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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 09 March 2007, Vol.315(5817), pp.1423-6
    Description: Various signaling pathways rely on changes in cytosolic calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i). In plants, resting [Ca2+]i oscillates diurnally. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, [Ca2+]i oscillations are synchronized to extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) oscillations largely through the Ca2+-sensing receptor CAS. CAS regulates concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn directs release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The oscillating amplitudes of [Ca2+]o and [Ca2+]i are controlled by soil Ca2+ concentrations and transpiration rates. The phase and period of oscillations are likely determined by stomatal conductance. Thus, the internal concentration of Ca2+ in plant cells is constantly being actively revised.
    Keywords: Calcium Signaling ; Circadian Rhythm ; Arabidopsis -- Metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins -- Metabolism ; Calcium -- Metabolism ; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate -- Metabolism ; Receptors, Calcium-Sensing -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    In: New Phytologist, January 2010, Vol.185(2), pp.514-528
    Description: • The potential for elevated [CO2]‐induced changes to plant carbon (C) storage, through modifications in plant production and allocation of C among plant pools, is an important source of uncertainty when predicting future forest function. Utilizing 10 yr of data from the Duke free‐air CO2 enrichment site, we evaluated the dynamics and distribution of plant C. • Discrepancy between heights measured for this study and previously calculated heights required revision of earlier allometrically based biomass determinations, resulting in higher (up to 50%) estimates of standing biomass and net primary productivity than previous assessments. • Generally, elevated [CO2] caused sustained increases in plant biomass production and in standing C, but did not affect the partitioning of C among plant biomass pools. Spatial variation in net primary productivity and its [CO2]‐induced enhancement was controlled primarily by N availability, with the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration explaining most interannual variability. Consequently, [CO2]‐induced net primary productivity enhancement ranged from 22 to 30% in different plots and years. • Through quantifying the effects of nutrient and water availability on the forest productivity response to elevated [CO2], we show that net primary productivity enhancement by elevated [CO2] is not uniform, but rather highly dependent on the availability of other growth resources.
    Keywords: Carbon Allocation ; Duke Free‐Air Co Enrichment Face ; Net Primary Production ; Potential Evapotranspiration ; Precipitation ; Stand Growth
    ISSN: 0028-646X
    E-ISSN: 1469-8137
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 23 December 2005, Vol.310(5756), pp.1944-7
    Description: Carbon sequestration strategies highlight tree plantations without considering their full environmental consequences. We combined field research, synthesis of more than 600 observations, and climate and economic modeling to document substantial losses in stream flow, and increased soil salinization and acidification, with afforestation. Plantations decreased stream flow by 227 millimeters per year globally (52%), with 13% of streams drying completely for at least 1 year. Regional modeling of U.S. plantation scenarios suggests that climate feedbacks are unlikely to offset such water losses and could exacerbate them. Plantations can help control groundwater recharge and upwelling but reduce stream flow and salinize and acidify some soils.
    Keywords: Environment ; Carbon -- Metabolism ; Trees -- Metabolism ; Water -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science, Sept 24, 2004, Vol.305(5692), p.1968(4)
    Description: The correct timing of flowering is essential for plants to maximize reproductive success and is controlled by environmental and endogenous signals. We report that nitric oxide (NO) repressed the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants treated with NO, as well as a mutant overproducing NO (nox1), flowered late, whereas a mutant producing less NO (nos1) flowered early. NO suppressed CONSTANS and GIGANTEA gene expression and enhanced FLOWERING LOCUS C expression, which indicated that NO regulates the photoperiod and autonomous pathways. Because NO is induced by environmental stimuli and constitutively produced, it may integrate both external and internal cues into the floral decision.
