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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: PLoS ONE, 2011, Vol.6(5), p.e20112
    Description: The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (≤48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an understanding of the mechanisms underlying toxicity. Employing slightly longer exposure times (72 to 96 h), we found that suspensions of nanosized (∼100 nm initial mean diameter) titanium dioxide (nTiO 2 ) led to toxicity in Daphnia magna at nominal concentrations of 3.8 (72-h EC 50 ) and 0.73 mg/L (96-h EC 50 ). However, nTiO 2 disappeared quickly from the ISO-medium water phase, resulting in toxicity levels as low as 0.24 mg/L (96-h EC 50 ) based on measured concentrations. Moreover, we showed that nTiO 2 (∼100 nm) is significantly more toxic than non-nanosized TiO 2 (∼200 nm) prepared from the same stock suspension. Most importantly, we hypothesized a mechanistic chain of events for nTiO 2 toxicity in D. magna that involves the coating of the organism surface with nTiO 2 combined with a molting disruption. Neonate D. magna (≤6 h) exposed to 2 mg/L nTiO 2 exhibited a “biological surface coating” that disappeared within 36 h, during which the first molting was successfully managed by 100% of the exposed organisms. Continued exposure up to 96 h led to a renewed formation of the surface coating and significantly reduced the molting rate to 10%, resulting in 90% mortality. Because coating of aquatic organisms by manmade NP might be ubiquitous in nature, this form of physical NP toxicity might result in widespread negative impacts on environmental health.
    Keywords: Research Article ; Biology ; Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Materials Science ; Medicine ; Chemistry ; Public Health And Epidemiology ; Marine And Aquatic Sciences ; Ecology ; Critical Care And Emergency Medicine ; Science Policy ; Biochemistry ; Non-clinical Medicine
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 2
    In: PLoS ONE, 2013, Vol.8(11)
    Description: Due to their surface characteristics, nanosized titanium dioxide particles (nTiO 2 ) tend to adhere to biological surfaces and we thus hypothesize that they may alter the swimming performance and behavior of motile aquatic organisms. However, no suitable approaches to address these impairments in swimming behavior as a result of nanoparticle exposure are available. Water fleas Daphnia magna exposed to 5 and 20 mg/L nTiO 2 (61 nm; polydispersity index: 0.157 in 17.46 mg/L stock suspension) for 96 h showed a significantly ( p 〈0.05) reduced growth rate compared to a 1-mg/L treatment and the control. Using three-dimensional video observations of swimming trajectories, we observed a treatment-dependent swarming of D. magna in the center of the test vessels during the initial phase of the exposure period. Ensemble mean swimming velocities increased with increasing body length of D. magna , but were significantly reduced in comparison to the control in all treatments after 96 h of exposure. Spectral analysis of swimming velocities revealed that high-frequency variance, which we consider as a measure of swimming activity, was significantly reduced in the 5- and 20-mg/L treatments. The results highlight the potential of detailed swimming analysis of D. magna for the evaluation of sub-lethal mechanical stress mechanisms resulting from biological surface coating and thus for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.
    Keywords: Research Article
    E-ISSN: 1932-6203
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Chemosphere, May 2017, Vol.175, pp.138-146
    Description: A European round robin test according to ISO 5725-2 was conceptually prepared, realised, and evaluated. The aim was to determine the inter-laboratory variability of the overall process for the ecotoxicological characterization of construction products in eluates and bioassays. To this end, two construction products BAM-G1 (granulate) and HSR-2 (roof sealing sheet), both made of EPDM polymers (rubber), were selected. The granular construction product was eluted in a one stage batch test, the planar product in the Dynamic Surface Leaching test (DSLT). A total of 17 laboratories from 5 countries participated in the round robin test: Germany (12), Austria (2), Belgium (1), Czech Republic (1) and France (1). A test battery of four standardised ecotoxicity tests with algae, daphnia, luminescent bacteria and zebrafish eggs was used. As toxicity measures, EC50 and LID values were calculated. All tests, except the fish egg test, were basically able to demonstrate toxic effects and the level of toxicity. The reproducibility of test results depended on the test specimens and the test organisms. Generally, the variability of the EC50 or LID values increased with the overall level of toxicity. For the very toxic BAM-G1 eluate a relative high variability of CV = 73%–110% was observed for EC50 in all biotests, while for the less toxic HSR-2 eluate the reproducibility of EC50 varied with sensitivity: it was very good (CV = 9.3%) for the daphnia test with the lowest sensitivity, followed by the algae test (CV = 36.4%). The luminescent bacteria test, being the most sensitive bioassay for HSR-2 Eluate, showed the highest variability (CV = 74.8%). When considering the complex overall process the reproducibility of bioassays with eluates from construction products was acceptable.
