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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 04 March 2011, Vol.331(6021), pp.1142-3
    Description: Waveform generation underlies the operation of many electronic devices, especially those used in broadcasting and signal processing. Electronic waveform generators produce a prescribed series of voltages or currents as a function of time, which may then...
    Keywords: Optics ; Physics;
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 2
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 11 March 2011, Vol.331(6022), pp.1275-6
    Keywords: Circadian Clocks ; Circadian Rhythm ; Lipid Metabolism ; Chronobiology Disorders -- Metabolism ; Fatty Liver -- Metabolism ; Histone Deacetylases -- Metabolism ; Liver -- Metabolism ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1 -- Metabolism
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 02 August 2013, Vol.341(6145), pp.546-9
    Description: Whereas reward (appetitiveness) and aversiveness (punishment) have been distinguished as two discrete dimensions within psychology and behavior, physiological and computational models of their neural representation have treated them as opposite sides of a single continuous dimension of "value." Here, I show that although dopamine neurons of the primate ventral midbrain are activated by evidence for reward and suppressed by evidence against reward, they are insensitive to aversiveness. This indicates that reward and aversiveness are represented independently as two dimensions, even by neurons that are closely related to motor function. Because theory and experiment support the existence of opponent neural representations for value, the present results imply four types of value-sensitive neurons corresponding to reward-ON (dopamine), reward-OFF, aversive-ON, and aversive-OFF.
    Keywords: Reward ; Appetitive Behavior -- Physiology ; Dopaminergic Neurons -- Physiology ; Mesencephalon -- Physiology ; Punishment -- Psychology
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 15 April 2011, Vol.332(6027), pp.346-9
    Description: Human genetic and phenotypic diversity declines with distance from Africa, as predicted by a serial founder effect in which successive population bottlenecks during range expansion progressively reduce diversity, underpinning support for an African origin of modern humans. Recent work suggests that a similar founder effect may operate on human culture and language. Here I show that the number of phonemes used in a global sample of 504 languages is also clinal and fits a serial founder-effect model of expansion from an inferred origin in Africa. This result, which is not explained by more recent demographic history, local language diversity, or statistical non-independence within language families, points to parallel mechanisms shaping genetic and linguistic diversity and supports an African origin of modern human languages.
    Keywords: Language ; Phonetics
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 5
    Article
    Article
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 11 February 2011, Vol.331(6018), pp.728-9
    Description: Many of the challenges in genomics derive from the informatics needed to store and analyze the raw sequencing data that is available from highly multiplexed sequencing technologies. Because single week-long sequencing runs today can produce as much data as did entire genome centers a few years ago, the need to process terabytes of information has become de rigueur for many labs engaged in genomic research. The availability of deep (and large) genomic data sets raises concerns over information access, data security, and subject/patient privacy that must be addressed for the field to continue its rapid advances.
    Keywords: Computational Biology ; Information Management ; Information Storage and Retrieval ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Genomics -- Trends
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 22 June 2012, Vol.336(6088), pp.1525-7
    Description: After a decade of intensive policy discussions on the topic of dual-use research of concern (DURC) in the life sciences, there has been a lack of consensus on how to practically define DURC; whether it is feasible to identify and regulate DURC experiments; how to address the risks associated with DURC; and how to balance this risk with the necessity of fostering life sciences research for public health and biodefense. The publication of two avian influenza studies has brought the DURC issue back into sharp focus and has resulted in a new set of federal guidelines. However, the new DURC policy raises questions regarding whether this is the best policy solution to a complicated biosecurity concern.
    Keywords: Biological Science Disciplines ; Biomedical Research ; Government Regulation ; Public Policy ; Research ; Security Measures
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 02 December 2011, Vol.334(6060), pp.1226-7
    Description: Computational science has led to exciting new developments, but the nature of the work has exposed limitations in our ability to evaluate published findings. Reproducibility has the potential to serve as a minimum standard for judging scientific claims when full independent replication of a study is not possible.
    Keywords: Computational Biology ; Computers ; Reproducibility of Results ; Biomedical Research -- Standards ; Research -- Standards
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Science, 09/30/2011, Vol.333(6051), pp.1820-1823
    Keywords: Applied sciences -- Technology -- Communications technology ; Physical sciences -- Astronomy -- Astronomical instrumentation ; Physical sciences -- Astronomy -- Astronomical objects ; Applied sciences -- Technology -- Communications technology ; Physical sciences -- Astronomy -- Observational research ; Applied sciences -- Research methods -- Materials ; Applied sciences -- Materials science -- Astronomical objects ; Physical sciences -- Astronomy -- Astronomical objects ; Physical sciences -- Astronomy -- Communications media ; Social sciences -- Communications -- Communications media;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Science (New York, N.Y.), 02 October 2015, Vol.350(6256), pp.90-3
    Description: The fossil record contains exemplars of extreme biodiversity crises. Here, we examined the stability of terrestrial paleocommunities from South Africa during Earth's most severe mass extinction, the Permian-Triassic. We show that stability depended critically on functional diversity and patterns of guild interaction, regardless of species richness. Paleocommunities exhibited less transient instability—relative to model communities with alternative community organization—and significantly greater probabilities of being locally stable during the mass extinction. Functional patterns that have evolved during an ecosystem's history support significantly more stable communities than hypothetical alternatives.
    Keywords: Biodiversity ; Extinction, Biological ; Fossils
    ISSN: 00368075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Science, 12/13/2013, Vol.342(6164), pp.1337-1342
    Description: The global spread of epidemics, rumors, opinions, and innovations are complex, network-driven dynamic processes. The combined multiscale nature and intrinsic heterogeneity of the underlying networks make it difficult to develop an intuitive understanding of these processes, to distinguish relevant from peripheral factors, to predict their time course, and to locate their origin. However, we show that complex spatiotemporal patterns can be reduced to surprisingly simple, homogeneous wave propagation patterns, if conventional geographic distance is replaced by a probabilistically motivated effective distance. In the context of global, air-traffic-mediated epidemics, we show that effective distance reliably predicts disease arrival times. Even if epidemiological parameters are unknown, the method can still deliver relative arrival times. The approach can also identify the spatial origin of spreading processes and successfully be applied to data of the worldwide 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and 2003 SARS epidemic.
    Keywords: Sciences (General) ; Biology;
    ISSN: 0036-8075
    E-ISSN: 1095-9203
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