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  • 1
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, Dec, 2013, Vol.96, p.36(15)
    Description: To link to full-text access for this article, visit this link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.09.005 Byline: Katrin Daedlow, Volker Beckmann, Maja Schluter, Robert Arlinghaus Abstract: We investigated the capacity of a natural resource governance system to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its major structures and functions (defined as institutional resilience). Exemplified by East German recreational fisheries governance being disturbed by the German reunification, we studied why in five out of six East German states the former centralized governance system persisted while in one state a decentralized governance system was implemented. Based on resilience thinking and new institutional economics, three analytical steps were developed to assess: (1) the structure and function of the governance system, (2) the attributes of the disturbance and the reorganization process, and (3) human motivations. The centralized system persisted because leading managers wanted to preserve customary structures and functions, minimize transaction costs of change, and maintain powerful positions. This was possible because of their influential positions in the reorganization process. Our results suggest that in externally induced, fundamental, and rapid disturbances decision-makers tend to prevent transformations in their governance system. However, key managers in the sixth state faced the same disturbance but their lack of leadership and an emerging rivalry for fishing rights facilitated a transformation to decentralized governance. Thus, attributes of disturbances can be leveraged by actors' motivations in the reorganization process. Article History: Received 30 June 2012; Revised 21 August 2013; Accepted 4 September 2013
    Keywords: Fisheries
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    Source: Cengage Learning, Inc.
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  • 2
    Language: English
    In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 26 July 2011, Vol.108(30), pp.12554-9
    Description: We explored the social and ecological outcomes associated with emergence of a management panacea designed to govern a stochastic renewable natural resource. To that end, we constructed a model of a coupled social-ecological system of recreational fisheries in which a manager supports naturally fluctuating stocks by stocking fish in response to harvest-driven satisfaction of resource users. The realistic assumption of users remembering past harvest experiences when exploiting a stochastically fluctuating fish population facilitates the emergence of a stocking-based management panacea over time. The social benefits of panacea formation involve dampening natural population fluctuations and generating stability of user satisfaction. It also maintains the resource but promotes the eventual replacement of wild fish by hatchery-descended fish. Our analyses show this outcome is particularly likely when hatchery-descended fish are reasonably fit (e.g., characterized by similar survival relative to wild fish) and/or when natural recruitment of the wild population is low (e.g., attributable to habitat deterioration), which leaves the wild population with little buffer against competition by stocked fish. The potential for release-based panacea formation is particularly likely under user-based management regimes and should be common in a range of social-ecological systems (e.g., fisheries, forestry), whenever user groups are entitled to engage in release or replanting strategies. The net result will be the preservation of a renewable resource through user-based incentives, but the once natural populations are likely to be altered and to host nonnative genotypes. This risks other ecosystem services and the future of wild populations.
    Keywords: Conservation of Natural Resources ; Ecosystem ; Fishes
    ISSN: 00278424
    E-ISSN: 1091-6490
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  • 3
    Language: English
    In: Ecological Economics, December 2013, Vol.96, pp.36-50
    Description: We investigated the capacity of a natural resource governance system to absorb a disturbance while maintaining its major structures and functions (defined as institutional resilience). Exemplified by East German recreational fisheries governance being disturbed by the German reunification, we studied why in five out of six East German states the former centralized governance system persisted while in one state a decentralized governance system was implemented. Based on resilience thinking and new institutional economics, three analytical steps were developed to assess: (1) the structure and function of the governance system, (2) the attributes of the disturbance and the reorganization process, and (3) human motivations. The centralized system persisted because leading managers wanted to preserve customary structures and functions, minimize transaction costs of change, and maintain powerful positions. This was possible because of their influential positions in the reorganization process. Our results suggest that in externally induced, fundamental, and rapid disturbances decision-makers tend to prevent transformations in their governance system. However, key managers in the sixth state faced the same disturbance but their lack of leadership and an emerging rivalry for fishing rights facilitated a transformation to decentralized governance. Thus, attributes of disturbances can be leveraged by actors' motivations in the reorganization process.
