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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Indicators, 2012, Vol.13(1), pp.328-337
    Description: Huge open-air festivals with more than 50,000 visitors have become a common but scarcely studied land-use practice in many countries of the world. The environmental consequences of crowds such as litter accumulation and damage to vegetation are increasingly being taken into account by event managers. At present, many festivals use overall solid waste amount as an indicator of their waste management performance. However, these operational performance indicators (OPIs) do not reflect either the success of individual litter reduction measures or the damage to valuable habitats. We developed specific OPIs for solid waste littering and compared absolute littering and littering per person at three open-air festivals in Germany across different festival zones and phases. For one festival, we established a GIS to relate sensitive habitats to waste littering. Differences in litter indicators across event zones and phases as well as the impact of litter-reducing measures were tested using generalized linear mixed models (GLMM). Waste littering reached values up to 350 g h m , mainly in the form of glass bottles. Stage, path, food, and sanitation zones showed significantly higher littering per hour and per area than entrance zones, and littering was significantly lower during the arrival phase than during the event and departure phases. Fencing in combination with entrance controls, bin allocation, and participatory litter collection systems decreased overall littering significantly. In addition, requiring deposits for cups and providing visitor information on banners significantly impacted littering of residual (non-glass) waste. Festivals led to a clear short-term decrease in vegetation cover. Mapping waste littering in relation to valuable habitats highlights the conflict between festival use and nature conservation. We conclude that fencing, bin allocation, and participatory litter collection systems are the most efficient measures to reduce littering at festivals and should have high priority in valuable habitats. In particular, event planners should develop specific measures for waste-intensive stage, path, food, and sanitation zones. Overall, the study provides evidence that specific OPIs are more effective at assessing litter management at huge festivals than general OPIs.
    Keywords: Event Management ; Environmental Management ; Festival ; Littering ; Operational Performance Indicator ; Solid Waste ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1470-160X
    E-ISSN: 1872-7034
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  • 2
    In: Journal of Ecology, November 2013, Vol.101(6), pp.1623-1640
    Description: This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Robinia pseudoacacia L. that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, and history and conservation. Robinia pseudoacacia, false acacia or black locust, is a deciduous, broad‐leaved tree native to North America. The medium‐sized, fast‐growing tree is armed with spines, and extensively suckering. It has become naturalized in grassland, semi‐natural woodlands and urban habitats. The tree is common in the south of the British Isles and in many other regions of Europe. Robinia pseudoacacia is a light‐demanding pioneer species, which occurs primarily in disturbed sites on fertile to poor soils. The tree does not tolerate wet or compacted soils. In contrast to its native range, where it rapidly colonizes forest gaps and is replaced after 15–30 years by more competitive tree species, populations in the secondary range can persist for a longer time, probably due to release from natural enemies. Robinia pseudoacacia reproduces sexually, and asexually by underground runners. Disturbance favours clonal growth and leads to an increase in the number of ramets. Mechanical stem damage and fires also lead to increased clonal recruitment. The tree benefits from di‐nitrogen fixation associated with symbiotic rhizobia in root nodules. Estimated symbiotic nitrogen fixation rates range widely from 23 to 300 kg ha−1 year−1. The nitrogen becomes available to other plants mainly by the rapid decay of nitrogen‐rich leaves. Robinia pseudoacacia is host to a wide range of fungi both in the native and introduced ranges. Megaherbivores are of minor significance in Europe but browsing by ungulates occurs in the native range. Among insects, the North American black locust gall midge (Obolodiplosis robiniae) is specific to Robinia and is spreading rapidly throughout Europe. In parts of Europe, Robinia pseudoacacia is considered an invasive non‐indigenous plant and the tree is controlled. Negative impacts include shading and changes of soil conditions as a result of nitrogen fixation. is a orth‐merican introduction that has become a widely naturalized tree in southern ritain and warmer parts of continental urope. It spreads clonally by root suckers and produces copious seeds. Its capacity for symbiotic di‐nitrogen fixing has facilitated invasive behaviour, and further spread is likely with climate warming. Nevertheless, it provides ecosystem services, notably nectar for honey production, timber and soil stabilization.
