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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 2011, Vol.6(3), pp.179-184
    Description: The theory that we shall seek to elaborate here puts considerable emphasis on differences in firm-level stock returns, and valuation differences between acquiring and target firms. This study is grounded in the considerable body of scholarship examining the impact of exchange rate return differences...
    Keywords: Economy ; Acquiring and Target Firms ; Countrylevel Stock Market
    ISSN: 1842-3191
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 2011, Vol.6(2), pp.157-163
    Description: Research focusing on previous work experience revealed the current energy crises, and the use of energy resources and energy efficiency. Although researchers have discovered some important findings regarding power generation facilities, the improvement of energy efficiency, and efficient investment...
    Keywords: Economy ; Energy ; Crises ; Resources ; Efficiency ; Investment ; Power Generation
    ISSN: 1842-3191
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, Jan 1, 2015, Vol.335, p.87(12)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.09.027 Byline: Adrian DAnescu, Andreas Ehring, Jurgen Bauhus, Axel Albrecht, Sebastian Hein Abstract: * We studied branch and stem reactions after green pruning. * Green pruning significantly reduced the duration of branch occlusion. * Tree species and branch size influenced stem discoloration risk after pruning. * Vigorous trees with active radial increment occluded branch wounds rapidly. * The extent of branch discoloration increased with the duration of branch occlusion. Article History: Received 4 July 2014; Revised 11 September 2014; Accepted 23 September 2014
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 May 2017, Vol.392, pp.1-12
    Description: Due to their expected higher resilience following disturbances and adaptive potential to new climatic conditions, interest in uneven-aged mixed forests has increased in recent years. It is, however, unclear how to best quantify their site-specific growth potential, particularly at a time when there is a pressing need to consider the effects of a changing climate on tree and forest growth. Here, we address these topics using growth models for Norway spruce ( (L.) Karst.) and Silver fir ( Mill.), based on long-term observations from uneven-aged mixed forests in southwestern Germany. We used a linear mixed-effects framework for modeling basal area increment of individual trees. We accounted for site quality using a phytocentric index based on the past growth of dominant trees (growth index) and three classes of geocentric environmental descriptors: physiographic, edaphic and climatic (temperature means and precipitation sums aggregated over 5, 15 or 30 years). For a subset of the data where it was possible to determine site index, growth index proved to be better predictor of tree increment than site index. When considering the entire dataset, climate variables had the single largest positive impact on model fit, yet cross-validation results suggested that no improvement in predictive ability occurred unless physiographic variables were also added. Higher levels of spring and growing season precipitation stimulated growth for Norway spruce and Silver fir, respectively. Temperature-growth relationships were predominantly positive for Silver fir and negative for Norway spruce. Aggregating climate variables over progressively longer time spans clearly reduced model fit for Norway spruce, yet a similar pattern was not apparent for Silver fir. Our results indicate that without rigorous testing, tried-and-trusted decision tools developed for even-aged, single-species stands cannot be transferred to uneven-aged mixed forests. Precipitation- and temperature-based variables provide dynamic proxies which may allow us to better grasp the complexity of climate-growth relationships. This understanding is essential for reducing the uncertainty around predictions of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems.
    Keywords: Basal Area Increment ; Climate Change ; Climate-Sensitive Modeling ; Site Quality ; Uneven-Aged Forests ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 2010, Vol.5(1), pp.138-143
    Description: Abdullatif and Al-Khadash hold that the international audit firms generally apply a set of international quality control criteria to be applied in every individual country in which they operate. Mariani et al. write that firms with the largest...
    Keywords: Economy
    ISSN: 1842-3191
    E-ISSN: 1938212X
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 2010, Vol.5(2), pp.257-263
    Description: Green explains that electricity trade across European borders was limited by the low levels of interconnection. Andersen points out that conceptual interest in carbon-energy taxation emerged across Europe in recognition of serious environmental challenges. Enevoldsen et al. argue that the effect...
