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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 23 October 2018, Vol.115(43), pp.E10022-E10031
    Description: SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) that depletes cellular dNTPs in noncycling cells to promote genome stability and to inhibit retroviral and herpes viral replication. In addition to being substrates, cellular nucleotides also allosterically regulate SAMHD1 activity. Recently, it was shown that high expression levels of SAMHD1 are also correlated with significantly worse patient responses to nucleotide analog drugs important for treating a variety of cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we used biochemical, structural, and cellular methods to examine the interactions of various cancer drugs with SAMHD1. We found that both the catalytic and the allosteric sites of SAMHD1 are sensitive to sugar modifications of the nucleotide analogs, with the allosteric site being significantly more restrictive. We crystallized cladribine-TP, clofarabine-TP, fludarabine-TP, vidarabine-TP, cytarabine-TP, and gemcitabine-TP in the catalytic pocket of SAMHD1. We found that all of these drugs are substrates of SAMHD1 and that the efficacy of most of these drugs is affected by SAMHD1 activity. Of the nucleotide analogs tested, only cladribine-TP with a deoxyribose sugar efficiently induced the catalytically active SAMHD1 tetramer. Together, these results establish a detailed framework for understanding the substrate specificity and allosteric activation of SAMHD1 with regard to nucleotide analogs, which can be used to improve current cancer and antiviral therapies.
    Keywords: Samhd1 ; Allosteric Regulation ; Dntpase ; Nucleotide Analog Drugs ; Substrate Selection ; Allosteric Site -- Drug Effects ; Catalytic Domain -- Drug Effects ; Drug Interactions -- Physiology ; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute -- Metabolism ; SAM Domain and HD Domain-Containing Protein 1 -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, December 2016, Vol.69, pp.S53-S53
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(16)32745-9 Byline: M. Michaelis, M. Wass, J. Cinatl
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, December 2016, Vol.69, pp.S72-S72
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(16)32806-4 Byline: M. Michaelis, M. Wass, J. Cinatl
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, July 2016, Vol.61, pp.S120-S120
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(16)61426-0 Byline: M. Michaelis, M. Wass, J. Cinatl
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2014, Vol.9(9), p.e108758
    Description: Aurora kinase inhibitors displayed activity in pre-clinical neuroblastoma models. Here, we studied the effects of the pan-aurora kinase inhibitor tozasertib (VX680, MK-0457) and the aurora kinase inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) that shows some specificity for aurora kinase A over aurora kinase B in a panel of neuroblastoma cell lines with acquired drug resistance. Both compounds displayed anti-neuroblastoma activity in the nanomolar range. The anti-neuroblastoma mechanism included inhibition of aurora kinase signalling as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the aurora kinase substrate histone H3, cell cycle inhibition in G2/M phase, and induction of apoptosis. The activity of alisertib but not of tozasertib was affected by ABCB1 expression. Aurora kinase inhibitors induced a p53 response and their activity was enhanced in combination with the MDM2 inhibitor and p53 activator nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type cells. In conclusion, aurora kinases are potential drug targets in therapy-refractory neuroblastoma, in particular for the vast majority of p53 wild-type cases.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 6
    In: Oncogene, 2013
    Description: Chemotherapy is the most common treatment for cancer. However, multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle to effective chemotherapy, limiting the efficacy of both conventional chemotherapeutic and novel biologic agents. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a xenosensor, is a key regulator of MDR. It functions in xenobiotic detoxification by regulating the expression of phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, whose overexpression in cancers and whose role in drug resistance make them potential therapeutic targets for reducing MDR. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous negative regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in most cellular processes, including drug resistance. Here, we report the inversely related expression of miR-137 and CAR in parental and doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells, wherein miR-137 is downregulated in resistant cells. miR-137 overexpression resulted in downregulation of CAR protein and mRNA (via mRNA degradation);it sensitized doxorubicin- resistant cells to doxorubicin (as shown by reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and increased G2-phase cell cycle arrest) and reduced the in vivo growth rate of neuroblastoma xenografts. We observed similar results in cellular models of hepatocellular and colon cancers, indicating that the doxorubicin-sensitizing effect of miR-137 is not tumor type-specific. Finally, we show for the first time a negative feedback loop whereby miR-137 downregulates CAR expression and CAR downregulates miR-137 expression. Hypermethylation of the miR-137 promoter and negative regulation of miR-137 by CAR contribute in part to reduced miR-137 expression and increased CAR and MDR1 expression in doxorubicin-resistant neuroblastoma cells. These findings demonstrate that miR-137 is a crucial regulator of cancer response to doxorubicin treatment, and they identify miR-137 as a highly promising target to reduce CAR-driven doxorubicin resistance. Oncogene (2014) 33, 3717-3729; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.330; published online 12 August 2013 Keywords: microRNA; constitutive androstane receptor; miR-137; MDR1; doxorubicin