    Keywords: Round Robin Test ; Construction Products ; Leaching Tests ; Eluates ; Ecotoxicity Tests ; Chemistry ; Ecology
    ISSN: 0045-6535
    E-ISSN: 1879-1298
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2012, Vol.63(1), pp.77-85
    Description: Invertebrate communities of lentic habitats comprise, amongst others, the crustacean Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda) and the turbellarian Dendrocoelum lacteum (Tricladida). Because D. lacteum preferentially preys on A. aquaticus , contaminants introduced into the aquatic environment may affect this predator–prey interaction, finally influencing the performance of the predator. However, no studies investigating implications of organic pollutants on this food web subsystem currently exist. Hence, the present study assessed short-term implications of pesticides with different modes of action, namely, the triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin, during a 72 h trial. The experiments for tebuconazole showed a statistically significant decrease in predatory success of D. lacteum . Lambda-cyhalothrin, in contrast, increased predation success by 40%, which is, however, not statistically significant. Both the decrease and the increase in predation seemed to be primarily driven by an altered activity of the prey A. aquaticus . This may be hypothesized because any shift in the prey’s activity influenced its probability to stick to mucus, a viscous substance released by D. lacteum , or to encounter the predator directly.
    Keywords: Aquatic Ecosystems ; Insecticides ; Pesticides ; Pollutants ; Predation (Biology) ; Triazoles;
    ISSN: 0090-4341
    E-ISSN: 1432-0703
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  • 5
    In: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 2011, Vol.26(2), pp.450-455
    Description: The demand to quantify the elemental composition of very small sample amounts and/or of samples which form artefacts during conventional sample preparations is increasing. Example applications are the quantification of engineered metal(loid) based nanomaterials in environmental samples, e.g. (i) the direct analyses of engineered nanoparticle (ENP) suspensions showing broad particle size distributions which are not suitable to be applied via the spray chamber in ICP-MS analyses, (ii) measurements of single invertebrates and tissue of selected organs which were exposed to ENPs, and (iii) whole plants or plant parts e.g. from Lemna sp. The use of imaging based high resolution methods like atomic force microscopy or environmental scanning electron microscopy creates the need to quantify the elemental composition of the visualised objects as directly and exactly as possible, at very low limits of detection. With this study the authors present a method/concept for the multi-element quantification of analytes from ENPs in complex matrices with different degrees of complexity by graphite furnace electrothermal vaporisation coupled to inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with collision/reaction cell (GF-ETV-ICP-QMS).
    Keywords: Demand ; Imaging ; Invertebrates ; Mathematical Analysis ; Matrices ; Matrix Methods ; Nanomaterials ; Nanoparticles ; Instruments and Measurements (So);
    ISSN: 0267-9477
    E-ISSN: 1364-5544
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2010, Vol.17(1), pp.244-245
    Description: Byline: Markus Brinkmann (1), Amy Brooks (3), Andre Dabrunz (2), Jose Luis Gomez-Eyles (4), Karen Hoecke (5), Cornelia Kienle (6), Thomas-Benjamin Seiler (1), Mirco Bundschuh (2) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Ecosystem Analysis, RTWH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany (2) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Forststr. 7, 76829, Landau, Germany (3) University of Sheffield, Animal and Plant Sciences, Sheffield, UK (4) Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, RG6 6DW, Reading, UK (5) University of Ghent, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000, Ghent, Belgium (6) Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag-EPFL, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600, Dubendorf, Switzerland Article History: Registration Date: 25/06/2009 Received Date: 24/06/2009 Accepted Date: 24/06/2009 Online Date: 09/07/2009
    Keywords: Councils ; Europe ; Sweden ; International;
    ISSN: 0944-1344
    E-ISSN: 1614-7499
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, March 2012, Vol.31(3), pp.518-523