    Keywords: Arabidopsis Thaliana -- Genetic Aspects ; Flowers -- Growth ; Nitric Oxide -- Usage ; Photoperiodism -- Research ; Time -- Influence
    ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 5
    In: Ecology, December 2009, Vol.90(12), pp.3352-3366
    Description: Atmospheric CO concentrations have risen 40% since the start of the industrial revolution. Beginning in 1996, the Duke Free‐Air CO Enrichment experiment has exposed plots in a loblolly pine forest to an additional 200 μL/L CO compared to trees growing in ambient CO. This paper presents new belowground data and a synthesis of results through 2008, including root biomass and nutrient concentrations, soil respiration rates, soil pore‐space CO concentrations, and soil‐solution chemistry to 2 m depth. On average in elevated CO, fine‐root biomass in the top 15 cm of soil increased by 24%, or 59 g/m (26 g/m C). Coarse‐root biomass sampled in 2008 was twice as great in elevated CO and suggests a storage of ~20 g C·m·yr. Root C and N concentrations were unchanged, suggesting greater belowground plant demand for N in high CO. Soil respiration was significantly higher by 23% on average as assessed by instantaneous infrared gas analysis and 24‐h integrated estimates. N fertilization decreased soil respiration and fine‐root biomass by ~10–20% in both ambient and elevated CO. In recent years, increases in root biomass and soil respiration grew stronger, averaging ~30% at high CO. Peak changes for root biomass, soil respiration, and other variables typically occurred in midsummer and diminished in winter. Soil CO concentrations between 15 and 100 cm depths increased 36–60% in elevated CO. Differences from 30 cm depth and below were still increasing after 10 years' exposure to elevated CO, with soil CO concentrations 〉10 000 μL/L higher at 70‐ and 100‐cm depths, potentially influencing soil acidity and rates of weathering. Soil solution Ca and total base cation concentrations were 140% and 176% greater, respectively, in elevated CO at 200 cm depth. Similar increases were observed for soil‐solution conductivity and alkalinity at 200 cm in elevated CO. Overall, the effect of elevated CO belowground shows no sign of diminishing after more than a decade of CO enrichment.
    Keywords: Elevated Co 2 ; Loblolly Pine Forest ; Root Biomass ; Root Carbon And Nitrogen ; Soil Pore Space Co 2 ; Soil Respiration
    ISSN: 0012-9658
    E-ISSN: 1939-9170
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  • 6
    Language: English
    Description: The success of every construction project begins with reading and understanding the contract. Contract Administrators and Project Managers for all parties in the construction process must realize the major impact their actions have on cost, schedule, and quality in relation to the contract terms and conditions. Written in a clear and accessible way from a Constructor’s perspective, Successful Contract Administration guides the student through the critical issues of understanding contract law and obligations for effective project execution. Through examples, exercises, and case studies, this textbook will: Improve knowledge and comprehension of key contract elements Help the student apply knowledge to real case scenarios Improve the student’s ability to analyze and create different scenarios for success Evaluate critical issues of responsibility and ethics in relation to contract administration. The text is supported by a companion website featuring additional resources for both students and instructors. Resources for the student include additional case studies, links to useful websites, video commentary and interviews for increased understanding of important chapter material, true/false sample quiz questions and a flashcard glossary to reinforce comprehension of key terms and concepts. Additional instructor material includes a testbank of questions, (including true/false, multiple choice, and sample essay questions), website links to contract documents and PowerPoint slides.
    Keywords: Construction Law ; Construction Management ; Construction Law ; Engineering;
    ISBN: 9780415844222
    ISBN: 9781138414297
    ISBN: 9781315765792
    E-ISSN: 97813176
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  • 7
    In: Design News, April 23, 2001, Vol.56(8), p.182
    Keywords: Engineering Services -- Production Management ; Industrial Equipment Industry -- Production Management ; Engineers
    ISSN: 0011-9407
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 2014, Vol.48(3), pp.2051-8
    Description: Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.
    Keywords: Air Pollutants -- Analysis ; Natural Gas -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 24 September 2004, Vol.305(5692), pp.1968-71
    Description: The correct timing of flowering is essential for plants to maximize reproductive success and is controlled by environmental and endogenous signals. We report that nitric oxide (NO) repressed the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plants treated with NO, as well as a mutant overproducing NO (nox1), flowered late, whereas a mutant producing less NO (nos1) flowered early. NO suppressed CONSTANS and GIGANTEA gene expression and enhanced FLOWERING LOCUS C expression, which indicated that NO regulates the photoperiod and autonomous pathways. Because NO is induced by environmental stimuli and constitutively produced, it may integrate both external and internal cues into the floral decision.
    Keywords: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Proteins ; Arabidopsis -- Physiology ; Flowers -- Physiology ; Nitric Oxide -- Physiology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2019, Vol.14(8), p.e0220176
    Description: Here we present novel method development and instruction in the construction and use of Field Portable Gas Analyzers study of belowground aerobic respiration dynamics of deep soil systems. Our Field-Portable Gas Analysis (FPGA) platform has been developed at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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