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  • 1
    In: Nucleic Acids Research, 2018, Vol. 46(21), pp.e128-e128
    Description: Gene arrays and operons that encode functionally linked proteins form the most basic unit of transcriptional regulation in bacteria. Rules that govern the order and orientation of genes in these systems have been defined; however, these were based on a small set of genomes that may not be representative. The growing availability of large genomic datasets presents an opportunity to test these rules, to define the full range and diversity of these systems, and to understand their evolution. Here we present SLING, a tool to S earch for LIN ked G enes by searching for a single functionally essential gene, along with its neighbours in a rule-defined proximity ( https://github.com/ghoresh11/sling/wiki ). Examining this subset of genes enables us to understand the basic diversity of these genetic systems in large datasets. We demonstrate the utility of SLING on a clinical collection of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli for two relevant operons: toxin antitoxin (TA) systems and RND efflux pumps. By examining the diversity of these systems, we gain insight on distinct classes of operons which present variable levels of prevalence and ability to be lost or gained. The importance of this analysis is not limited to TA systems and RND pumps, and can be expanded to understand the diversity of many other relevant gene arrays.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Anatomy & Physiology;
    ISSN: 0305-1048
    E-ISSN: 1362-4962
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: mBio, 01 December 2017, Vol.8(6), p.e01964-17
    Description: Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants that survive antibiotic treatment in a dormant state and can be formed by multiple pathways. We recently proposed that the second messenger (p)ppGpp drives Escherichia coli persister formation through protease Lon and activation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules. This model found considerable support among researchers studying persisters but also generated controversy as part of recent debates in the field. In this study, we therefore used our previous work as a model to critically examine common experimental procedures to understand and overcome the inconsistencies often observed between results of different laboratories. Our results show that seemingly simple antibiotic killing assays are very sensitive to variations in culture conditions and bacterial growth phase. Additionally, we found that some assay conditions cause the killing of antibiotic-tolerant persisters via induction of cryptic prophages. Similarly, the inadvertent infection of mutant strains with bacteriophage ϕ80, a notorious laboratory contaminant, apparently caused several of the phenotypes that we reported in our previous studies. We therefore reconstructed all infected mutants and probed the validity of our model of persister formation in a refined assay setup that uses robust culture conditions and unravels the dynamics of persister cells through all bacterial growth stages. Our results confirm the importance of (p)ppGpp and Lon but no longer support a role of TA modules in E. coli persister formation under unstressed conditions. We anticipate that the results and approaches reported in our study will lay the ground for future work in the field.
    Keywords: Biology
    E-ISSN: 2150-7511
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: In vivo (Athens, Greece), 2012, Vol.26(1), pp.139-42
    Description: In neonatal intensive care units, extravasation is one of the most common injuries occurring in infants as a complication of infusion therapy. These very preterm infants have immature skin which is easily damaged. They often require a longer duration of intravenous therapy, and obtaining intravenous access can be difficult. An invasive treatment should be avoided, whenever possible, particularly for very immature infants. In our Special Operative Unit for ulcers and difficult-to-heal wounds, University of Rome, we successfully treated a premature neonate, who experienced extravasation of hypertonic fluid, using dermal substitutes and products of regenerative medicine.
    Keywords: Skin, Artificial ; Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials -- Therapy ; Hypertonic Solutions -- Adverse Effects ; Infant, Premature, Diseases -- Therapy
    E-ISSN: 1791-7549
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 4
    In: Stem Cells International, 2016, Vol.2016, 9 pages
    Description: . Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disease characterized by cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Face and mouth changes include telangiectasia, sicca syndrome, and thinning and reduction of mouth width (microcheilia) and opening (microstomia). We applied autologous fat transplantation compared with autologous adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) injection to evaluate the clinical improvement of mouth opening.. From February to May 2013 ten consecutive SSc patients were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of Plastic Surgery Department of Sapienza University of Rome. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: 5 patients were treated with fat transplantation and 5 patients received infiltration of ADSCs produced by cell factory of our institution. To value mouth opening, we use the Italian version of Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis Scale (IvMHISS). Mouth opening was assessed in centimetres (Maximal Mouth Opening, MMO). In order to evaluate compliance and physician and patient satisfaction, we employed a Questionnaire of Satisfaction and the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) performed before starting study and 1 year after the last treatment.. We noticed that both procedures obtained significant results but neither one emerged as a first-choice technique. The present clinical experimentation should be regarded as a starting point for further experimental research and clinical trials.
    Keywords: Biology;
    ISSN: 1687-966X
    E-ISSN: 1687-9678
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