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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 12 March 2013, Vol.110(11), pp.E984
    Description: Author contributions: J.L. analyzed data; and J.L., D.A.A., C.C., J.F., T.K., and D.S.P. wrote the paper.
    Keywords: Organic Agriculture ; Carbon -- Analysis ; Soil -- Chemistry
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April, 2013, Vol.59, p.72(14)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.01.002 Byline: Fernando E. Moyano (a), Stefano Manzoni (b)(c), Claire Chenu (d) Abstract: Soil moisture strongly affects the dynamics of soil organic matter and is an important environmental variable in all models predicting changes in soil carbon stocks from site to global scales. Despite this, the mechanisms determining the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to soil moisture remain poorly quantified, being represented in most current carbon cycle models as simple empirical functions. With the aim of providing an overview and new insights into the mechanisms involved, here we review the observations and theory behind the respiration-moisture relationship. We start by calculating best estimates of average empirical relationships using published data and comparing the results for contrasting soil types. The theoretical linkages between substrate and gas diffusivity in soil pores and heterotrophic respiration are then explored as a function of temperature and textural properties. Based on this theoretical model we interpret the variability of moisture effects observed in previous empirical studies. Transient CO.sub.2 efflux-moisture relationships are discussed next, reviewing the theory and models developed in the last years with particular emphasis on the 'Birch effect'. We continue by giving an overview of recent pore-scale models and consider how these can be used to gain a more mechanistic understanding of carbon storage and stabilization in variably saturated soils. From this review we conclude that current empirical models are useful but limited approximations, with questionable predictive capacity. Significant efforts are still necessary to represent the full range of soil moisture responses in a unifying model with a sound theoretical basis that can help identify common underlying processes. Equations present here, combining diffusion, texture and substrate to model respiration, are a step forward in this direction. Author Affiliation: (a) CNRS, UMR Bioemco 7618, Campus AgroParisTech, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France (b) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall, Box 90287, Durham, NC 27708 0287, USA (c) Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA (d) AgroParisTech, UMR Bioemco 7618, Campus AgroParisTech, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France Article History: Received 1 November 2012; Revised 19 December 2012; Accepted 9 January 2013
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle -- Analysis ; Carbon Cycle -- Discovery And Exploration ; Carbon Cycle -- Models ; Soil Moisture -- Analysis ; Soil Moisture -- Discovery And Exploration ; Soil Moisture -- Models ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Discovery And Exploration ; Soil Carbon -- Models
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, February 2011, Vol.43(2), pp.280-286
    Description: Microbial communities exist and are active in a complex 3-D physical framework which can cause a variety of micro-environments to develop that are more or less suitable for microbial growth, activity and survival. If there is a significant microbial biogeography at the pore scale in soil, then the relationship between microbial diversity and ecosystem function is likely to be affected by micro-environmental variations at the pore scale. In this laboratory study we show that there is a significant pore-scale microbial biogeography by labelling microbial communities in different pore size classes of undisturbed soil cores with C-labelled fructose (a soluble, labile substrate). This was achieved by adding the substrate solution to the samples at different matric potentials (−100 kPa, −3.15 kPa and −1 kPa; placing the substrate in pores with maximum diameter of 0.97, 9.7 and 97 μm, respectively) and incubating the samples for two weeks. The mineralisation of soil organic carbon and fructose was measured as CO and C–CO , respectively, in the jar headspace throughout the incubation. At the end of incubation we analysed the total microbial community structure using PLFA. The structure of microbial communities in different pore size classes was measured by PLFA stable isotope probing. Total PLFA profiles suggested that there was little effect of the incubation conditions on microbial community structure. However, labelled PLFA profiles showed that microbial community structure differed significantly among pore size classes, the differences being due primarily to variations in the abundance of mono-unsaturated lipids (Gram-biomarkers) and of the fungal biomarker (C18:2(9,12)). This is the first evidence for a significant microbial biogeography at the pore scale in undisturbed soil cores. ► Non-random variation in microbial community structure at pore scale. ► Gram-bacterial and fungal abundance change at pore scale. ► Different regions of the soil pore system can be targetted using combination of C-labelled substrate and moisture release curve.