    Keywords: Climatic Limitation ; Ecophysiology ; Geographical And Altitudinal Distribution ; Germination ; Invasive ; Mycorrhiza ; Nitrogen Fixation ; Parasites And Diseases ; Reproductive Biology ; Soils
    ISSN: 0022-0477
    E-ISSN: 1365-2745
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, March 1, 2013, Vol.291, p.396(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.021 Byline: Fritz Kleinschroth (a), Caspar Schoning (b), James B. Kung'u (c), Ingo Kowarik (a), Arne Cierjacks (a) Keywords: Logging; Mountain forest; Mount Kenya; Regeneration; Root sucker; Seedling Abstract: a* Regeneration in Ocotea usambarensis is low 10years after logging cessation. a* Small trees are absent in formerly heavily logged areas. a* Root suckers are more abundant than seedlings. a* Vegetative regeneration and historical logging are negatively correlated. a* Enrichment plantings are recommended for forest recovery. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Ecology, Ecosystem Science/Plant Ecology, Technische Universitat Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, 12165 Berlin, Germany (b) Functional Biodiversity, Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Institut fur Biologie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Konigin-Luise-Str. 1-3, 14195 Berlin, Germany (c) Department of Environmental Sciences, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Article History: Received 21 July 2012; Revised 13 November 2012; Accepted 18 November 2012
    Keywords: Timber ; Logging ; Ecosystems
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Plant and Soil, 2013, Vol.370(1), pp.497-509
    Description: Aims: We analysed current carbon (C) stocks in fine root and aboveground biomass of riparian forests and influential environmental parameters on either side of a dike in the Donau-Auen National Park, Austria. Methods: On both sides of the dike, carbon (C) stock of fine roots (CFR) under four dominant tree species and of aboveground biomass (CAB) were assessed by topsoil cores (0-30 cm) and angle count sampling method respectively (n=48). C stocks were modeled, performing boosted regression trees (BRT). Results: Overall CFR was 2.8 t ha super(-1), with significantly higher C stocks in diked (DRF) compared to flooded riparian forests (FRF). In contrast to CFR, mean CAB was 123 t ha super(-1) and lower in DRF compared to FRF. However, dike construction was consistently ruled out as a predictor variable in BRT. CFR was influenced by the distance to the Danube River and the dominant tree species. CAB was mainly influenced by the magnitude of fluctuations in the groundwater table and the distances to the river and the low groundwater table. Conclusions: Despite pronounced differences in FRF and DRF, we conclude that there is only weak support that dikes directly influence C allocation in floodplain forests within the time scale considered (110 years).
    Keywords: Aboveground biomass ; Belowground biomass ; Carbon distribution ; Carbon sequestration ; Dike ; Ecosystem services ; Floodplain forest
    ISSN: 0032-079X
    E-ISSN: 1573-5036
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Biodiversity and Conservation, 2012, Vol.21(1), pp.281-296
    Description: Alpine landscapes are heavily influenced by ski run management, which can have severe impacts on alpine biodiversity. To assess these impacts on alpine Orthoptera, we compared species richness and species abundance in 41 plot pairs on ski runs and adjacent off-slope control plots in three ski resorts in Austria and Germany. A mixed modelling approach was used to assess the impacts of ski run preparation, artificial snow-making and environmental variables such as altitude, cover of dwarf shrubs and the application of fertilizer. Ski run plots showed a significantly lower species richness and number of individuals than control plots. Moreover, artificial snow led to a further decrease in species number. Hierarchical variance partitioning revealed that Orthoptera community composition is best predicted by environmental variables indirectly related to ski run management (fertilization, cover of dwarf shrubs) and to altitude. Only one out of five species significantly decreased in abundance after artificial snow-making. Other species were more sensitive to fertilizing and altitude. Dwarf shrubs were negatively associated with ski run management but positively associated with abundance of three species and species richness. Our data provide evidence for both direct and indirect consequences of ski runs and artificial snow-making on alpine Orthoptera. Overall, Orthoptera communities are suitable indicators for human-induced changes in alpine environments. In particular, a shift towards generalist species such as Chorthippus parallelus along with a decrease in typical alpine species gives cause for concern as this implies a homogenisation of biodiversity owing to ski run management.
