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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Antiviral Research, 2001, Vol.49(3), pp.157-167
    Description: Innate viral inhibitors that are broadly active have been characterized in the serum and the nervous system, but incompletely characterized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI preparations from porcine gastric mucosa, mouse intestine, and in neuramide (a pharmaceutical product), were examined for broad antiviral activity, molecular size and mechanism of action for comparison with the previously characterized, innate inhibitors in the serum and nervous system. The GI inhibitors were found to be active in high titers against RNA and DNA viruses, resistant to proteolysis, glycolysis, lipid extraction and possessed differing mechanisms of action. The mouse intestinal inhibitor prevented virus attachment to cells, and neuramide acted at an early post-attachment stage of virus multiplication. The porcine mucosal inhibitor acted as late as 6 h after initiation of the multiplication cycle. These broadly active GI inhibitors differed from the previously described serum inhibitor (UTI beta) high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the nervous system (NS) inhibitor by being smaller (600 +/- 400 kDa) and resistant to proteinase K, glycosidases and organic solvents. The mouse intestinal inhibitor acts similarly to UTI beta and NS inhibitor by preventing attachment of virus to the cells. In comparison, the neuramide and the porcine mucosal inhibitor, like HDL, acted after attachment to the target cells. The innate nonspecific, broadly-active virus inhibitors, based on high titers and location, are considered important initial immune defense mechanisms against viral infections and thus potentially useful in medical applications.
    Keywords: Intestinal Virus Inhibitors ; Intestinal Defense ; Innate Immunity ; Medicine ; Biology
    ISSN: 0166-3542
    E-ISSN: 1872-9096
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  • 2
    Description: It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe...
    Keywords: Treponema Pallidum ; Baboons ; Serology ; Microbiology
    ISBN: 〈relatedIdentifier relatedIdentifierType="ISBN" relationType="IsPartOf"/〉
    ISSN: 1932-6203
    Source: DataCite
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2012, Vol.7(12), p.e50882
    Description: It has been known for decades that wild baboons are naturally infected with Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes the diseases syphilis (subsp. pallidum), yaws (subsp. pertenue), and bejel (subsp. endemicum) in humans. Recently, a form of T. pallidum infection associated with severe genital lesions has been described in wild baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated ten additional sites in Tanzania and Kenya using a combination of macroscopic observation and serology, in order to determine whether the infection was present in each area. In addition, we obtained genetic sequence data from six polymorphic regions using T. pallidum strains collected from baboons at two different Tanzanian sites. We report that lesions consistent with T. pallidum infection were present at four of the five Tanzanian sites examined, and serology was used to confirm treponemal infection at three of these. By contrast, no signs of treponemal infection were observed at the six Kenyan sites, and serology indicated T. pallidum was present at only one of them. A survey of sexually mature baboons at Lake Manyara National Park in 2006 carried out as part of this study indicated that roughly ten percent displayed T. pallidum-associated lesions severe enough to cause major structural damage to the genitalia. Finally, we found that T. pallidum strains from Lake Manyara National Park and Serengeti National Park were genetically distinct, and a phylogeny suggested that baboon strains may have diverged prior to the clade containing human strains. We conclude that T. pallidum infection associated with genital lesions appears to be common in the wild baboons of the regions studied in Tanzania. Further study is needed to elucidate the infection's transmission mode, its associated morbidity and mortality, and the relationship between baboon and human strains.
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    In: The New England Journal of Medicine, 1994, Vol.330(18), pp.1314-1315
    Description: To the Editor: Despite evidence of HIV in the saliva of HIV-positive persons, oral transmission of the virus appears to be a rare event. Researchers have isolated infectious virus from only a small percentage of saliva samples from HIV-infected patients, even when virus can be isolated from peripheral-blood samples from the same persons 1 , 2 or when HIV DNA is detected in saliva by the polymerase chain reaction 3 . Components of saliva can inhibit HIV 4 and other viruses 5 . Can the presence of salivary viral inhibitors explain the low rate of recovery of HIV from oral fluids? Recently, we tested saliva . . .