    Keywords: Stable Isotope Probing ; Undisturbed Cores ; Matric Potential ; Plfa ; Pore Scale ; Biogeography ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Sept, 2012, Vol.52, p.43(6)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.04.001 Byline: Bertrand Guenet (a), Sabrina Juarez (b), Gerard Bardoux (c), Luc Abbadie (a), Claire Chenu (b) Abstract: A significant fraction of soil organic carbon, named stable organic carbon (C) pool, has residence times longer than centuries and its vulnerability to land use or climatic changes is virtually unknown. Long-term bare fallows offer a unique opportunity to isolate the stable organic pool of soils and study its properties. We investigated the vulnerability of the stable organic C pool to fresh organic matter inputs by comparing the mineralization in a long-term bare fallow soil with that of an adjacent arable soil, containing stable C as well as more labile C. For this, we amended or not the soil samples with two different.sup.13C-labelled fresh organic matter (straw or cellulose). In all cases we found a positive priming effect (i.e. an increased mineralization of soil organic carbon) when fresh organic matter was added. By comparing the results obtained on both soils, we estimated that half of the "primed" C in the arable soil due to straw addition as fresh organic matter, originated from the stable C pool. Our results suggest that under such conditions, which frequently occur, the stable pool of soil organic matter may largely contribute to soil extra-CO.sub.2 emissions due to priming effect. Consequently, the C storage potential of this pool may be modified by changes in land use and/or biomass production that might change the priming of the mineralization of the stable pool of soil organic carbon. Author Affiliation: (a) UPMC, UMR 7618 Bioemco, 46 rue d'Ulm, F-75230 Paris, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 7618 Bioemco, Batiment EGER, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) CNRS, UMR 7618 Bioemco, Batiment EGER, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France Article History: Received 31 August 2011; Revised 1 April 2012; Accepted 2 April 2012
    Keywords: Soil Carbon ; Cellulose
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(5), p.e0123774
    Description: Soil respiration represents the second largest CO 2 flux from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere , and a small rise could significantly contribute to further increase in atmospheric CO 2. Unfortunately, the extent of this effect cannot be quantified reliably, and the outcomes of experiments...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Agricultural Sciences ; Soil Study ; Life Sciences ; Microbiology and Parasitology ; Sciences (General)
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 2015, Vol.202, pp.98-107
    Description: Liming is a common agricultural practice worldwide, used for increasing productivity in acid agricultural soils. Liming reduces Al saturation and toxicity and/or increases pH up to values where the availability of nutrients is higher. The effect of this practice on soil properties has been...
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Soil Organic Matter ; Liming ; Acid Soils ; C Stocks ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
    E-ISSN: 16962443
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.370(1), pp.251-265
    Description: Background and aims: Soil organisms are known to engineer the soil physical properties, but their impact is difficult to assess and poorly documented. Shrinkage analysis has a good potential for such assessment. This study analyses the effects of mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices), earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and two plants, Allium porrum (leek) and Petunia hybrida (petunia), on the physical properties of an unstable loamy Luvisol, as well as the biological interactions between the soil organisms. Methods: In addition to soil organism biomass, shrinkage analysis and soil aggregate stability analysis were used to characterize the soil physical properties. Results: The soil aggregate stability, specific volume and structural pores volumes were increased with plant roots compared to control. The drilling effect of roots could not explain the pore volume increase, which was several orders of magnitude larger than the volume of the roots. Leek had larger impact on volumes while petunia mostly increased soil aggregate stability. Mycorrhizae increased the soil stability and the soil volume. Earthworms alone decreased the pore volumes at any pore size, and plant roots mitigated this. Conclusions: Our results highlight (1) the large impact of soil biota on soil physical properties, (2) that their separated effects can either combine or mitigate each other and (3) that the observed changes are varying in intensity according to soil type and plant type.
