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  • 1
    Language: German
    In: Theorie und Praxis der sozialen Arbeit : TUP, 2010, Vol.61(3), pp. 179-184
    ISSN: 03422275
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2015, Vol.10(9)
    Description: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany—in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar—and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002–2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3–24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0–12.1); salt ranks 2 nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2–7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3 rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million—4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Appetite, March 1, 2014, Vol.74, p.20(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2013.11.006 Byline: Toni Meier, Olaf Christen, Edmund Semler, Gerhard Jahreis, Lieske Voget-Kleschin, Alexander Schrode, Martina Artmann Abstract: Article History: Received 12 July 2013; Revised 25 October 2013; Accepted 4 November 2013 Article Note: (footnote) [star] Acknowledgements: We thank the German Environmental Foundation (DBU) and the Max-Rubner Institute for supporting this research. Further, we thank Prof. Christian Barth of the University Potsdam and the three anonymous reviewers for constructive feedback. This research was partially founded as a PhD scholarship by the German Environmental Foundation (DBU).
    Keywords: Imports ; Sustainable Development ; Sustainable Agriculture
    ISSN: 0195-6663
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, Oct 24, 2014, Vol.290, p.134(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.10.036 Byline: Johannes Muller, Andre Eschenroder, Olaf Christen Abstract: acents Advanced model of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, energy balance. acents Finite variable mesophyll conductance considered. acents New function for the effect of stomata frequency per leaf site on leaf conductance. acents Accompanying dynamic model of plant water transport to account for drought stress. acents Validation against diurnal time courses of gas exchange of wheat and barley leaves. Author Affiliation: Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Betty-Heimann-Str. 5, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
    Keywords: Droughts -- Models ; Photosynthesis -- Models ; Plant Biochemistry -- Models ; Algorithms -- Models
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 2010, Vol.135(1), pp.70-80
    Description: The paper describes a model designed for analysing interrelated nitrogen (N) fluxes in farming systems. It combines the partial N balance, farm gate balance, barn balance and soil surface balance, in order to analyse all relevant N fluxes between the subsystems soil-plant-animal-environment and to reflect conclusive and consistent management systems. Such a system approach allows identifying the causes of varying N surplus and N utilisation. The REPRO model has been applied in the experimental farm Scheyern in southern Germany, which had been subdivided into an organic (org) and a conventional (con) farming system in 1992. Detailed series of long-term measuring data are available for the experimental farm, which have been used for evaluating the software for its efficiency and applicability under very different management, yet nearly equal site conditions. The organic farm is multi-structured with a legume-based crop rotation (N₂ fixation: 83kgha-¹ yr-¹). The livestock density is 1.4LSUha-¹. The farm is oriented on closed mass cycles. The conventional farm is a simple-structured cash crop system based on mineral N (N input 145kgha-¹ yr-¹). Averaging the years 1999-2002, the organic crop rotation reached, with regard to the harvested products, about 81% (6.9Mgha-¹ yr-¹) of the DM yield and about 93% (140kgha-¹ yr-¹) of the N removal of the conventional rotation. Related to the cropped area, the N surplus calculated for the organic rotation was 38kgha-¹ yr-¹ versus 44kgha-¹ yr-¹ for the conventional rotation. The N utilisation reached 0.77 (org) and 0.79 (con), respectively. The different structure of the farms favoured an enhancement of the soil organic nitrogen stock (35kgha-¹ yr-¹) in the organic crop rotation and caused a decline in the conventional system (-24kgha-¹ yr-¹). Taking account of these changes, which were substantiated by measurements, N surplus in the organic rotation decreased to 3kgha-¹ yr-¹, while it increased to 68kgha-¹ yr-¹ in the conventional system. The adjusted N utilisation value amounted to 0.98 (org) and 0.69 (con), respectively. ; Includes references ; p. 70-80.