    Keywords: Allgäu Alps ; Artificial snow-making ; Bulldozing ; Diversity ; Dwarf shrubs ; Homogenisation ; Orthoptera ; Ski run ; Winter tourism
    ISSN: 0960-3115
    E-ISSN: 1572-9710
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 15 March 2016, Vol.220, pp.175-183
    Description: The ability to accommodate crop production for an ever-growing human population and achieve conservation of rapidly declining biodiversity remains a challenging task worldwide. In agroecosystems, weed diversity and biomass are frequently assumed to be negatively related to crop yield and biomass. However, positive effects of weed species (pollinator and parasitoid attraction) and different resource acquisition strategies may reduce the competitive character of weeds—a potential that can be exploited within land-sharing approaches (i.e., biodiversity conservation and agriculture on the same site). This study aimed at analyzing the relationships of weed diversity and biomass to crop yield and biomass in coconut and banana fields within an irrigation farming scheme established in former Caatinga seasonal dry forest ecosystems around the Itaparica Reservoir, Pernambuco, Brazil. Within each of 21 selected crop fields, we collected weed diversity and biomass data in the fields’ center and edge along with general information on crop yield and the use of fertilizers and other agrochemical inputs. We found no evidence for a negative relationship of crop yield or biomass and weed diversity. On the contrary, crop yield and weed alpha diversity were significantly positively correlated (Shannon and Simpson indices, evenness). In contrast, weed biomass showed a significant negative correlation to crop yield. The use of organic fertilizer had a significant positive effect on crop yield, whereas no impact of herbicides or insecticides was detected. In addition, the field edge provided habitat for more weed species than the field center. Overall, our data show that in perennial tropical crop fields high yield is not opposed to high weed diversity. Moreover, the data suggest that organic farming in the area will likely not lead to yield losses. Nevertheless, the related weed assemblages inhabited only a few typical species of the native dry forest vegetation which makes their contribution to biodiversity conservation at the landscape scale debatable.
    Keywords: Fertilizer ; Field Edge ; Herbicide ; Insecticide ; Land Sharing ; Organic Farming ; Agriculture ; Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 0167-8809
    E-ISSN: 1873-2305
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 December 2012, Vol.285, pp.85-91
    Description: ► A regional sample of 64 alien vs. native pairs of tree communities were surveyed. ► Black locust negatively influenced and tree species diversity. ► Compared to native stands, black locust influence on understory was negligible. ► Black locust had a slight homogenisation effect on ground-layer species abundance. Black locust ( L.) is a widespread alien tree species commonly thought to influence plant assemblages. The aim of this study was to compare the plant diversity between black locust and native recent secondary stands within the European Mediterranean Mountains environmental zone. Spontaneous reforestation was detected by comparing historical aerial photographs and the most recent images. Distributed throughout a 2700 km hilly and piedmont area, 32 black locust and 32 paired native stands were selected and all vascular plant species were surveyed in a 100 m area. Analyses of the and -diversity were performed separately for six identified plant groups. Despite a clear difference in the tree diversity between the black locust and native recent secondary stands and a homogenisation of the tree layer by the black locust stands, we found only inconsistent hints for homogenisation of the ground-layer vegetation by the black locust stands. There is no evidence to suggest that the presence of black locust in recent secondary stands plays a major role in shaping the diversity of the understory plant groups compared to native stands.
    Keywords: Robinia Pseudoacacia ; Tree Invasion ; Spontaneous Reforestation ; Plant Community ; Homogenisation ; Dissimilarity Index ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science of the Total Environment, 01 January 2017, Vol.574, pp.1261-1275
    Description: Aboveground carbon (C) sequestration in trees is important in global C dynamics, but reliable techniques for its modeling in highly productive and heterogeneous ecosystems are limited. We applied an extended dendrochronological approach to disentangle the functioning of drivers from the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation), the lithosphere (sedimentation rate), the hydrosphere (groundwater table, river water level fluctuation), the biosphere (tree characteristics), and the anthroposphere (dike construction). Carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass of riparian L. and L. was modeled (1) over time using boosted regression tree analysis (BRT) on cross-datable trees characterized by equal annual growth ring patterns and (2) across space using a subsequent classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on cross-datable and not cross-datable trees. While C sequestration of cross-datable responded to precipitation and temperature, cross-datable also responded to a low Danube river water level. However, CART revealed that C sequestration over time is governed by tree height and parameters that vary over space (magnitude of fluctuation in the groundwater table, vertical distance to mean river water level, and longitudinal distance to upstream end of the study area). Thus, a uniform response to climatic drivers of aboveground C sequestration in was only detectable in trees of an intermediate height class and in taller trees (〉 21.8 m) on sites where the groundwater table fluctuated little (≤ 0.9 m). The detection of climatic drivers and the river water level in depended on sites at lower altitudes above the mean river water level (≤ 2.7 m) and along a less dynamic downstream section of the study area. Our approach indicates unexploited opportunities of understanding the interplay of different environmental drivers in aboveground C sequestration. Results may support species-specific and locally adapted forest management plans to increase carbon dioxide sequestration from the atmosphere in trees.