    Keywords: Institutions ; Resilience ; Disturbance ; Leadership ; Transaction Costs ; Recreational Fisheries ; Environmental Sciences ; Ecology ; Economics
    ISSN: 0921-8009
    E-ISSN: 1873-6106
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  • 4
    Language: English
    In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, December 2016, Vol.23, pp.1-11
    Description: Assessing the manner in which research is conducted is a key mechanism for leveraging a transformation in sustainability. Scientific answers to current sustainability threats are reliant on research design, conduct and dissemination. Thus, the research process itself merits a full consideration of its responsibility toward societal goals and values. Although the responsibility of research to society has recently been raised in scientific discourse, a systematic framework to guide such considerations that can be applied in a self-reflective manner across disciplines is lacking. Informed by a literature review that revealed an emerging discussion, this paper suggests an assessment framework for socially responsible research processes that integrates eight criteria: (1) approach to complexity and uncertainty, (2) ethics, (3) interdisciplinarity, (4) integrative approach, (5) reflection on impacts, (6) transdisciplinarity, (7) transparency and (8) user orientation. These criteria, including their respective linkages and ambivalent meanings, are elucidated. Implementation challenges, application trade-offs and opportunities with respect to an enhanced shift toward societal responsibility in research processes are discussed.
    Keywords: Environmental Sciences
    ISSN: 1877-3435
    E-ISSN: 1877-3443
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  • 5
    Language: English
    In: Sustainability, 01 November 2018, Vol.10(12), p.4432
    Description: The globally increasing demand for food, fiber, and bio-based products interferes with the ability of arable soils to perform their multiple functions and support sustainable development. Sustainable soil management under high production conditions means that soil functions contribute to ecosystem services and biodiversity, natural and economic resources are utilized efficiently, farming remains profitable, and production conditions adhere to ethical and health standards. Research in support of sustainable soil management requires an interdisciplinary approach to three interconnected challenges: (i) understanding the impacts of soil management on soil processes and soil functions; (ii) assessing the sustainability impacts of soil management, taking into account the heterogeneity of geophysical and socioeconomic conditions; and (iii) having a systemic understanding of the driving forces and constraints of farmers' decision-making on soil management and how governance instruments may, interacting with other driving forces, steer sustainable soil management. The intention of this special issue is to take stock of an emerging interdisciplinary research field addressing the three challenges of sustainable soil management in various geographic settings. In this editorial, we summarize the contributions to the special issue and place them in the context of the state of the art. We conclude with an outline of future research needs.
    Keywords: Soil Functions ; Agricultural Practices ; Sustainability Assessment ; Ecosystem Services ; Resource Use Efficiency ; Soil Policy ; Soil Governance ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    E-ISSN: 2071-1050
    Source: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
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  • 6
    Language: English
    In: Ecology and Society, 01 June 2011, Vol.16(2), p.3
    Description: The adaptive cycle constitutes a heuristic originally used to interpret the dynamics of complex ecosystems in response to disturbance and change. It is assumed that socially constructed governance systems go through similar phases (K, Ω [omega], α [alpha], r) as evident in ecological adaptive cycles. Two key dimensions of change shaping the four phases of an adaptive cycle are the degree of connectedness and the range of potential in the system. Our purpose was to quantitatively assess the four phases of the adaptive cycle in a social system by measuring the potential and connectedness dimensions and their different levels in each of the four phases. We assessed these dimensions using quantitative data from content analysis of magazine articles describing the transition process of East German recreational fisheries governance after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. This process was characterized by the discussion of two governance alternatives amendable for implementation: a central East German and a decentralized West German approach. Contrary to assumptions in the adaptive cycle heuristic, we were unable to identify the four phases of the adaptive cycle in our governance system based on quantitatively assessed levels of connectedness and potential alone. However, the insertion of in-group (East Germans) and out-group (West Germans) dimensions representing the two governance alternatives in our analysis enabled us to identify the specific time frames for all four phases of the adaptive cycle on a monthly basis. These findings suggest that an unmodified "figure-eight model" of the adaptive cycle may not necessarily hold in social systems. Inclusion of disciplinary theories such as intergroup relation theory will help in understanding adaptation processes in social systems.