    Keywords: Drug Resistance -- Genetic Aspects ; Neuroblastoma -- Genetic Aspects ; Neuroblastoma -- Drug Therapy ; Microrna -- Health Aspects ; Doxorubicin -- Dosage And Administration ; Doxorubicin -- Genetic Aspects ; Cell Receptors -- Genetic Aspects ; Cell Receptors -- Health Aspects ; Genetic Regulation -- Research ; Genetic Research;
    ISSN: 0950-9232
    E-ISSN: 14765594
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2012, Vol.7(5), p.e36506
    Description: Oncolytic influenza A viruses with deleted NS1 gene (delNS1) replicate selectively in tumour cells with defective interferon response and/or activated Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signalling pathway. To develop a delNS1 virus with specific immunostimulatory properties, we used an optimised technology to insert the interleukin-15 (IL-15) coding sequence into the viral NS gene segment (delNS1-IL-15). DelNS1 and delNS1-IL-15 exerted similar oncolytic effects. Both viruses replicated and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis in interferon-defective melanoma cells. Virus replication was required for their oncolytic activity. Cisplatin enhanced the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses. The cytotoxic drug increased delNS1 replication and delNS1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Interference with MEK/ERK signalling by RNAi-mediated depletion or the MEK inhibitor U0126 did not affect the oncolytic effects of the delNS1 viruses. In oncolysis sensitive melanoma cells, delNS1-IL-15 (but not delNS1) infection resulted in the production of IL-15 levels ranging from 70 to 1140 pg/mL in the cell culture supernatants. The supernatants of delNS1-IL-15-infected (but not of delNS1-infected) melanoma cells induced primary human natural killer cell-mediated lysis of non-infected tumour cells. In conclusion, we constructed a novel oncolytic influenza virus that combines the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses with immunostimulatory properties through production of functional IL-15. Moreover, we showed that the oncolytic activity of delNS1 viruses can be enhanced in combination with cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Medicine ; Virology ; Infectious Diseases ; Molecular Biology ; Oncology ; Dermatology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e19705
    Description: Glycyrrhizin is known to exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of an approved parenteral glycyrrhizin preparation (Stronger Neo-Minophafen C) were investigated on highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus replication, H5N1-induced apoptosis, and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial (A549) cells. Therapeutic glycyrrhizin concentrations substantially inhibited H5N1-induced expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules CXCL10, interleukin 6, CCL2, and CCL5 (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 25 to 50 µg/ml) but interfered with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced apoptosis to a lesser extent (effective glycyrrhizin concentrations 100 µg/ml or higher). Glycyrrhizin also diminished monocyte migration towards supernatants of H5N1-infected A549 cells. The mechanism by which glycyrrhizin interferes with H5N1 replication and H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression includes inhibition of H5N1-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and (in turn) reduced activation of NFκB, JNK, and p38, redox-sensitive signalling events known to be relevant for influenza A virus replication. Therefore, glycyrrhizin may complement the arsenal of potential drugs for the treatment of H5N1 disease.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Medicine ; Infectious Diseases ; Pharmacology
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2011, Vol.68(6), pp.1079-1090
    Description: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Here, non-toxic concentrations of the anti-cancer kinase inhibitor sorafenib were shown to inhibit replication of different HCMV strains (including a ganciclovir-resistant strain) in different cell types. In contrast to established anti-HCMV drugs, sorafenib inhibited HCMV major immediate early promoter activity and HCMV immediate early antigen (IEA) expression. Sorafenib is known to inhibit Raf. Comparison of sorafenib with the MEK inhibitor U0126 suggested that sorafenib inhibits HCMV IEA expression through inhibition of Raf but independently of signaling through the Raf downstream kinase MEK 1/2. In concordance, siRNA-mediated depletion of Raf but not of MEK-reduced IEA expression. In conclusion, sorafenib diminished HCMV replication in clinically relevant concentrations and inhibited HCMV IEA expression, a pathophysiologically relevant event that is not affected by established anti-HCMV drugs. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that Raf activation is involved in HCMV IEA expression.
    Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus ; Sorafenib ; Kinase inhibitor ; Raf ; Immediate early antigen ; Cancer chemotherapy ; Oncomodulation ; Antiviral therapy
    ISSN: 1420-682X
    E-ISSN: 1420-9071
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Cancer, December 2016, Vol.69, pp.S72-S72
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(16)32805-2 Byline: M. Michaelis, F. Rothweiler, N. Loeschmann, M. Sharifi, T. Ghafourian, J. Cinatl
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0959-8049
    E-ISSN: 1879-0852
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