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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology
    Description: Starting from mid ‘90s, Eco-efficient Product Service Systems (PSSs) were indicated in literature as enablers toward a more sustainable and resource-efficient industry through re-use and remanufacturing. In this regard, academicians and practitioners outlined several advantages (environmental and economic) but also many barriers hindering their implementation, such as market acceptance and economic sustainability. Thus, the diffusion of re-use and remanufacturing PSS is currently limited and mainly restricted to markets accepting also out-dated products (e.g. B2B or emerging countries). To cope with this limitation, product upgrade in re-manufacturing was recently introduced. Upgrade cycles allow embedding technological innovation into products while remanufacturing, thus reaching advanced performances and satisfying evolving customers’ preferences over time. If coupled with the offering of advanced services, remanufacturing with upgrade would open the way to new disruptive PSSs able to revolution customers’ consumption behaviour, as well as the manufacturing business model of companies. The new remanufacturing with upgrade business models will make remanufacturing one of the main pillars of companies’ business value generation, allowing improved management of technology cycles and of products obsolescence. Thus, overall economic and environmental benefits will be maximised. However, the implementation of such business models represents a challenge for manufacturers. The evolution from a pure manufacturing towards a manufacturing/remanufacturing company, together with the transition from a product to a service-based offering, entails considerable changes in all the business model variables. Drawing on the theory of business model innovation process, incremental or radical innovation paths can be hypothesised for this transition. Despite the focus of recent research on Product Service Systems and on Circular Economy, remanufacturing-with-upgrade business models are rarely cited in literature and there is limited empirical evidence of companies having embraced them. To set the research framework in alignment with previous theory, this paper proposes a structured definition and configuration of innovative remanufacturing-with-upgrade business models. By looking at existing examples of companies having undertaken this type of business model innovation, different typologies of remanufacturing and upgrade business models are proposed. Companies were classified according to the identified PSS typologies and conclusions are derived, together with future research perspectives.
    Keywords: Re-Manufacturing ; Upgrade ; Sustainable Product Service Systems ; Business Model ; Circular Economy ; Engineering
    ISSN: 1755-5817
    E-ISSN: 1878-0016
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmacology, 15 December 2017, Vol.817, pp.71-75
    Description: Conceived more than 25 years ago, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease has evolved to accommodate new findings, namely different forms of β–amyloid aggregates and downstream dysfunctions. Yet, the cascade does not mention its very beginning, the β–amyloid monomer. Here, I will discuss the monomer from a functional evolutionary perspective, highlighting the potential advantages of a native unfolded state that, however, involves an amyloidogenic risk. Finally, I will make a summary of what is known about its functional role in the brain and discuss the implications of its conceivable shortage in the development of Alzheimer's disease.
    Keywords: Aβ Monomer ; IGF-IR ; Neuronal Glucose Uptake ; Glut3 ; Neuroprotection ; Brain Hypometabolism ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0014-2999
    E-ISSN: 1879-0712
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2013, Vol.172(4), pp.1041-1049
    Description: Generalist herbivores typically grow better on mixed- than on single-component diets. This response has been attributed to food complementarities that either enhance the utilization of nutrients or dilute the negative impacts of plant secondary compounds (PSC). For instance, when animals choose between foods that contain diverse PSC, they eat more than animals offered a food that contains just one PSC. In addition to their negative impacts on herbivore fitness, recent evidence suggests that at appropriate doses PSC may provide beneficial effects to herbivores (i.e., by reducing parasitic infections). Thus, complementarities among diverse PSC may not only influence an herbivore’s ability to consume food but also reduce the incidence of disease. We assessed the complementary effects of two PSC by offering sheep ( Ovis aries ) a choice of foods containing condensed tannins and saponins while challenged with a parasitic ( Haemonchus contortus ) infection. Animals offered a choice ate more than animals just offered tannins or saponins in single rations. However, sheep offered choices displayed greater fecal egg counts (an indirect measurement of parasitic burdens) than sheep offered single rations. Thus, saponin- and tannin-containing foods were complementary resources regarding nutrient intake but antagonistic regarding effects on parasitic loads. The nature of the relationship among PSC may depend on the dimension (i.e., nutrient intake, disease) where the interaction occurs. A unifying currency such as growth or reproductive output may help understand the trade-offs between costs (disease) and benefits (nutrient and medicine intake) for herbivores grazing multiple PSC.