    Keywords: Adaptive Cycle ; Connectedness ; Content Analysis ; East Germany ; Intergroup Relation Theory ; Potential ; Recreational Fisheries ; Social System ; Ecology
    ISSN: 1708-3087
    E-ISSN: 1708-3087
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  • 7
    Language: English
    In: Sustainability, 01 August 2018, Vol.10(8), p.2880
    Description: Soils are under increasing utilization pressure, and soil governance is an important element to maintain soil functions and prevent the degradation of soil quality. However, scientific studies about soil governance are rare. In this paper, we focus on the governance mechanism of land rent. Here, a major theoretical assumption is that landowners have higher incentives to maintain soil quality than leaseholders. By using data for German arable land at the county level, we contrast theoretical assumptions about the relationships between landowners, leaseholders and soil quality with empirical evidence based on correlations between arable land rent prices, rent proportions and yield potential. The main finding is that the empirical data contradict the theoretical assumptions to a large degree, i.e., no clear relationship could be discerned between the three parameters of arable land soil quality, rent price and rent proportion. We discuss possible explanations for the revealed contradictions based on the state of research and highlight the need for future research to better understand the potential of arable land tenancy as a governance mechanism for sustainable soil management.
    Keywords: Landowner ; Tenant ; Rent Price ; Rent Proportion ; Yield Potential ; Sustainable Soil Management ; Environmental Sciences ; Economics
    E-ISSN: 2071-1050
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  • 8
    In: GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 2016, Vol.25(3), pp.161-165
    Description: Forschung spielt eine wesentliche Rolle bei der Gestaltung nachhaltiger Entwicklung. Diese gesellschaftliche Verantwortung spiegelt sich nicht nur in Forschungsinhalten, sondern auch in der Durchfuhrung von Forschung. Wir haben einen Reflexionsrahmen entwickelt, der acht Kriterien fur gesellschaftlich verantwortliche Forschungsprozesse umfasst und damit dieses "Wie" der Forschung systematisiert. Er adressiert Anforderungen bezuglich gesellschaftlicher Verantwortung in Forschungsprozessen aller Forschungsfelder und erfordert eine Auseinandersetzung mit moglichen Zielkonflikten. Keywords: excellence, research process, science policy, societal responsibility, sustainable development, transformative research
    Keywords: Societal Responsibility ; Excellence ; Research Process ; Science Policy ; Transformative Research ; Sustainable Development
    ISSN: 0940-5550
    E-ISSN: 26255413
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  • 9
    Language: English
    In: Current opinion in environmental sustainability, Vol.23 (2016), pp.1-11
    Description: Assessing the manner in which research is conducted is a key mechanism for leveraging a transformation in sustainability. Scientific answers to current sustainability threats are reliant on research design, conduct and dissemination. Thus, the research process itself merits a full consideration of its responsibility toward societal goals and values. Although the responsibility of research to society has recently been raised in scientific discourse, a systematic framework to guide such considerations that can be applied in a self-reflective manner across disciplines is lacking. Informed by a literature review that revealed an emerging discussion, this paper suggests an assessment framework for socially responsible research processes that integrates eight criteria: (1) approach to complexity and uncertainty, (2) ethics, (3) interdisciplinarity, (4) integrative approach, (5) reflection on impacts, (6) transdisciplinarity, (7) transparency and (8) user orientation. These criteria, including their respective linkages and ambivalent meanings, are elucidated. Implementation challenges, application trade-offs and opportunities with respect to an enhanced shift toward societal responsibility in research processes are discussed.
    Source: Fraunhofer ePrints (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft)
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  • 10
    Language: English
    Keywords: Angeln ; Biologische Ressourcen ; Naturschutz ; Property-Rights-Ansatz ; Ressourcenökonomie ; Sportfischen ; Fischschutz ; Governance-Ansatz ; Institutioneller Wandel ; Eigentumsrechtstheorie ; Ostdeutschland ; Deutschland
    ISBN: 9783844036411
    Source: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften
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