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Berlin Brandenburg

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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: 2010
    Keywords: Forest Science ; Skogsvetenskap ; Environmental Sciences Related To Agriculture And Land-Use ; Miljö- Och Naturvårdsvetenskap
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 2013, Vol.57, pp.911-915
    Description: The development of the MicroResp (TM) approach (Campbell et al., 2003) has allowed large-scale monitoring of community-level physiological profiles (CLPP). Here, we tested the sensitivity of this method to a carbon (C) substrate concentration gradient on 12 arable soils which had received contrasting...
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences ; Miljövetenskap
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 18793428
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 01 January 2016, Vol.11(4), p.e0151782
    Description: We show the error in water-limited yields simulated by crop models which is associated with spatially aggregated soil and climate input data. Crop simulations at large scales (regional, national, continental) frequently use input data of low resolution. Therefore, climate and soil data are...
    Keywords: Sciences (General)
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, April 2012, Vol.47, pp.149-157
    Description: Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the thermal flows occurring in systems with very high precision and may be used to quantify carbon (C) assimilation and resource-use efficiencies in soils. We determined the thermodynamic efficiency of soil microbial communities located in soils which had received contrasting long-term management regimes (53 y) with respect to organic matter and nitrogen (N) inputs, farmyard manure, sewage sludge, straw and calcium nitrate, calcium nitrate only, or ammonium sulphate. Two thermodynamic efficiency indices were considered: (i) total thermodynamic efficiency of soil microbial communities ( ), i.e. general heat production released following substrate addition, per unit heat energy input to the soil system, and (ii) a specific thermodynamic efficiency index of energy retained in the soil system ( ). The latter index provides quantitative data on how much C is assimilated and energy retained in the soil system. Further, we derived a ‘substrate-induced heat production’ (SIHP) index, which adjusts for size of the microbial biomass. Optimised concentrations of water or glucose plus water were added to the soil samples and resultant thermal signatures and C mineralisation were determined over a 48-h incubation period at 25 °C. The thermal signatures were further related to the microbial community profiles of the soils. The phenotypic structural and functional diversity profiles of the microbial communities in soils were assessed by phospholipid fatty acid and multi-substrate induced respiration methods at the start of the experiment, confirming significant differences between all five treatments in community composition and functional capabilities. Both the total and specific thermodynamic efficiency indices of the soil microbial communities exposed to long-term stress by heavy metal toxicity (sewage sludge) and low pH ((NH ) SO ) were significantly smaller in magnitude than those under the three conventional (i.e. Ca(NO ) , Straw + Ca(NO ) , farmyard manure) input regimes ( 〈 0.05). The SIHP index however, was highest in the treatments receiving long-term inorganic inputs, indicating more heat production per unit biomass, than that found in all three organic input regimes. These differences in efficiencies were reflected in both the phenotypic and functional profiles of the communities. These indices may provide quantification of C assimilation and resource-use efficiency under different land-use and management scenarios, and potentially allow evaluation of the role of soils in governing the terrestrial C balance by studying the fate and regulation of C in soil systems. ► Thermodynamic efficiencies of soil microbial communities were determined. ► Efficiencies were different following contrasting long-term soil managements. ► Stressed communities showed lower efficiencies compared with conventional regimes. ► Differences were mirrored in microbial community structure and functional profiles. ► Micro-calorimetry provides quantification of microbial C use efficiency in soils.
    Keywords: Long-Term Field Experiments ; Microcalorimetry ; Soil Microbial Biomass ; Microbial Community Structure ; Thermodynamic Efficiency ; Agriculture ; Chemistry
    ISSN: 0038-0717
    E-ISSN: 1879-3428
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Environmental science & technology, 15 April 2014, Vol.48(8), pp.4344-52
    Description: Energy is continuously transformed in environmental systems through the metabolic activities of living organisms, but little is known about the relationship between the two. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that microbial energetics are controlled by microbial community composition in terrestrial ecosystems. We determined the functional diversity profiles of the soil biota (i.e., multiple substrate-induced respiration and microbial energetics) in soils from an arable ecosystem with contrasting long-term management regimes (54 years). These two functional profiling methods were then related to the soils' microbial community composition. Using isothermal microcalorimetry, we show that direct measures of energetics provide a functional link between energy flows and the composition of below-ground microbial communities at a high taxonomic level (Mantel R = 0.4602, P = 0.006). In contrast, this link was not apparent when carbon dioxide (CO2) was used as an aggregate measure of microbial metabolism (Mantel R = 0.2291, P = 0.11). Our work advocates that the microbial energetics approach provides complementary information to soil respiration for investigating the involvement of microbial communities in below-ground carbon dynamics. Empirical data of our proposed microbial energetics approach can feed into carbon-climate based ecosystem feedback modeling with the suggested conceptual ecological model as a base.