    Keywords: Shrinkage analysis ; Soil porosity ; Earthworms ; Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) ; Root network ; Soil structure
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, August, 2012, Vol.51, p.73(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.04.014 Byline: Tanvir Shahzad (a), Claire Chenu (b), Cedric Repincay (c), Christian Mougin (c), Jean-Luc Ollier (a), Sebastien Fontaine (a) Abstract: Grazing or mowing is central to the management of grasslands and may alter mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbon (C) stocks. Some studies have shown grazing-induced reductions in total soil respiration suggesting decreases in SOM mineralization. However, it has also been suggested that grazing may increase SOM mineralization, based on observations of increased soluble C, microbial biomass and mineral nitrogen (N) in soil after clipping. No studies to date have directly measured SOM mineralization to determine the effects of grazing on SOM mineralization and the underlying mechanisms. We examined the effect of clipping on soil-derived CO.sub.2 efflux (Rs) for six gramineae and one leguminous species typical of temperate grasslands. Continuous.sup.13C labeling of monocultures coupled with a new method of directly measuring Rs and the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE i.e. Rs from planted soils minus respiration from bare soils) in perennial herbaceous plants was used. For a model species, Lolium perenne, the clipping effects on aboveground biomass production, mineral N and soluble C in soil, microbial biomass and microbial community composition were also quantified. We found that clipping decreased the RPE and Rs (SOM mineralization) within 48 hours for all the studied species. For Lolium perenne, this reduced SOM mineralization persisted for one month after clipping. Moreover, clipping reduced the production of aboveground biomass and the total N assimilated by the plants. These changes increased N availability in soil and induced shifts in the soil microbial community structure favoring gram positive bacteria (i16:0) over saprophytic fungi (18:2I6). The strong correlation of fungi (18:2I6) with Rs across treatments suggests that saprophytic fungi play a key role in SOM mineralization. In conclusion, our study shows that plant clipping decelerates SOM mineralization and induces shifts in microbial community structure, most likely as an indirect effect of clipping on plant N uptake. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UR 874 Unite de Recherche sur l'Ecosysteme prairial, 234-Avenue du Brezet, F-63100 Clermont Ferrand, France (b) AgroParisTech, UMR 7618 Bioemco, Batiment EGER, 78850 Thiverval Grignon, France (c) INRA, UR 251 PESSAC (Physicochimie et ecotoxicologie des sols d'agrosystemes contamines), Route de Saint-Cyr, 78026 Versailles, France Article History: Received 12 December 2011; Revised 4 April 2012; Accepted 5 April 2012
    Keywords: Grasslands -- Analysis ; Soil Microbiology -- Analysis ; Soil Carbon -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29 October 2010, Vol.2011(43), pp.280-286
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
    Source: Hyper Article en Ligne (CCSd)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Soil biology & biochemistry, 2013, Vol.59, pp.72-85
    Description: Soil moisture strongly affects the dynamics of soil organic matter and is an important environmental variable in all models predicting changes in soil carbon stocks from site to global scales. Despite this, the mechanisms determining the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to soil moisture remain poorly quantified, being represented in most current carbon cycle models as simple empirical functions. With the aim of providing an overview and new insights into the mechanisms involved, here we review the observations and theory behind the respiration-moisture relationship. We start by calculating best estimates of average empirical relationships using published data and comparing the results for contrasting soil types. The theoretical linkages between substrate and gas diffusivity in soil pores and heterotrophic respiration are then explored as a function of temperature and textural properties. Based on this theoretical model we interpret the variability of moisture effects observed in previous empirical studies. Transient CO₂ efflux–moisture relationships are discussed next, reviewing the theory and models developed in the last years with particular emphasis on the ‘Birch effect’. We continue by giving an overview of recent pore-scale models and consider how these can be used to gain a more mechanistic understanding of carbon storage and stabilization in variably saturated soils. From this review we conclude that current empirical models are useful but limited approximations, with questionable predictive capacity. Significant efforts are still necessary to represent the full range of soil moisture responses in a unifying model with a sound theoretical basis that can help identify common underlying processes. Equations present here, combining diffusion, texture and substrate to model respiration, are a step forward in this direction. ; p. 72-85.
    Keywords: Soil Types ; Carbon Sequestration ; Texture ; Soil Pore System ; Prediction ; Soil Organic Matter ; Equations ; Carbon Dioxide ; Temperature ; Models ; Soil Respiration ; Soil Water ; Carbon Sinks ; Diffusivity
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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