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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Injury, Dec, 2014, Vol.45, p.1834(8)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2014.06.004 Byline: Lee-anne S. Costello, Fiona E. Lithander, Russell L. Gruen, Lauren T. Williams Abstract: Patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) have increased nutritional requirements yet are often unable to eat normally, and adequate nutritional therapy is needed to optimise recovery. The aim of the current scoping review was to describe the existing evidence for improved outcomes with optimal nutrition therapy in adult patients with moderate to severe TBI, and to identify gaps in the literature to inform future research. Author Affiliation: (a) Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health, The University of Canberra, Bruce, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia (b) Discipline of Acute Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia (c) National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia (d) Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland 4217, Australia Article History: Accepted 6 June 2014
    Keywords: Brain Injuries -- Diet Therapy ; Brain Injuries -- Patient Outcomes ; Nutritional Requirements ; Medical Research
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Analytical chemistry, 16 October 2012, Vol.84(20), pp.8480-9
    Description: We report a method for studying membrane fusion, focusing on influenza virus fusion to lipid bilayers, which provides high temporal resolution through the rapid and coordinated initiation of individual virus fusion events. Each fusion event proceeds through a series of steps, much like multistep chemical reaction. Fusion is initiated by a rapid decrease in pH that accompanies the "uncaging" of an effector molecule from o-nitrobenzaldehyde, a photoisomerizable compound that releases a proton to the surrounding solution within microseconds of long-wave ultraviolet irradiation. In order to quantify pH values upon UV irradiation and uncaging, we introduce a simple silica nanoparticle pH sensor, useful for reporting the pH in homogeneous nanoliter volumes under conditions where traditional organic dye-type pH probes fail. Subsequent single-virion fusion events are monitored using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Statistical analysis of these stochastic events uncovers kinetic information about the fusion reaction. This approach reveals that the kinetic parameters obtained from the data are sensitive to the rate at which protons are delivered to the bound viruses. Higher resolution measurements can enhance fundamental fusion studies and aid antiviral antifusogenic drug development.
    Keywords: Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Virus Internalization ; Cell Membrane -- Virology ; Influenza A Virus, H3n2 Subtype -- Physiology ; Influenza, Human -- Virology
    ISSN: 00032700
    E-ISSN: 1520-6882
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Injury, December 2014, Vol.45(12), pp.1834-1841
    Description: Patients who have sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) have increased nutritional requirements yet are often unable to eat normally, and adequate nutritional therapy is needed to optimise recovery. The aim of the current scoping review was to describe the existing evidence for improved outcomes with optimal nutrition therapy in adult patients with moderate to severe TBI, and to identify gaps in the literature to inform future research. Using an exploratory scoping study approach, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, CENTRAL, the Neurotrauma reviews in the Global Evidence Mapping (GEM) Initiative, and Evidence Reviews in Acquired Brain Injury (ERABI) were searched from 2003 to 14 November 2013 using variations of the search terms ‘traumatic brain injury’ and ‘nutrition’. Articles were included if they reported mortality, morbidity, or length of stay outcomes, and were classified according to the nature of nutrition intervention and study design. Twenty relevant articles were identified of which: 12 were original research articles; two were systematic reviews; one a meta-analysis; and five were narrative reviews. Of these, eleven explored timing of feed provision, eight explored route of administration of feeding, nine examined the provision of specific nutrients, and none examined feeding environment. Some explored more than one intervention. Three sets of guidelines which contain feeding recommendations were also identified. Inconsistency within nutrition intervention methods and outcome measures means that the present evidence base is inadequate for the construction of best practice guidelines for nutrition and TBI. Further research is necessary to elucidate the optimal nutrition therapy for adults with TBI with respect to the timing, route of administration, nutrient provision and feeding environment. A consensus on the ideal outcome measure and the most appropriate method and timing of its measurement is required as a foundation for this evidence base.
    Keywords: Brain Injury ; Nutrition Intervention ; Trauma
    ISSN: 0020-1383
    E-ISSN: 1879-0267
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 14 October 2003, Vol.100(21), pp.12253-8
    Description: Epigenetic silencing associated with aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one mechanism leading to loss of tumor suppressor function in human cancer. Profiling of CpG island methylation indicates that some genes are more frequently methylated than others, and that each tumor type is associated with a unique set of methylated genes. However, little is known about why certain genes succumb to this aberrant event. To address this question, we used Restriction Landmark Genome Scanning to analyze the susceptibility of 1,749 unselected CpG islands to de novo methylation driven by overexpression of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). We found that although the overall incidence of CpG island methylation was increased in cells overexpressing DNMT1, not all loci were equally affected. The majority of CpG islands (69.9%) were resistant to de novo methylation, regardless of DNMT1 overexpression. In contrast, we identified a subset of methylation-prone CpG islands (3.8%) that were consistently hypermethylated in multiple DNMT1 overexpressing clones. Methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG islands were not significantly different with respect to size, C+G content, CpG frequency, chromosomal location, or promoter association. We used DNA pattern recognition and supervised learning techniques to derive a classification function based on the frequency of seven novel sequence patterns that was capable of discriminating methylation-prone from methylation-resistant CpG islands with 82% accuracy. The data indicate that CpG islands differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to de novo methylation, and suggest that the propensity for a CpG island to become aberrantly methylated can be predicted based on its sequence context.