    Keywords: Carbon Cycle ; Ecosystem ; Temperature ; Calorimetry -- Methods
    ISSN: 0013936X
    E-ISSN: 1520-5851
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecology and evolution, December 2013, Vol.3(16), pp.5177-88
    Description: Boreal ecosystems store one-third of global soil organic carbon (SOC) and are particularly sensitive to climate warming and higher nutrient inputs. Thus, a better description of how forest managements such as nutrient fertilization impact soil carbon (C) and its temperature sensitivity is needed to better predict feedbacks between C cycling and climate. The temperature sensitivity of in situ soil C respiration was investigated in a boreal forest, which has received long-term nutrient fertilization (22 years), and compared with the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization measured in the laboratory. We found that the fertilization treatment increased both the response of soil in situ CO2 effluxes to a warming treatment and the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization measured in the laboratory (Q10). These results suggested that soil C may be more sensitive to an increase in temperature in long-term fertilized in comparison with nutrient poor boreal ecosystems. Furthermore, the fertilization treatment modified the SOC content and the microbial community composition, but we found no direct relationship between either SOC or microbial changes and the temperature sensitivity of C mineralization. However, the relation between the soil C:N ratio and the fungal/bacterial ratio was changed in the combined warmed and fertilized treatment compared with the other treatments, which suggest that strong interaction mechanisms may occur between nutrient input and warming in boreal soils. Further research is needed to unravel into more details in how far soil organic matter and microbial community composition changes are responsible for the change in the temperature sensitivity of soil C under increasing mineral N inputs. Such research would help to take into account the effect of fertilization managements on soil C storage in C cycling numerical models.
    Keywords: Boreal Soils ; Microbial Community ; Nutrient Fertilization ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Temperature Sensitivity ; Warming
    ISSN: 2045-7758
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  • 7
    In: Ecology and Evolution, December 2013, Vol.3(16), pp.5177-5188
    Description: Boreal ecosystems store one‐third of global soil organic carbon () and are particularly sensitive to climate warming and higher nutrient inputs. Thus, a better description of how forest managements such as nutrient fertilization impact soil carbon () and its temperature sensitivity is needed to better predict feedbacks between cycling and climate. The temperature sensitivity of in situ soil respiration was investigated in a boreal forest, which has received long‐term nutrient fertilization (22 years), and compared with the temperature sensitivity of mineralization measured in the laboratory. We found that the fertilization treatment increased both the response of soil in situ effluxes to a warming treatment and the temperature sensitivity of mineralization measured in the laboratory (). These results suggested that soil may be more sensitive to an increase in temperature in long‐term fertilized in comparison with nutrient poor boreal ecosystems. Furthermore, the fertilization treatment modified the content and the microbial community composition, but we found no direct relationship between either or microbial changes and the temperature sensitivity of mineralization. However, the relation between the soil : ratio and the fungal/bacterial ratio was changed in the combined warmed and fertilized treatment compared with the other treatments, which suggest that strong interaction mechanisms may occur between nutrient input and warming in boreal soils. Further research is needed to unravel into more details in how far soil organic matter and microbial community composition changes are responsible for the change in the temperature sensitivity of soil under increasing mineral inputs. Such research would help to take into account the effect of fertilization managements on soil storage in cycling numerical models. Boreal ecosystems store one‐third of global soil organic carbon and are particularly sensitive to climate warming. In this study, we found that long‐term nutrient fertilization increases the temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon in those ecosystems, but no direct relationship was found with the modification of soil organic matter characteristics nor microbial community composition due to the fertilization treatment. This research would help to take into account the effect of fertilization managements on soil carbon storage under warmer climate in carbon cycling numerical models.
    Keywords: Boreal Soils ; Microbial Community ; Nutrient Fertilization ; Soil Organic Carbon ; Temperature Sensitivity ; Warming
    ISSN: 2045-7758
    E-ISSN: 2045-7758
    Source: Wiley Open Access (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Modelling and Software, June 2016, Vol.80, pp.100-112
    Description: We compared the precision of simple random sampling (SimRS) and seven types of stratified random sampling (StrRS) schemes in estimating regional mean of water-limited yields for two crops (winter wheat and silage maize) that were simulated by fourteen crop models. We found that the precision gains of StrRS varied considerably across stratification methods and crop models. Precision gains for compact geographical stratification were positive, stable and consistent across crop models. Stratification with soil water holding capacity had very high precision gains for twelve models, but resulted in negative gains for two models. Increasing the sample size monotonously decreased the sampling errors for all the sampling schemes. We conclude that compact geographical stratification can modestly but consistently improve the precision in estimating regional mean yields. Using the most influential environmental variable for stratification can notably improve the sampling precision, especially when the sensitivity behavior of a crop model is known.
    Keywords: Crop Model ; Stratified Random Sampling ; Simple Random Sampling ; Clustering ; Up-Scaling ; Model Comparison ; Precision Gain ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences ; Computer Science ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1364-8152
    E-ISSN: 1873-6726
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Geoderma, 15 May 2018, Vol.318, pp.167-181
    Description: The effects of aggregating soil data (DAE) by areal majority of soil mapping units was explored for regional simulations with the soil-vegetation model CoupModel for a region in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia). DAE were analysed for wheat yield, drainage, soil carbon mineralisation and nitrogen leaching below the root zone. DAE were higher for soil C mineralization and N leaching than for yield and drainage and were strongly related to the presence of specific soils within the study region. These soil types were associated to extreme simulated output variables compared to the mean variable in the region. The spatial aggregation of these key functional soils within sub-regions additionally influenced the DAE. A spatial analysis of their spatial pattern (i.e. their presence/absence, coverage and aggregation) can help in defining the appropriate grid resolution that would minimize the error caused by aggregating soil input data in regional simulations.
    Keywords: Soil Properties ; Soil-Crop Models ; Input Data Aggregation ; Sensitivity Analysis ; Soil Spatial Pattern ; Upscaling ; Agriculture
    ISSN: 0016-7061
    E-ISSN: 1872-6259
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: 2011
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences Related To Agriculture And Land-Use ; Miljö- Och Naturvårdsvetenskap ; Renewable Bioenergy Research ; Förnyelsebar Bioenergi
    Source: SwePub (National Library of Sweden)
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