    Keywords: Tannins ; Saponins ; Haemonchus contortus ; Ovis aries ; Plant secondary compounds ; Foraging
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmacology, Jan 10, 2010, Vol.626(1), p.64(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.022 Byline: Filippo Caraci (a), Agata Copani (a)(b), Ferdinando Nicoletti (c)(d), Filippo Drago (e) Keywords: Major depression; Alzheimer's disease; Chronic inflammation; [beta]-amyloid; Transforming-growth-factor-[beta]1; Brain-derived neurotrophic factor; Neuroprotection Abstract: Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses, whereas Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 37 million people worldwide. Recent evidence suggests a strong relationship between depression and Alzheimer's disease. A lifetime history of major depression has been considered as a risk factor for later development of Alzheimer's disease. The presence of depressive symptoms can affect the conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the two major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease brain, are more pronounced in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients with comorbid depression as compared with Alzheimer's disease patients without depression. On the other hand, neurodegenerative phenomena have been observed in different brain regions of patients with a history of depression. Recent evidence suggests that molecular mechanisms and cascades that underlie the pathogenesis of major depression, such as chronic inflammation and hyperactivation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In particular, a specific impairment in the signaling of some neurotrophins such as transforming-growth-factor [beta]1 (TGF-[beta]1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been observed both in depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present review we will examine the evidence on the common molecular pathways between depression and Alzheimer's disease and we will discuss these pathways as new pharmacological targets for the treatment of both major depression and Alzheimer's disease. Author Affiliation: (a) Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Catania, 95125, Catania, Italy (b) I.B.B., CNR-Catania, 95125, Catania, Italy (c) I.N.M. Neuromed, Localita Camerelle, 86077, Pozzilli, Italy (d) Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Rome La Sapienza, 00185 Rome, Italy (e) Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Catania, 95125, Catania, Italy Article History: Accepted 9 October 2009
    Keywords: Depression (Mood disorder) -- Risk Factors ; Depression (Mood disorder) -- Development And Progression ; Alzheimer's Disease -- Risk Factors ; Alzheimer's Disease -- Development And Progression ; Peptide Hormones ; Transforming Growth Factors ; Brain
    ISSN: 0014-2999
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2015, Vol.208, p.220(5)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.07.025 Byline: G. Copani, C. Ginane, A. Le Morvan, V. Niderkorn Abstract: * Bioactive legumes and grass produce associative effects on volatile fatty acids. * Bioactive legumes increase protein protection during in vitro rumen fermentation. * Bioactive legumes in grass silage did not change dry matter disappearance. * Inclusion of bioactive legumes in grass silage did not affect methane production. Author Affiliation: (a) INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, 63122 Saint-Genes-Champanelle, France (b) Clermont Universite, VetAgro Sup, UMR1213 Herbivores, BP 10448, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France Article History: Received 19 March 2015; Revised 24 July 2015; Accepted 25 July 2015
    Keywords: Rumen ; Methane ; Silage ; Fatty Acids ; Legumes ; Rumen Fermentation
    ISSN: 0377-8401
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 6
    Language: Spanish
    In: Rey Desnudo: Revista de Libros, 01 December 2013, Vol.2(3)
    E-ISSN: 2314-1204
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Endocrinology, January 2013, Vol.154(1), pp.375-87
