot spot sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) in semi-arid grassland regions, such as Inner Mongolia in China. However, the annual contribution of sheepfolds to regional GHG emissions is still unknown. In order to quantify its annual contribution, we conducted measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes at two sheepfold sites in the Baiyinxile administrative region of Inner Mongolia for 1 year, using static opaque chamber and gas chromatography methods. Our data show that, at an annual scale, both sheepfolds functioned as net sources of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Temperatures primarily determined the seasonal pattern of CO2 emission; 60–84% of the CO2 flux variation could be explained by temperature changes. High rates of net CH4 emissions from sheepfold soils were only observed when animals (sheep and goats) were present. While nitrous oxide emissions were also stimulated by the presence of animals, pulses of N2O emissions were also be related to rainfall and spring-thaw events. The total annual cumulative GHG emissions in CO2 equivalents (CO2: 1; CH4: 25; and N2O: 298) were quantified as 87.4±18.4 t ha-1 for the sheepfold that was used during the non-grazing period (i.e., winter sheepfold) and 136.7±15.9 t ha-1 used during the grazing period (i.e., summer sheepfold). Of the annual total GHG emissions, CH4 release accounted for approximately 1% of emissions, while CO2 and N2O emissions contributed to approximately 59% and 40%, respectively. The total GHG emission factor (CO2+CH4+N2O) per animal for the sheepfolds investigated in this study was 30.3 kg CO2 eq yr-1 head-1, which translates to 0.3, 18.8 and 11.2 kg CO2 eq yr-1 head-1 for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. Sheepfolds accounted for approximately 34% of overall N2O emissions in the Baiyinxile administrative region, a typical steppe region within Inner Mongolia. The contribution of sheepfolds to the regional CO2 or CH4 exchange is marginal.
    Keywords: Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Anatomy ; Environmental studies -- Atmospheric sciences -- Climatology ; Environmental studies -- Atmospheric sciences -- Climatology ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural management ; Environmental studies -- Environmental quality -- Environmental degradation ; Biological sciences -- Agriculture -- Agricultural sciences ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Matter ; Environmental studies -- Environmental quality -- Environmental degradation ; Environmental studies -- Environmental quality -- Environmental degradation
    ISSN: 0032079X
    E-ISSN: 15735036
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, Sept 15, 2013, Vol.178, p.64(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.05.008 Byline: Weiwei Chen, Yiyong Wang, Zhichun Zhao, Feng Cui, Jiangxin Gu, Xunhua Zheng Abstract: acents We quantified GHG emissions from cold paddy fields. acents Sparse planting reduced total emissions of CH.sub.4 and N.sub.2O on an area basis. acents Proper-sparse planting can balance the yield and total emission of CH.sub.4 and N.sub.2O. Author Affiliation: (a) Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 100029, China (b) State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China Article History: Received 5 January 2013; Revised 4 May 2013; Accepted 14 May 2013
    Keywords: Planetary Boundary Layer -- Environmental Aspects ; Atmospheric Physics -- Environmental Aspects ; Methane -- Environmental Aspects ; Greenhouse Gases -- Environmental Aspects ; Nitrous Oxide -- Environmental Aspects
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Power Sources, July 15, 2015, Vol.286, p.159(7)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.154 Byline: Weiwei Chen, Tingting Li, Qian Hu, Chengpin Li, Hong Guo Abstract: An effective approach of alcoholysis is employed to prepare hollow CoS.sub.2@C hybrid nanosheets aggregates as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the CoS.sub.2 nanoparticles uniformly in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of hollow structures. The capacity of the sample can remain stable as high as 720 mAhg.sup.-1 after 200 cycles, and it also exhibits good rate capacity. The nano-scaled characteristics of CoS.sub.2 nanosheets embedded in the aggregates ensure the electrode having a high capacity and the fast Li-ion diffusion in the electrode. The in-situ introduction of carbon renders the electrode having a good electronic conductivity and can effectively prevent the formation of polysulfide anions. The unique hollow structures can shorten the length of Li-ion diffusion, which is benefit for the rate performance. The hollow structure also offers a sufficient void space, which sufficiently alleviates the mechanical stress caused by volume change. Therefore, the prepared hierarchical hollow CoS.sub.2@C materials constructed by nanosheets exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance. Author Affiliation: School of Chemistry Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, Yunnan, China Article History: Received 23 January 2015; Revised 11 March 2015; Accepted 25 March 2015
    Keywords: Batteries – Electric Properties
    ISSN: 0378-7753
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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