    Keywords: Crop Rotation ; Stocking Rate ; Soil Fertility ; Simulation Models ; On-Farm Research ; Nitrogen Fixation ; Farming Systems ; Organic Production ; Long Term Experiments ; Cash Crops ; Nitrogen ; Livestock ; Biogeochemical Cycles ; Dry Matter Accumulation ; Nutrient Use Efficiency ; Nutrient Management ; Input Output Analysis
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    Source: AGRIS (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Modelling, 24 October 2014, Vol.290, pp.134-145
    Description: A new, upgraded version of the LEAFC3-N model of combined photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, and leaf energy balance is presented. The paper focuses mainly on simulating the effects of drought stress on diurnal time courses of leaf gas exchange by considering a finite variable mesophyll conductance. Further recent improvements are: (1) a model function accounting for the effect of different stomata frequencies at each leaf side on leaf conductance, (2) an accompanying dynamic model of plant water transport and storage to account for drought stress, (3) advanced solution algorithms, (4) clearly structured and well documented program code, (5) a user interface and simulation tool, and (6) a detailed documentation. The current model version was successfully re-calibrated against data of the diurnal time courses of net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate measured on wheat and barley leaves in the field and proved to account correctly for the reduction of these characteristics during midday and afternoon hours (midday depression) based on introducing a finite mesophyll conductance. With the current development we intend to provide a platform facilitating application and further improvement of the model. Documentation and source code may be provided by email request to the first author.
    Keywords: Photosynthesis ; Stomata Conductance ; Mesophyll Conductance ; Transpiration ; Model ; Software ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0304-3800
    E-ISSN: 1872-7026
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Oléagineux, Corps gras, Lipides, 01 May 2012, Vol.19(3), pp.142-146
    Description: The concept of sustainability, first developed in forestry, includes ecologic, economic and social aspects. In a number of international agreements almost all countries of the world have committed themselves to a sustainable development. The assessment of sustainability is normally done by using indicators. In the case of rapeseed special attention has to be placed on nitrogen balances and green house gas emission compared with other crops, however, a number of very positive effects of rapeseed occur if the scale of the crop rotation is considered. In recent years politics and administration have also used the term sustainability in the context of agricultural production, but only focussed on very few aspects and thus did not consider the complex system. This led to misconceptions and might cause disadvantages for rapeseed in the future. Based on the example of forestry, such a strong political influence might be avoided if the agricultural sector itself is able to establish assessment and certification systems.
    Keywords: Sustainable Production ; Indicators ; Biofuels ; Politics ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1258-8210
    E-ISSN: 2257-6614
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Appetite, 01 March 2014, Vol.74, pp.20-34
    Description: Nutrition is considered as one of the main drivers of global environmental change. Dietary patterns in particular, embedded in the international trade of foods and other biomass based commodities, determine the dimension of beneficial or harmful environmental impacts of the agri-food sector – both domestically and abroad. In this study we analysed different dietary scenarios from a virtual land flow perspective, based on representative consumption data for Germany in the years 2006 and 1985–89. Further we identified the consumer groups that would have to adapt most to balance Germany’s virtual land import and analysed the impact reduced food wastage. For the study, official data sets concerning production, trade and consumption were used. We derived land use data from environmentally extended input–output data sets and FAO statistics. The conversion of agricultural raw products to consumed commodities is based on official processing and composition data. Subgroup-specific intake data from the last representative National Nutrition Survey in Germany were used. We analysed 42 commodities, aggregated into 23 product groups, seven land use types and six nutrition scenarios. The results show that in the baseline scenario the average nutrition in the year 2006 leads to a virtual land import of 707 m p a , which represents 30% of the total nutrition-induced land demand of 2365 m p a . On the other hand, the German agri-food sector exports virtual land, in the form of commodities, equivalent to 262 m p a . In this paper we calculate that the resulting net import of virtual land could be balanced by way of a shift to an officially recommended diet and a reduction in the consumption of stimulants (cocoa, coffee, green/black tea, wine). A shift to an ovo-lacto-vegetarian or vegan diet would even lead to a positive virtual land balance (even with maintained consumption of stimulants). Moreover, we demonstrate that a shift in the average diet profile could lead to maintained or even expanded export competitiveness and simultaneously enable environmental benefits. Since such a diet shift complies with official dietary recommendations, it follows that public health benefits may well result. We show further that a reduction of avoidable food losses/wastage would not be sufficient to level out the virtual land balance of the average nutrition in Germany. Regarding the dietary developments in the last 20 years, we argue that a dietary shift resulting in a zero land balance is within reach. The population groups that would have to be addressed most are younger and middle-aged men. Nevertheless, women’s land saving potentials should not be ignored neither. Due to the fact that a western-style diet prevails in Germany, we argue that our basic findings are applicable to other industrialised and densely populated countries.
