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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Infection and immunity, 04 January 2016, Vol.84(3), pp.765-74
    Description: Haemophilus haemolyticus and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are closely related upper airway commensal bacteria that are difficult to distinguish phenotypically. NTHi causes upper and lower airway tract infections in individuals with compromised airways, while H. haemolyticus rarely causes such infections. The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an outer membrane component of both species and plays a role in NTHi pathogenesis. In this study, comparative analyses of the LOS structures and corresponding biosynthesis genes were performed. Mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that NTHi LOS contained terminal sialic acid more frequently and to a higher extent than H. haemolyticus LOS did. Genomic analyses of 10 strains demonstrated that H. haemolyticus lacked the sialyltransferase genes lic3A and lic3B (9/10) and siaA (10/10), but all strains contained the sialic acid uptake genes siaP and siaT (10/10). However, isothermal titration calorimetry analyses of SiaP from two H. haemolyticus strains showed a 3.4- to 7.3-fold lower affinity for sialic acid compared to that of NTHi SiaP. Additionally, mass spectrometric and immunochemical analyses showed that the LOS from H. haemolyticus contained phosphorylcholine (ChoP) less frequently than the LOS from NTHi strains. These differences observed in the levels of sialic acid and ChoP incorporation in the LOS structures from H. haemolyticus and NTHi may explain some of the differences in their propensities to cause disease.
    Keywords: Haemophilus -- Metabolism ; Haemophilus Infections -- Microbiology ; Haemophilus Influenzae -- Metabolism ; Lipopolysaccharides -- Chemistry ; N-Acetylneuraminic Acid -- Analysis ; Phosphorylcholine -- Analysis
    ISSN: 00199567
    E-ISSN: 1098-5522
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2017, Vol.1628, pp.65-78
    Description: Pseudotyping lentivirus-based vectors is a strategy used to study conferred vector tropism and mechanisms of envelope glycoprotein function. Lentiviruses and filoviruses both assemble at the plasma membrane and have homotrimeric structural envelope glycoproteins that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. Such similarities help foster efficient pseudotyping. Importantly, filovirus glycoprotein pseudotyping of lentiviral vectors allows investigators to study virus entry at substantially less restrictive levels of biosafety containment than that required for wild-type filovirus work (biosafety level-2 vs. biosafety level-4, respectively). Standard lentiviral vector production involves transient transfection of viral component expression plasmids into producer cells, supernatant collection, and centrifuge concentration. Because the envelope glycoprotein expression plasmid is provided in trans, wild type or variant filoviral glycoproteins from marburgvirus or ebolavirus species may be used for pseudotyping and compared side-by-side. In this chapter we discuss the manufacture of pseudotyped lentiviral vector with an emphasis on small-scale laboratory grade production.
    Keywords: Ebolavirus ; Filovirus ; Glycoprotein ; Lentivirus ; Marburgvirus ; Production ; Pseudotyping ; Purification ; Titering ; Viral Vector ; Genetic Vectors ; Lentivirus -- Genetics ; Viral Tropism -- Genetics
    E-ISSN: 1940-6029
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, 12/2/2013, Vol.123(12), pp.5411-5411
    ISSN: 0021-9738
    E-ISSN: 15588238
    Source: CrossRef
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of clinical investigation, 02 July 2018, Vol.128(7), pp.3199
    Keywords: Medicine;
    E-ISSN: 1558-8238
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: The Journal of clinical investigation, May 2013, Vol.123(5), pp.2119-30
    Description: Platinum compounds display clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors; however, resistance to these agents is a major limitation in cancer therapy. Reduced platinum uptake and increased platinum export are examples of resistance mechanisms that limit the extent of DNA damage. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of the role of ATP11B, a P-type ATPase membrane protein, in cisplatin resistance. We found that ATP11B expression was correlated with higher tumor grade in human ovarian cancer samples and with cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cell lines. ATP11B gene silencing restored the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to cisplatin in vitro. Combined therapy of cisplatin and ATP11B-targeted siRNA significantly decreased cancer growth in mice bearing ovarian tumors derived from cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant cells. In vitro mechanistic studies on cellular platinum content and cisplatin efflux kinetics indicated that ATP11B enhances the export of cisplatin from cells. The colocalization of ATP11B with fluorescent cisplatin and with vesicular trafficking proteins, such as syntaxin-6 (STX6) and vesicular-associated membrane protein 4 (VAMP4), strongly suggests that ATP11B contributes to secretory vesicular transport of cisplatin from Golgi to plasma membrane. In conclusion, inhibition of ATP11B expression could serve as a therapeutic strategy to overcome cisplatin resistance.