    Keywords: DNA Methylation ; Cpg Islands -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 01 October 2006, Vol.1(1), pp.19-21
    Keywords: Medicine
    ISSN: 1746-9899
    E-ISSN: 1746-9902
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 25 November 2003, Vol.100(24), pp.14133-8
    Description: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world, but the molecular mechanisms for its development have not been well characterized. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are inhibitors of cytokine signaling that function via the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway. Eight SOCS proteins with similar structures have been identified so far. SOCS family members, however, have distinct mechanisms of inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling. Abnormalities of the JAK/STAT pathway are associated with cancer. Inhibition of signaling results in growth suppression in various cell types. Recently, the involvement of SOCS-1 in carcinogenesis has been reported. Here, we report identification of frequent hypermethylation in CpG islands of the functional SOCS-3 promoter that correlates with its transcription silencing in cell lines (lung cancer, breast cancer, and mesothelioma) and primary lung cancer tissue samples. Restoration of SOCS-3 in lung cancer cells where SOCS-3 was methylation-silenced resulted in the down-regulation of active STAT3, induction of apoptosis, and growth suppression. Our results suggest that methylation silencing of SOCS-3 is one of the important mechanisms of constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in cancer pathogenesis. The data also suggest that SOCS-3 therapy may be useful in the treatment of cancer.
    Keywords: Gene Silencing ; Repressor Proteins ; Transcription Factors ; Lung Neoplasms -- Genetics ; Proteins -- Genetics
    ISSN: 0027-8424
    E-ISSN: 10916490
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Cardiovascular and interventional radiology, 2008, Vol.31(1), pp.196-200
    Description: We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports.
    Keywords: Aneurysm, False -- Diagnosis ; Pulmonary Artery -- Diagnostic Imaging ; Tuberculosis, Pulmonary -- Complications
    ISSN: 01741551
    E-ISSN: 1432-086X
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Thorax, 5 January 2006, Vol.61(1), p.54
    Description: Screening with low dose chest computed tomographic scanning (LDCCT) may improve survival by identifying early asymptomatic lung cancer.
    Keywords: Fnab, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy ; Ldcct, Low Dose Chest Computed Tomography ; Ncn, Non-Calcified Nodule ; Nsclc, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer ; Smoking ; Lung Cancer ; Screening ; Low Dose CT Scanning ; Lung Neoplasms ; Lung Cancer (Oncology) ; Screening (Oncology) ; Lung Cancer (Respiratory Medicine) ; Radiology (Diagnostics) ; Screening (Epidemiology) ; Health Education ; Screening (Public Health) ; Smoking ; Health Effects of Tobacco Use ; Smoking Cessation ; Tobacco Use
    ISSN: 0040-6376
    ISSN: 00406376
    E-ISSN: 1468-3296
    E-ISSN: 14683296
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  • 9
    Research Dataset
    Research Dataset
    National Folklore Collection, University College Dublin
    Language: English
    Description: Story collected by Rosemary Costello, a student at Lorrha (C.) school (Lorrha, Co. Tipperary) (no informant identified)....
    Keywords: Riddles ; Riddles ; Tomhaiseanna ; Lorrha ; Lothra
    Source: DataCite
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Genomics, 2006, Vol.87(5), pp.572-579
    Description: Epigenetic silencing involving the aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is widely recognized as a tumor suppressor silencing mechanism in cancer. However, the molecular pathways underlying aberrant DNA methylation remain elusive. Recently we showed that, on a genome-wide level, CpG island loci differ in their intrinsic susceptibility to aberrant methylation and that this susceptibility can be predicted based on underlying sequence context. These data suggest that there are sequence/structural features that contribute to the protection from or susceptibility to aberrant methylation. Here we use motif elicitation coupled with classification techniques to identify DNA sequence motifs that selectively define methylation-prone or methylation-resistant CpG islands. Motifs common to 28 methylation-prone or 47 methylation-resistant CpG island-containing genomic fragments were determined using the MEME and MAST algorithms ( ). The five most discriminatory motifs derived from methylation-prone sequences were found to be associated with CpG islands in general and were nonrandomly distributed throughout the genome. In contrast, the eight most discriminatory motifs derived from the methylation-resistant CpG islands were randomly distributed throughout the genome. Interestingly, this latter group tended to associate with and other repetitive sequences. Used together, the frequency of occurrence of these motifs successfully discriminated methylation-prone and methylation-resistant CpG island groups with an accuracy of 87% after 10-fold cross-validation. The motifs identified here are candidate methylation-targeting or methylation-protection DNA sequences.
    Keywords: Epigenetics ; DNA Methylation ; Discriminant Analysis ; Classification Techniques ; Repetitive DNA ; Alu ; Engineering ; Biology ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    E-ISSN: 1089-8646
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