    Keywords: Economy ; Competition ; Policy ; Energy ; Utility ; Tax ; Market
    ISSN: 1842-3191
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings, Annual, 2011, p.1035(2)
    ISSN: 1726-9679
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Oecologia, 2016, Vol.182(2), pp.319-333
    Description: Forest diversity-productivity relationships have been intensively investigated in recent decades. However, few studies have considered the interplay between species and structural diversity in driving productivity. We analyzed these factors using data from 52 permanent plots in southwestern Germany with more than 53,000 repeated tree measurements. We used basal area increment as a proxy for productivity and hypothesized that: (1) structural diversity would increase tree and stand productivity, (2) diversity-productivity relationships would be weaker for species diversity than for structural diversity, and (3) species diversity would also indirectly impact stand productivity via changes in size structure. We measured diversity using distance-independent indices. We fitted separate linear mixed-effects models for fir, spruce and beech at the tree level, whereas at the stand level we pooled all available data. We tested our third hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Structural and species diversity acted as direct and independent drivers of stand productivity, with structural diversity being a slightly better predictor. Structural diversity, but not species diversity, had a significant, albeit asymmetric, effect on tree productivity. The functioning of structurally diverse, mixed forests is influenced by both structural and species diversity. These sources of trait diversity contribute to increased vertical stratification and crown plasticity, which in turn diminish competitive interferences and lead to more densely packed canopies per unit area. Our research highlights the positive effects of species diversity and structural diversity on forest productivity and ecosystem dynamics.
    Keywords: Basal area increment ; Complementarity ; Ecosystem functioning ; Biodiversity ; Species diversity
    ISSN: 0029-8549
    E-ISSN: 1432-1939
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Forest Ecology and Management, 15 December 2018, Vol.430, pp.105-116
    Description: The timely establishment of natural regeneration of the preferred species after the death or removal of mature trees is essential in continuous-cover forestry. In the context of the gradual shift from even-aged and monospecific to uneven-aged and/or mixed forest stands, the limited availability of statistical models to predict seedling establishment, survival, and growth has increasingly become a bottleneck for forest management planning and, ultimately, a potential limitation to a wider adoption of alternative silvicultural approaches. We investigated the development of top height and density of natural regeneration in 19 uneven-structured, mixed silver fir ( Mill.) and Norway spruce ( (L.) H. Karst.) stands in southwestern Germany using long-term observations (35 years) from permanent plots. We used linear mixed-effects models to analyze the influence of overstory and understory-related variables on regeneration of fir and spruce. The height of the five tallest juvenile trees per regeneration subplot and species increased significantly with diminishing canopy cover and increasing structural diversity of the overstory. However, competition exerted by tall juveniles substantially impacted the development of smaller neighbors, which were less able to profit from favorable overstory conditions. These results indicate that canopy cover and structural diversity need to be taken into account when modeling height development of juvenile trees in irregular stands. Importantly, these results also demonstrate the potential of silvicultural interventions to shorten the time period when terminal shoots are vulnerable to browsing. Densities of juvenile trees displayed a unimodal relationship with the mean height of the regeneration. Fir and spruce densities culminated at a mean height of approx. 50 cm and decreased rapidly afterwards. This pattern indicates an early onset of competition within the regeneration layer. For both species, juvenile densities were unrelated to overstory structural diversity, yet they showed positive relationships with overstory density and site productivity. Overall, fir juveniles developed faster in height than spruce juveniles. Even rather rapid group-shelterwood cutting regimes with complete canopy removal within two decades still favored fir regeneration. In addition, a high proportion of fir in the regeneration cohort had a stronger negative effect on spruce juvenile density than vice versa. Since spruce is less shade-tolerant than fir, it is likely that fir will dominate the future stand composition. Overall, our models provide the basis to predict natural regeneration dynamics in structurally complex stands dominated by fir and spruce and to further evaluate alternative treatment scenarios.
    Keywords: Regeneration Height ; Regeneration Density ; Residual Overstory ; Structural Diversity ; Uneven-Aged Silviculture ; Norway Spruce ; Silver Fir ; Forestry ; Biology
    ISSN: 0378-1127
    E-ISSN: 1872-7042
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Surface Science, February 2016, Vol.644, pp.13-17
    Description: We report the first experimental evidence of the formation of an axiotaxial texture in a semiconductor/oxide structure, namely Ge deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on a SrTiO substrate. The texture of the deposit is carefully analyzed based on X-ray pole figure measurements. We show in particular that the axiotaxial texture is not random, but that the deposit presents a limited number of well defined crystal orientations along axiotaxy locus. We also evidence the presence of twinned zones in the Ge crystal, and we discuss their experimental signature regarding that of the axiotaxy texture. In the end, we show that interface dangling bonds are the main parameter driving Ge crystal orientation, and we compare their influence to that of epitaxial misfit. X-ray diffraction texture pattern of a Ge deposit exhibiting axiotaxial relationship with its SrTiO substrate. The diffraction peak pattern corresponds exactly to the axiotaxy locus, showing alignment of the Ge 〈 1 1 0 〉 direction parallel to STO 〈 1 0 0 〉 direction.
    Keywords: Texture ; Interface Structure ; Axiotaxy ; Xrd ; Chemistry ; Physics
    ISSN: 0039-6028
    E-ISSN: 1879-2758
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