    Keywords: Virtual Land Imports ; Land Take ; Dietary Recommendations ; Food Losses/Wastage ; Environmentally Extended Input–Output Analysis ; Sustainable Nutrition ; Anatomy & Physiology ; Diet & Clinical Nutrition
    ISSN: 0195-6663
    E-ISSN: 1095-8304
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Environmental Management, 01 October 2016, Vol.181, pp.54-63
    Description: Avoiding soil compaction caused by agricultural management is a key aim of sustainable land management, and the soil compaction risk should be considered when assessing the environmental impacts of land use systems. Therefore this project compares different crop rotations in terms of soil structure and the soil compaction risk. It is based on a field trial in Germany, in which the crop rotations (i) silage maize (SM) monoculture, (ii) catch crop mustard (Mu)_sugar beet (SB)-winter wheat (WW)-WW, (iii) Mu_SM-WW-WW and (iv) SB-WW-Mu_SM are established since 2010. Based on the cultivation dates, the operation specific soil compaction risks and the soil compaction risk of the entire crop rotations are modelled at two soil depths (20 and 35 cm). To this end, based on assumptions of the equipment currently used in practice by a model farm, two scenarios are modelled (100 and 50% hopper load for SB and WW harvest). In addition, after one complete rotation, in 2013 and in 2014, the physical soil parameters saturated hydraulic conductivity (k ) and air capacity (AC) were determined at soil depths 2–8, 12–18, 22–28 and 32–38 cm in order to quantify the soil structure. At both soil depths, the modelled soil compaction risks for the crop rotations including SB (Mu_SB-WW-WW, SB-WW-Mu_SM) are higher (20 cm: medium to very high risks; 35 cm: no to medium risks) than for those without SB (SM monoculture, Mu_SM-WW-WW; 20 cm: medium risks; 35 cm: no to low risks). This increased soil compaction risk is largely influenced by the SB harvest in years where soil water content is high. Halving the hopper load and adjusting the tyre inflation pressure reduces the soil compaction risk for the crop rotation as a whole. Under these conditions, there are no to low soil compaction risks for all variants in the subsoil (soil depth 35 cm). Soil structure is mainly influenced in the topsoil (2–8 cm) related to the cultivation of Mu as a catch crop and WW as a preceding crop. Concerning k , Mu_SB-WW-WW (240 cm d ) and Mu_SM-WW-WW (196 cm d ) displayed significantly higher values than the SM monoculture (67 cm d ), indicating better structural stability and infiltration capacity. At other soil depths, and for the parameter AC, there are no systematic differences in soil structure between the variants. Under the circumstances described, all crop rotations investigated are not associated with environmental impacts caused by soil compaction.
    Keywords: Sugar Beet ; Silage Maize ; Air Capacity ; Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity ; Repro ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    ISSN: 0301-4797
    E-ISSN: 1095-8630
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 02 November 2015, Vol.61(11), pp.1531-1549
    Description: Economic conditions are forcing farmers to grow crops with high revenue leading to cereal-dominated crop rotations with increasing risk due to unfavourable preceding crops or preceding crop combinations. Based on a long-term field trial (1988-2001) with 15 different rotations including winter oilseed rape (OSR), winter wheat, winter barley, spring peas and spring oats, the effects of different preceding crops, pre-preceding crops and crop rotations on the grain yield of mainly OSR, winter wheat and winter barley were quantified. In the subsequent 2 years (2001/2002 and 2002/2003), winter wheat was grown on all plots in order to test the residual effects of the former crops (as preceding crops in 2002 and as pre-preceding crops in 2003) and crop rotations on growth, grain yield and yield components. Unfavourable preceding crops significantly decreased yield of OSR, wheat and barley by 10% on average, however, with a large year-to-year variation. In addition, break-crop benefits in both crops, wheat and OSR, persisted to the second year. Wheat as preceding crop mainly decreased the thousand grain weight, and to a lesser extent, the ear density of the subsequent wheat crop. The amount of wheat yield decrease negatively correlated with the simple water balance (rainfall minus evapotranspiration) in May-July. In 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, the preceding crop superimposed the crop rotation effects, thus resulting in similar effects as observed in 1988-2001. Our results clearly reveal the importance of a favourable preceding crop for the yield performance of a crop, especially wheat and OSR.
    Keywords: Crop Rotation ; Residual Effects ; Yield ; Yield Components ; Soil Mineral N ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0365-0340
    E-ISSN: 1476-3567
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