    Description: Alzheimer's disease is increased in diabetic patients. A defective insulin activity on the brain has been hypothesized to contribute to the neuronal cell dysregulation leading to AD, but the mechanism is not clear. We analyzed the effect of insulin on several molecular steps of amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and β-amyloid (Aβ) intracellular accumulation in a panel of human neuronal cells and in human embryonic kidney 293 cells overexpressing APP-695. The data indicate that insulin, via its own receptor and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT pathway, influences APP phosphorylation at different sites. This rapid-onset, dose-dependent effect lasts many hours and mainly concerns dephosphorylation at the APP-T668 site. This effect of insulin was confirmed also in a human cortical neuronal cell line and in rat primary neurons. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence studies indicated that insulin-induced APP-T668 dephosphorylation prevents the translocation of the APP intracellular domain fragment into the nucleus. As a consequence, insulin increases the transcription of antiamyloidogenic proteins such as the insulin-degrading enzyme, involved in Aβ degradation, and α-secretase. In contrast, the transcripts of pro-amyloidogenic proteins such as APP, β-secretase, and glycogen synthase kinase (Gsk)-3β are decreased. Moreover, cell exposure to insulin favors the nonamyloidogenic, α-secretase-dependent APP-processing pathway and reduces Aβ40 and Aβ42 intracellular accumulation, promoting their release in the extracellular compartment. The latter effects of insulin are independent of both Gsk-3β phosphorylation and APP-T668 dephosphorylation, as indicated by experiments with Gsk-3β inhibitors and with cells transfected with the nonphosphorylatable mutated APP-T668A analog. In human neuronal cells, therefore, insulin may prevent Aβ formation and accumulation by multiple mechanisms, both Gsk-3β dependent and independent.
    Keywords: Insulin -- Pharmacology ; Neurons -- Drug Effects
    ISSN: 00137227
    E-ISSN: 1945-7170
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: European Journal of Pharmacology, 10 January 2010, Vol.626(1), pp.64-71
    Description: Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illnesses, whereas Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than 37 million people worldwide. Recent evidence suggests a strong relationship between depression and Alzheimer's disease. A lifetime history of major depression has been considered as a risk factor for later development of Alzheimer's disease. The presence of depressive symptoms can affect the conversion of mild cognitive impairment into Alzheimer's disease. Neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the two major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease brain, are more pronounced in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients with comorbid depression as compared with Alzheimer's disease patients without depression. On the other hand, neurodegenerative phenomena have been observed in different brain regions of patients with a history of depression. Recent evidence suggests that molecular mechanisms and cascades that underlie the pathogenesis of major depression, such as chronic inflammation and hyperactivation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, are also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In particular, a specific impairment in the signaling of some neurotrophins such as transforming-growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been observed both in depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present review we will examine the evidence on the common molecular pathways between depression and Alzheimer's disease and we will discuss these pathways as new pharmacological targets for the treatment of both major depression and Alzheimer's disease.
    Keywords: Major Depression ; Alzheimer'S Disease ; Chronic Inflammation ; Β-Amyloid ; Transforming-Growth-Factor-Β1 ; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor ; Neuroprotection ; Pharmacy, Therapeutics, & Pharmacology
    ISSN: 0014-2999
    E-ISSN: 1879-0712
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  • 9
    In: Chemical Communications, 2013, Vol.49(49), pp.5565-5567
    Description: A new naphthalimide derivative bearing a tetrathia-azacrown for high affinity and selective binding to Cu + was synthesised. Copper recognition properties in solution were evaluated using 1 H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Live cell imaging by confocal microscopy highlighted the capabilities of the new sensor for the two-wavelength detection of intracellular monovalent copper in neuronal cells.
    Keywords: Copper -- Analysis ; Naphthalimides -- Chemistry ; Neurons -- Chemistry;
    ISSN: 1359-7345
    E-ISSN: 1364-548X
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  • 10
    In: Modern Economy, 2014, Vol.05(13), pp.1147-1160
    ISSN: 2152-7245
    E-ISSN: 2152-7261
    Source: CrossRef
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