    Keywords: Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters -- Physiology ; Adenosine Triphosphatases -- Physiology ; Cisplatin -- Pharmacology ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm -- Genetics ; Membrane Transport Proteins -- Physiology ; Ovarian Neoplasms -- Drug Therapy
    ISSN: 00219738
    E-ISSN: 1558-8238
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, April 2004, Vol.190(4), pp.899-909
    Description: Objective We previously demonstrated that aggressive ovarian cancer cells are able to display in vitro vasculogenic mimicry, which is reflected by their ability to form vasculogenic-like networks in 3-dimensional cultures and to express vascular cell-associated markers. The goal of this study was to examine the functional role of specific matrix metalloproteinases in the formation of vasculogenic-like networks and extracellular matrix remodeling in vitro. We also investigated the clinical relevance of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase in human ovarian cancers with evidence of tumor cell-lined vasculature. Study design Ovarian cancer cells (A2780-PAR, SKOV3, and EG) were seeded onto separate 3-dimensional cultures that contained either Matrigel or type I collagen, in the absence of endothelial cells or fibroblasts. These cultures were treated with either chemically modified tetracycline-3 (general matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor), recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 or -2, or function-blocking antibodies to matrix metalloproteinase-2 or -9 or membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase. In addition, 78 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were evaluated for expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase and correlated with various clinical parameters. Results The aggressive ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3 and EG) were able to form in vitro vasculogenic-like networks and contract 3-dimensional collagen I gels, whereas the poorly aggressive A2780-PAR cell line did not. Chemically modified tetracycline-3 completely blocked the network formation. Blocking antibodies to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase inhibited the formation of the vasculogenic-like networks and collagen gel contraction, but the antibody to matrix metalloproteinase-9 had no effect on network formation and minimal effect on gel contraction. Treatment of 3-dimensional cultures with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 retarded the network formation and only small, partially developed structures were noted that did not form network connections. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 had no appreciable effect on the extent or efficiency of network formation. Human invasive ovarian cancers with evidence of tumor cell-lined vasculature were significantly more likely to have strong epithelial and stromal matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase expression (all probability values were 〈.05). Conclusion Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase appear to play a key role in the development of vasculogenic-like networks and matrix remodeling by aggressive ovarian cancer cells. Human ovarian cancers with matrix metalloproteinase overexpression are more likely to have tumor cell-lined vasculature. These results may offer new insights for consideration in ovarian cancer treatment strategies.
    Keywords: Ovarian Cancer ; Vasculogenic Mimicry ; Matrix Metalloproteinase ; Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9378
    E-ISSN: 1097-6868
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, September 2002, Vol.8(9), pp.2924-32
    Description: Maspin is a noninhibitory member of the serpin family that is down-regulated in breast carcinoma but overexpressed in pancreatic carcinoma. There are no published data regarding the role of maspin in ovarian carcinoma, which is the focus of the present study. Ovarian cell lines (normal and cancer) and tumors (80 invasive, 14 benign, and 10 low malignant potential) were evaluated for maspin expression and localization. Normal ovarian surface epithelial cells had low levels of maspin. Two of four ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR3 and SKOV3) expressed maspin, whereas the cell line EG had weak expression, and 222 had no detectable maspin. Subcellular fractionation studies revealed that the two maspin-positive ovarian cancer cell lines contained maspin in both the nuclear and cytosolic compartments. Wild-type maspin was transfected into the aggressive ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and 222. The in vitro invasive activity of the maspin-transfected cell lines was 44-68% lower than respective controls. The histopathology analysis revealed that among the ovarian tumors examined, 57 (71%) were ranked positive for maspin. Thirty (37%) of the invasive tumors overexpressed maspin. Invasive cancers were more likely to have predominantly cytoplasmic staining compared with benign and low-malignant-potential tumors. Maspin overexpression was significantly associated with a high tumor grade (P = 0.004), the presence of ascites (P = 0.02), a lower likelihood of optimal surgical cytoreduction (P = 0.04), and a shorter duration of overall survival (median survival, 6.33 versus 2.67 years; P = 0.003). The Cox proportional hazards multivariate model revealed that maspin overexpression and high stage were independent predictors of survival. Thus, maspin was found to be overexpressed in a substantial proportion of ovarian tumors, which may serve as an adverse prognostic factor; however, its localization may provide new clues as to its activity and function. These paradoxical results may offer new insights regarding the role of maspin in ovarian cancer progression that may also impact diagnosis and treatment strategies.
    Keywords: Protein Biosynthesis ; Neoplasm Proteins -- Biosynthesis ; Ovarian Neoplasms -- Enzymology ; Serpins -- Biosynthesis
    ISSN: 1078-0432
    Source: MEDLINE/PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Biology & Therapy, 01 December 2004, Vol.3(12), pp.1250-1253
    Description: Introduction: Malignant cells are capable of an unlimited number of cell divisions, either through production of telomerase, or through the alternate lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism. Yeast cells with genomic instability have been shown...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1538-4047
    E-ISSN: 1555-8576
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: The American Journal of Pathology, 2004, Vol.165(4), pp.1087-1095
    Description: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by integrin clustering. There are limited data regarding the functional role of FAK in ovarian cancer migration and invasion. In the current study, FAK expression was evaluated in ovarian cell lines (nontransformed and cancer), 12 benign ovarian samples, and in 79 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers. All three ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressed FAK compared to the nontransformed cells. The dominant-negative construct called FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK) was introduced into two ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and 222). FRNK promoted FAK dephosphorylation without changing total FAK levels in these cell lines. Furthermore, FRNK decreased the invasive ability of ovarian cancer cells by 56 to 85% and decreased migration by 52 to 68%. FRNK-transfected cells also displayed poor cell spreading. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the surface epithelium from all benign ovarian samples had weak FAK expression. In contrast, 68% of invasive ovarian cancers overexpressed FAK. FAK overexpression was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high tumor grade, positive lymph nodes and presence of distant metastasis (all values 〈0.05). FAK overexpression was also associated with shorter overall survival ( = 0.008). Multivariate analysis revealed that FAK overexpression and residual disease 〉1 cm were independent predictors of poor survival. These data indicate that FAK is overexpressed in most invasive ovarian cancers and plays a functionally significant role in ovarian cancer migration and invasion. Thus, FAK may be an important therapeutic target in ovarian carcinoma.
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 0002-9440
    E-ISSN: 1525-2191
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Cancer Biology & Therapy, 01 November 2002, Vol.1(6), pp.661-664
    Description: Vasculogenic mimicry reflects the plasticity of aggressive tumor cells that express vascular cell markers and line tumor vasculature; such has been demonstrated in aggressive ovarian carcinoma. This study measured the clinical significance of...
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1538-4047
    E-ISSN: 1555-8576
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