    Keywords: Human Immunodeficiency Virus ; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ; Saliva ; Antiviral Activity ; Man ; AIDS: Clinical Aspects;
    ISSN: 0028-4793
    E-ISSN: 1533-4406
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 01 October 1983, Vol.80(19), pp.6010-6013
    Description: Interferon-α inducers were previously shown to cause human lymphocyte production of a corticotropin (ACTH)-like peptide. Thyrotropin (TSH) was not produced under these conditions. In contrast, this report shows that a T-cell mitogen (staphylococcal enterotoxin A), which does not induce the ACTH-like peptide, caused human lymphocyte production of an immunoreactive (ir) TSH. Lymphocyte synthesis of the ir TSH was first detectable at 24 hr, peaked at 48 hr, and thereafter declined. NaDodSO 4 /polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intrinsically radiolabeled lymphocyte-derived ir TSH showed radiolabeled peaks at 80, 50, and 26 kilodaltons. These peaks presumably correspond to trimeric, dimeric, and monomeric TSH-like proteins, respectively. Acid treatment and reduction caused the ir TSH to migrate as a 14-kilodalton peak with a 12-kilodalton shoulder in a gel filtration column run in 6 M guanidine· HCl. Thus, the ir TSH seemed to be composed of subunits with molecular masses corresponding to those of the β and α chains of human TSH, respectively. The ir TSH appeared to be glycoprotein because it bound to a concanavalin A affinity column. Taken together these data suggest that in addition to ACTH, human lymphocytes can also produce a TSH-like substance.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology -- Lymphocytes ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Materials -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Mechanics -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Biomolecules -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Health sciences -- Medical sciences -- Immunology -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Polyclonal antibodies ; Physical sciences -- Physics -- Matter -- Polyclonal antibodies
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 1 February 1990, Vol.87(3), pp.1057-1060
    Description: To determine the degree of similiarity between pituitary and lymphocyte proopiomelanocortin, the lymphocyte mRNA was reverse transcribed, cloned, and sequenced. Murine lymphocyte mRNA was first purified by oligo(dT)-cellulose affinity chromatography and was reverse transcribed by using a selective 3' antisense oligonucleotide primer directed at the boundary between the translated/nontranslated region on the 3' end of exon 3. This cDNA was then amplified in a polymerase chain reaction with selective primers containing Sal I and Kpn I restriction endonuclease sites. Amplified cDNA was then directionally ligated into M13mp18 and M13mp19 bacteriophage and was sequenced. The nucleotide sequence encoding this peptide was identical to that of mouse pituitary corticotropin (ACTH). Elevated levels of lymphocyte immunoreactive ACTH were then induced with bacterial lipopolysaccharide and the peptide(s) was purified by antibody affinity chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The predominant immunoreactive ACTH species was ≈ 3 kDa and its sequence was identical to pituitary ACTH(1-25). These results conclusively demonstrate that lymphocytes produce authentic ACTH and harbor its mRNA.
    Keywords: Biological sciences -- Biology -- Physiology -- Lymphocytes ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Lymphocytes ; Applied sciences -- Laboratory techniques -- Nucleic acid amplification techniques -- Lymphocytes ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Zoology -- Lymphocytes ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Lymphocytes ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Chemical compounds -- Lymphocytes ; Applied sciences -- Computer science -- Computer programming -- Lymphocytes ; Biological sciences -- Biology -- Genetics -- Lymphocytes ; Biological sciences -- Biochemistry -- Analytical chemistry -- Lymphocytes ; Physical sciences -- Chemistry -- Analytical chemistry -- Lymphocytes
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 7
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, May 1986, Vol.463(1), pp.179-182
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 8
    In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, December 1984, Vol.435(1), pp.254-257
    ISSN: 0077-8923
    E-ISSN: 1749-6632
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  • 9
    In: JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Sept 11, 1991, Vol.266(10), p.1375(9)
    Description: Interferons (IFNs) are proteins that can be produced by virtually any cell in the body and have a wide range of physiological effects. In general, IFNs defend the body against viral infections, fight tumor growth and development, and help regulate immunity. This review explains the ways these important chemicals work and the ways they are currently used to treat disease. IFN proteins are of three families: alpha, beta, and gamma. They are intercellular signalling proteins, as are protein hormones, lymphokines, and cytokines (substances with biological activity produced by cells). Descriptions are presented of the ways IFNs act against viruses, tumors, protozoa, and bacteria: in addition, their roles with respect to other intercellular signalling substances are discussed. This latter aspect of IFN function is only beginning to be understood. At present, IFNs alpha (a) and gamma (g) are used clinically. IFN-a-2a, recombinant IFN-a-2b, and natural IFN-a-n(exp3) are available. Interferon has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating hairy-cell leukemia, condyloma acuminatum, Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS, non-A, non-B hepatitis, and chronic granulomatous disease. Its use in these conditions is evaluated. FDA approval is pending for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (skin cancer). However, the effectiveness of IFNs is under investigation for treating several other disorders, including malignancies, infections (both viral, bacterial, and protozoal), immune diseases, and disorders of collagen (connective tissue) production. In many cases, IFNs are already used in other countries for treating these diseases. It is likely that these substances will find even wider use in the future as adjuvants, that is, in association with other cytokines, chemotherapeutic drugs, surgical treatments, radiation, and other therapies. New potential uses for IFNs are under review. (Consumer Summary produced by Reliance Medical Information, Inc.)
    Keywords: Interferon -- Physiological Aspects ; Interferon -- Health Aspects
    ISSN: 0098-7484
    E-ISSN: 15383598
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: American Journal of Primatology, 1987, Vol.13(2), pp.187-193
    Description: The ring‐tailed lemur, , shows a two‐component hemoglobin phenotype after alkaline electrophoresis. A difference in the amino acid sequence of the isolated α‐globins was observed at position 15 (α I‐Gly, α II‐Lys) and can account for the electrophoretic pattern of two hemoglobin components. Only one other amino acid difference was found in the sequence of the two globin chains: a neutral substitution occurs at position 53 (α I‐Gly, α II‐Ala). The complete primary structures of the duplicated α‐globin chains of are presented.
    Keywords: Hemoglobin ; Gene Duplication ; Alpha Globin ; Amino Acid Sequence
    ISSN: 0275-2565
    E-ISSN: 1098-2345
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