    Description: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO) form reactive oxygen species (ROS) under irradiation by ultraviolet light (UV). This known photocatalytic activity may finally affect the presence and toxicity of organic environmental chemicals, which have not yet been studied at ambient UV intensity. The authors used a three‐factorial design to evaluate the interaction of the carbamate insecticide pirimicarb (initial nominal concentration, 20 µg/L), ambient UV irradiation (40 W/m for 15 min), and nTiO (∼100 nm; 2.0 mg/L). Pirimicarb, pirimicarb × UV, and pirimicarb × nTiO treatments revealed a median immobilization of after 72 h ranging between 70 and 80%. This effect seemed to be caused by the initial nominal pirimicarb concentration. However, UV irradiation before an exposure of daphnids in the presence of 2.0 mg nTiO/L reduced pirimicarb concentrations to values below the limit of quantification, likely because of the formation of ROS. This reduction was associated with an almost complete removal of toxicity for . Furthermore, during a second experiment, 0.2 mg nTiO/L in combination with 15 min UV irradiation reduced pirimicarb concentrations by approximately 30%. These results indicate a detoxification and therefore remediation potential of the combined application of nTiO and UV irradiation at ambient levels. This potential has not been documented to date in surface waters, where nTiO concentrations in the low to medium µg/L range may occur. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012;31:518–523. © 2011 SETAC
    Keywords: Ultraviolet Light ; Detoxification ; Photocatalysis ; Micropollutants ; Crustacea
    ISSN: 0730-7268
    E-ISSN: 1552-8618
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  • 8
    Language: English
    In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung, August, 2010, Vol.22(4), p.509(2)
    Description: Byline: M. Bundschuh (1), J.P. Zubrod (1), A. Dabrunz (1), N. Galic (2), M. Melato (3), C. Mieiro (4), S. Sdepanian (5), O. Westman (6), T. Liu (7), D. Kaiser (8), M. Brinkmann (9) Author Affiliation: (1) Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Campus Landau, Im Fort 7, 76829, Landau/Pfalz, Germany (2) Wageningen University and Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands (3) Faculty of Applied Science, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 652, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa (4) CESAM and Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro, Portugal (5) Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom (6) Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Orebro University, 701 82, Orebro, Sweden (7) School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, 39182, Kalmar, Sweden (8) Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Siesmayerstrasse 70, 60323, Frankfurt, Germany (9) Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, RTWH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074, Aachen, Germany Article History: Registration Date: 30/06/2010 Received Date: 29/06/2010 Accepted Date: 30/06/2010 Online Date: 23/07/2010
    Keywords: Universities And Colleges -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Scientists -- Analysis
    ISSN: 0934-3504
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Sciences Europe, 2011, Vol.23(1), pp.1-4
    Description: This article reports on the second Young Environmental Scientists Meeting that was hosted from 28 February to 2 March 2011 by the Institute for Environmental Research at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. This extraordinary meeting was again initiated and organized by the Student Advisory Council under the umbrella of Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe. A movie about the meeting and the abstracts of poster and platform presentations are freely available as supplemental material of this article.
    Keywords: Environmental Toxicology -- Analysis ; Ecosystems -- Analysis ; Scientists -- Analysis ; Universities And Colleges -- Analysis;
    ISSN: 2190-4707
    E-ISSN: 1865-5084
    E-ISSN: 21904715
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  • 10
    Language: English
    In: Environmental Sciences Europe, 2010, Vol.22(4), pp.509-510
    Description: 1 Introduction Since 2006, the SETAC Europe Student Advisory Council (SAC) has represented student members (master, diploma or Ph.D. students) throughout every level of SETAC and provides additional advice, recommendations and new initiatives to the SETAC Europe Council. One of these new initiatives was the organization of the first Young Environmental Scientists (YES) Meeting in March 2009 at the University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany. The meeting was a great success (Bundschuh et al. 2009) and after much effort by the SAC we are finally able to announce the 2nd YES-Meeting to be held on 28 February till 2 March 2011 at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, the home institution of the acting chair of the SAC, Markus Brinkmann. The local organization of the meeting will be carried out by students of Environmental Science from Aachen University, which excels in its competence regarding environmental toxicology and chemistry and has been awarded funding for all three funding lines within the Ex ...
    Keywords: Engineering;
    ISSN: 2190-4707
    ISSN: 09343504
    E-ISSN: 2190-4715
    E-ISSN: 18655084
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