    Keywords: Boosted Regression Tree ; Carbon Sequestration ; Classification and Regression Tree ; Climate ; Danube River ; Dendrochronology ; Environmental Sciences ; Biology ; Public Health
    ISSN: 0048-9697
    E-ISSN: 1879-1026
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 March 2013, Vol.291, pp.396-403
    Description: ► Regeneration in is low 10 years after logging cessation. ► Small trees are absent in formerly heavily logged areas. ► Root suckers are more abundant than seedlings. ► Vegetative regeneration and historical logging are negatively correlated. ► Enrichment plantings are recommended for forest recovery. East African montane forests have been subjected to heavy logging, particularly of Engl., formerly one of the dominant tree species of moist mid-altitude forests. At Mt. Kenya, logging was suspended in 2000 after a conspicuous decline in population size, but the success of this conservation measure has not yet been evaluated. Given that a management scheme of forests based on vegetative regeneration has been suggested, we hypothesized that natural regeneration mainly by root suckers would be sufficient for a recovery of this species. Demography and regeneration (both sexual and vegetative) of were studied in 45 study plots between 1700 and 2500 m asl along a gradient of historical logging intensity, while taking altitude and light incidence into account as predictor variables. The diameter distribution showed a high percentage of old individuals and rather low recruitment in . In heavily logged areas (removed basal area 〉25 m ha ), smaller trees (〈50 cm DBH, 〉130 cm high) were completely absent. The number of seedlings was low and independent of logging intensity. It increased with higher light incidence. The number of root suckers was 5.6-fold the number of seedlings, underscoring the importance of vegetative reproduction. However, number of root suckers and logging intensity were negatively correlated. We conclude that regeneration of at Mt. Kenya is generally low and negatively influenced by historical logging. Therefore, natural regeneration is inadequate for the recovery of this valuable timber species, and additional conservation measures such as enrichment planting should be considered.
    Keywords: Logging ; Mountain Forest ; Mount Kenya ; Regeneration ; Root Sucker ; Seedling ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 01 May 2016, Vol.367, pp.62-70
    Description: Grazing by domestic ungulates can have substantial impacts on forests in arid and semi-arid regions, possibly including severe loss of carbon from the soil. Predicting net livestock impacts on soil organic carbon stocks remains challenging, however, due to the dependence on animal loads and on soil and environmental parameters. The objective of this study was to better understand grazing effects on soil organic carbon in seasonal tropical dry forests of north-eastern Brazil (Caatinga) by quantifying carbon stocks of the upper soil profile (0–5 cm depth) and greater soil depths (〉5 cm depth down to bedrock) along a gradient of grazing intensity while accounting for other influencing factors such as soil texture, vegetation, landscape topography, and water availability. We analysed soil organic carbon, soil clay content, altitude above sea level, soil depth to bedrock, distance to the nearest permanent water body, species diversity of perennial plants and aboveground biomass on 45 study plots located in the vicinity of the Itaparica Reservoir, Pernambuco, Brazil. Livestock (mainly goats and cattle) are unevenly distributed in the studied ecosystem, thus grazing intensity was accounted for based on the weight of livestock droppings per square metre and classified as no or light, intermediate, or heavy grazing. The mean soil organic carbon in the area was 16.86 ± 1.28 Mg ha C with approximately one-quarter found in the upper 5 cm of the soil profile (4.14 ± 0.43 Mg ha C) and the remainder (12.57 ± 0.97 Mg ha C) in greater soil depths (〉5 cm). Heavy grazing led to significantly lower soil organic carbon stocks in the upper 5 cm, whereas no effect on soil organic carbon of the soil overall or in greater soil depths was detectable. The soil’s clay content and the altitude proved to be the most relevant factors influencing overall soil organic carbon stocks and those in greater soil depths (〉5 cm). Our findings suggest that grazing causes substantial release of carbon from Brazilian dry forest soils, which should be addressed through improved grazing management via a legally compulsory rotation system. This would ultimately contribute to the conservation of a unique forest system and associated ecosystem services.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Degradation ; Desertification ; Livestock ; Semi-Arid ; Soil ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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